Provided by: postfix_3.1.0-3_amd64 bug

NAME

       sendmail - Postfix to Sendmail compatibility interface

SYNOPSIS

       sendmail [option ...] [recipient ...]

       mailq
       sendmail -bp

       newaliases
       sendmail -I

DESCRIPTION

       The   Postfix  sendmail(1)  command  implements  the  Postfix  to  Sendmail  compatibility
       interface.  For the sake  of  compatibility  with  existing  applications,  some  Sendmail
       command-line options are recognized but silently ignored.

       By  default, Postfix sendmail(1) reads a message from standard input until EOF or until it
       reads a line with only a . character, and  arranges  for  delivery.   Postfix  sendmail(1)
       relies on the postdrop(1) command to create a queue file in the maildrop directory.

       Specific command aliases are provided for other common modes of operation:

       mailq  List  the  mail  queue.  Each  entry shows the queue file ID, message size, arrival
              time, sender, and the recipients that still need to be delivered.   If  mail  could
              not  be delivