Provided by: groff-base_1.22.3-7_i386 bug


       grops - PostScript driver for groff


       grops [-glmv] [-b n] [-c n] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-p papersize]
             [-P prologue] [-w n] [files ...]


       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.  Normally grops
       should  be  invoked  by  using  the  groff  command with a -Tps option.
       (Actually, this is the default for groff.)   If  no  files  are  given,
       grops  reads  the standard input.  A filename of - also causes grops to
       read the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the  standard
       output.   When  grops  is  run  by groff options can be passed to grops
       using groff's -P option.

       Note that grops doesn't produce a valid document structure  (conforming
       to  the  Document  Structuring Convention) if called with multiple file
       arguments.  To print  such  concatenated  output  it  is  necessary  to
       deactivate  DSC  handling  in  the  printing program or previewer.  See
       section FONT INSTALLATION below for a guide how to  install  fonts  for


       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

       -bn    Provide workarounds for older  printers,  broken  spoolers,  and
              previewers.    Normally  grops  produces  output  at  PostScript
              LanguageLevel  2  that  conforms  to  the  Document  Structuring
              Conventions  version  3.0.   Some  older printers, spoolers, and
              previewers can't handle such output.  The value  of  n  controls
              what  grops does to make its output acceptable to such programs.
              A value of 0 causes grops not to employ any workarounds.

              Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup comments
              should  be  generated;  this  is  needed  for  early versions of
              TranScript that get confused by anything between the %%EndProlog
              comment and the first %%Page comment.

              Add  2  if  lines  in included files beginning with %! should be
              stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview previewer.

              Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog  comments  should  be
              stripped out of included files; this is needed for spoolers that
              don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDocument comments.

              Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript output should be %!PS-
              Adobe-2.0  rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when using
              Sun's Newsprint with a printer that requires page reversal.

              Add 16 if no media size information should be  included  in  the
              document   (this   is,   neither  use  %%DocumentMedia  nor  the
              setpagedevice PostScript command).  This was  the  behaviour  of
              groff  version  1.18.1  and  earlier;  it  is  needed  for older
              printers which don't understand PostScript LanguageLevel 2.   It
              is  also  necessary if the output is further processed to get an
              encapsulated PS (EPS) file – see below.

              The default value can be specified by a

                     broken n

              command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path  for  prologue,
              font,  and  device  description  files;  name is the name of the
              device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess the page length.   This  generates  PostScript  code  that
              guesses  the  page  length.   The  guess  is correct only if the
              imageable area is vertically centered on the page.  This  option
              allows  you  to  generate  documents that can be printed both on
              letter (8.5×11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -Idir  This option may be used to add a directory to  the  search  path
              for  files on the command line and files named in \X'ps: import'
              and \X'ps: file' escapes.  The search path is  initialized  with
              the  current  directory.  This option may be specified more than
              once; the directories are then searched in the  order  specified
              (but  before  the  current  directory).  If you want to make the
              current directory be read before other directories, add  -I.  at
              the appropriate place.

              No directory search is performed for files with an absolute file

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

              Set physical dimension of output  medium.   This  overrides  the
              papersize,  paperlength,  and  paperwidth  commands  in the DESC
              file; it accepts the same arguments as  the  papersize  command.
              See groff_font (5) for details.

              Use  the  file  prologue-file (in the font path) as the prologue
              instead of the default  prologue  file  prologue.   This  option
              overrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines  should  be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths of an
              em.  If this option is not given, the line thickness defaults to
              0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.


       The  input  to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).  This is
       described in groff_out(5).

       In addition, the device and font description files for the device  used
       must  meet  certain  requirements:  The  resolution  must be an integer
       multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The ps device uses a resolution of
       72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The  device  description  file  must  contain  a  valid paper size; see
       groff_font(5) for more information.

       Each font description file must contain a command

              internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

              encoding enc_file

       which  says  that  the  PostScript  font  should be reencoded using the
       encoding described in enc_file; this file should consist of a  sequence
       of lines of the form:

              pschar code

       where  pschar  is the PostScript name of the character, and code is its
       position in the encoding expressed as a decimal integer;  valid  values
       are  in  the range 0 to 255.  Lines starting with # and blank lines are
       ignored.  The code for each character  given  in  the  font  file  must
       correspond  to  the  code for the character in encoding file, or to the
       code in the default encoding for the font if the PostScript font is not
       to  be reencoded.  This code can be used with the \N escape sequence in
       troff to select the character, even if the character does  not  have  a
       groff  name.   Every  character  in  the  font  file  must exist in the
       PostScript font, and the widths given in the font file must  match  the
       widths  used  in  the  PostScript font.  grops assumes that a character
       with a groff name of space is blank (makes no marks on  the  page);  it
       can make use of such a character to generate more efficient and compact
       PostScript output.

       Note that grops is able to display all glyphs in a PostScript font, not
       only  256.   enc_file  (or  the  default  encoding  if no encoding file
       specified)  just  defines  the  order  of  glyphs  for  the  first  256
       characters;  all  other  glyphs  are  accessed with additional encoding
       vectors which grops produces on the fly.

       grops can automatically include the  downloadable  fonts  necessary  to
       print  the document.  Such fonts must be in PFA format.  Use pfbtops(1)
       to convert a Type 1 font in PFB format.  Any downloadable  fonts  which
       should,  when required, be included by grops must be listed in the file
       /usr/share/groff/1.22.3/font/devps/download;  this  should  consist  of
       lines of the form

              font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are  ignored;  fields  may  be separated by tabs or spaces; filename is
       searched for using the same mechanism  that  is  used  for  groff  font
       metric files.  The download file itself is also searched for using this
       mechanism; currently, only the first found file in  the  font  path  is

       If  the  file  containing  a  downloadable  font  or  imported document
       conforms to the Adobe  Document  Structuring  Conventions,  then  grops
       interprets  any  comments  in the files sufficiently to ensure that its
       own output is conforming.  It also supplies any needed  font  resources
       that  are  listed  in  the  download  file  as  well as any needed file
       resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable  font  called  Garamond-Outline  which  depends  on
       Garamond  (typically  it  would  be  defined  to  copy  Garamond's font
       dictionary, and  change  the  PaintType),  then  it  is  necessary  for
       Garamond  to appear before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.
       grops handles this automatically provided that  the  downloadable  font
       file for Garamond-Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by means
       of the Document Structuring Conventions, for example by beginning  with
       the following lines

              %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
              %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
              %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
       in the download file.  A downloadable font should not include  its  own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops  does  not  interpret  %%DocumentFonts comments.  The %%DocumentNeededResources,    %%DocumentSuppliedResources,     %%IncludeResource,
       %%BeginResource,  and  %%EndResource  comments  (or  possibly  the  old
       %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%BeginFont, and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

       In the default setup there are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted at
       font positions 1 to 4.  The fonts are grouped into families A,  BM,  C,
       H, HN, N, P, and T having members in each of these styles:

              AR     AvantGarde-Book
              AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
              AB     AvantGarde-Demi
              ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
              BMR    Bookman-Light
              BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
              BMB    Bookman-Demi
              BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
              CR     Courier
              CI     Courier-Oblique
              CB     Courier-Bold
              CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
              HR     Helvetica
              HI     Helvetica-Oblique
              HB     Helvetica-Bold
              HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
              HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
              HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
              HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
              HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
              NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
              NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
              NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
              NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
              PR     Palatino-Roman
              PI     Palatino-Italic
              PB     Palatino-Bold
              PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
              TR     Times-Roman
              TI     Times-Italic
              TB     Times-Bold
              TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

              ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There  are also some special fonts called S for the PS Symbol font, and
       SS, containing slanted lowercase Greek letters taken  from  PS  Symbol.
       Zapf   Dingbats   is  available  as  ZD,  and  a  reversed  version  of
       ZapfDingbats (with symbols  pointing  in  the  opposite  direction)  is
       available  as  ZDR; most characters in these fonts are unnamed and must
       be accessed using \N.

       The default color for \m and \M is black; for  colors  defined  in  the
       ‘rgb’   color   space   setrgbcolor  is  used,  for  ‘cmy’  and  ‘cmyk’
       setcmykcolor, and for ‘gray’ setgray.   Note  that  setcmykcolor  is  a
       PostScript LanguageLevel 2 command and thus not available on some older

       grops understands various X  commands  produced  using  the  \X  escape
       sequence; grops only interprets commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
              This  executes  the  arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The
              PostScript currentpoint is set to the position of the \X command
              before  executing code.  The origin is at the top left corner of
              the  page,  and  y  coordinates  increase  down  the  page.    A
              procedure  u  is  defined  that  converts  groff  units  to  the
              coordinate system in effect (provided the  user  doesn't  change
              the scale).  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

              draws a horizontal line one inch long.  code may make changes to
              the graphics state, but any changes persist only to the  end  of
              the  page.  A dictionary containing the definitions specified by
              the def and mdef is on top of the  dictionary  stack.   If  your
              code  adds  definitions  to this dictionary, you should allocate
              space for them using  \X'ps mdef n'.   Any  definitions  persist
              only  until  the  end  of  the  page.   If you use the \Y escape
              sequence with an argument that names a macro,  code  can  extend
              over multiple lines.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     .de y
                     ps: exec
                     \nx u 0 rlineto

              is  another  way  to draw a horizontal line one inch long.  Note
              the single backslash before ‘nx’ – the  only  reason  to  use  a
              number  register  while  defining  the macro ‘y’ is to convert a
              user-specified dimension ‘1i’ to internal groff units which  are
              in turn converted to PS units with the u procedure.

              grops  wraps  user-specified  PostScript code into a dictionary,
              nothing more.  In particular,  it  doesn't  start  and  end  the
              inserted code with save and restore, respectively.  This must be
              supplied by the user, if necessary.

       \X'ps: file name'
              This is the same as the exec command except that the  PostScript
              code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
              Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
              There should be at most one definition  per  \X  command.   Long
              definitions  can be split over several \X commands; all the code
              arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.  The
              definitions  are  placed  in a dictionary which is automatically
              pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
              If  you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a
              macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
              Like def, except that code may  contain  up  to  n  definitions.
              grops  needs  to know how many definitions code contains so that
              it can create an appropriately sized  PostScript  dictionary  to
              contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
              Import  a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx, lly,
              urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
              PostScript  coordinate  system; they should all be integers; llx
              and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner  of
              the  graphic;  urx  and  ury  are the x and y coordinates of the
              upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
              that  give  the  desired  width and height in groff units of the

              The graphic is scaled so that it has this width and  height  and
              translated  so  that  the  lower  left  corner of the graphic is
              located at the position associated  with  \X  command.   If  the
              height  argument  is omitted it is scaled uniformly in the x and
              y directions so that it has the specified width.

              Note that the contents of the \X command are not interpreted  by
              troff;  so  vertical  space for the graphic is not automatically
              added, and the width and height arguments  are  not  allowed  to
              have attached scaling indicators.

              If   the  PostScript  file  complies  with  the  Adobe  Document
              Structuring Conventions and contains  a  %%BoundingBox  comment,
              then the bounding box can be automatically extracted from within
              groff by using the psbb request.

              See groff_tmac(5) for a description of  the  PSPIC  macro  which
              provides  a  convenient  high-level  interface  for inclusion of
              PostScript graphics.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
              No output is generated for text and drawing  commands  that  are
              bracketed  with  these \X commands.  These commands are intended
              for use  when  output  from  troff  is  previewed  before  being
              processed  with  grops;  if  the  previewer is unable to display
              certain characters or other constructs,  then  other  substitute
              characters   or   constructs  can  be  used  for  previewing  by
              bracketing them with these \X commands.

              For example, gxditview is not able  to  display  a  proper  \(em
              character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
              problem can be overcome by executing the following request

                     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
                     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
                     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

              In this case, gxditview is unable to display the \(em  character
              and  draws the line, whereas grops prints the \(em character and
              ignores the line (this code is already in file Xps.tmac which is
              loaded  if  a  document  intended  for  grops  is previewed with

       If a PostScript procedure BPhook has been defined via  a  ‘ps: def’  or
       ‘ps: mdef’  device  command,  it  is executed at the beginning of every
       page (before anything is drawn or written by groff).  For  example,  to
       underlay  the  page  contents  with the word ‘DRAFT’ in light gray, you
       might use

              .de XX
              ps: def
              { gsave .9 setgray clippath pathbbox exch 2 copy
                .5 mul exch .5 mul translate atan rotate pop pop
                /NewCenturySchlbk-Roman findfont 200 scalefont setfont
                (DRAFT) dup stringwidth pop -.5 mul -70 moveto show
                grestore }
              .devicem XX

       Or, to cause lines and polygons to be drawn with  square  linecaps  and
       mitered  linejoins instead of the round linecaps and linejoins normally
       used by grops, use

              .de XX
              ps: def
              /BPhook { 2 setlinecap 0 setlinejoin } def
              .devicem XX

       (square linecaps, as opposed to butt linecaps (0 setlinecap), give true
       corners in boxed tables even though the lines are drawn unconnected).

   Encapsulated PostScript
       grops  itself  doesn't emit bounding box information.  With the help of
       Ghostscript  the  following  simple  script,  groff2eps,  produces   an
       encapsulated PS file.

              #! /bin/sh
              groff -P-b16 $1 > $
              gs -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=bbox -- $ 2> $1.bbox
              sed -e "/^%%Orientation/r $1.bbox" \
                  -e "/^%!PS-Adobe-3.0/s/$/ EPSF-3.0/" $ > $1.eps
              rm $ $1.bbox

       Just say

              groff2eps foo

       to convert file foo to foo.eps.

   TrueType and other font formats
       TrueType  fonts  can  be  used with grops if converted first to Type 42
       format, a special PostScript  wrapper  equivalent  to  the  PFA  format
       mentioned  in  pfbtops(1).   There  are  several  different  methods to
       generate a type42 wrapper and  most  of  them  involve  the  use  of  a
       PostScript interpreter such as Ghostscript – see gs(1).

       Yet,   the   easiest   method  involves  the  use  of  the  application
       ttftot42(1).  This program uses freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to generate
       type42  font  wrappers and well-formed AFM files that can be fed to the
       afmtodit(1) script to create appropriate metric files.   The  resulting
       font  wrappers  should  be added to the download file.  ttftot42 source
       code  can  be  downloaded  from⟩.

       Another  solution  for  creating  type42  wrappers is to use FontForge,
       available from http://fontforge.sf.net⟩.  This
       font editor can convert most outline font formats.


       This section gives a summary of the above explanations; it can serve as
       a step-by-step font installation guide for grops.

        ·  Convert your font to something groff understands.  This is either a
           PostScript  Type 1 font in PFA format or a PostScript Type 42 font,
           together with an AFM file.

           The very first characters in a PFA file look like this:


           A PFB file has this also in the  first  line,  but  the  string  is
           preceded with some binary bytes.

           The very first characters in a Type 42 font file look like this:


           This is a wrapper format for TrueType fonts.  Old PS printers might
           not support it (this is, they don't have a built-in  TrueType  font

           If  your  font is in PFB format (such fonts normally have ‘.pfb’ as
           the file extension), you might use groff's  pfbtops(1)  program  to
           convert  it to PFA.  For TrueType fonts, try ttftot42 or fontforge.
           For all other font formats use fontforge  which  can  convert  most
           outline font formats.

        ·  Convert  the  AFM  file  to  a groff font description file with the
           afmtodit(1) program.  An example call is

                  afmtodit Foo-Bar-Bold.afm textmap FBB

           which converts the metric file ‘Foo-Bar-Bold.afm’ to the groff font
           ‘FBB’.   If  you  have a font family which comes with normal, bold,
           italic, and bold italic faces, it is recommended to use the letters
           R, B, I, and BI, respectively, as postfixes in the groff font names
           to make groff's ‘.fam’ request work.  An example is groff's  built-
           in  Times-Roman font: The font family name is T, and the groff font
           names are TR, TB, TI, and TBI.

        ·  Install both the groff font description files and the  fonts  in  a
           ‘devps’  subdirectory  of the font path which groff finds.  See the
           ENVIRONMENT section in the troff(1) man page which lists the actual
           value  of the font path.  Note that groff doesn't use the AFM files
           (but it is a good idea to store them anyway).

        ·  Register all fonts which must be downloaded to the printer  in  the
           ‘devps/download’  file.   Only the first occurrence of this file in
           the font path is read.  This means that you should copy the default
           ‘download’  file  to  the first directory in your font path and add
           your fonts there.  To continue the above example we assume that the
           PS font name for Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa is ‘XY-Foo-Bar-Bold’ (the PS font
           name is stored in the internalname field in the ‘FBB’  file),  thus
           the following line should be added to ’download’.

                  XY-Foo-Bar-Bold Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa


       groff  versions  1.19.2 and earlier contain a slightly different set of
       the 35 Adobe core fonts; the difference  is  mainly  the  lack  of  the
       ‘Euro’  glyph  and  a  reduced  set  of  kerning  pairs.  For backwards
       compatibility, these old fonts are installed also in the



       To use them, make sure that grops finds the fonts  before  the  default
       system  fonts  (with the same names): Either add command line option -F
       to grops

              groff -Tps -P-F -P/usr/share/groff/1.22.3/oldfont ...

       or add the directory to groff's font path environment variable



              If this is set to foo, then grops uses the file foo (in the font
              path) instead of the default prologue file prologue.  The option
              -P overrides this environment variable.

              A list of  directories  in  which  to  search  for  the  devname
              directory  in  addition  to  the default ones.  See troff(1) and
              groff_font(5) for more details.

              A timestamp (expressed as seconds since the Unix epoch)  to  use
              as the creation timestamp in place of the current time.


              Device description file.

              Font description file for font F.

              List of downloadable fonts.

              Encoding used for text fonts.

              Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

              Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

              Macros  to  disable  use  of  characters  not  present  in older
              PostScript printers (e.g., ‘eth’ or ‘thorn’).

              Temporary file.  See groff(1) for details  on  the  location  of
              temporary files.


       afmtodit(1),     groff(1),    troff(1),    pfbtops(1),    groff_out(5),
       groff_font(5), groff_char(7), groff_tmac(5)

       PostScript  Language  Document  Structuring  Conventions  Specification


       Copyright © 1989-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted  to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
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       Permission is granted to  copy  and  distribute  translations  of  this
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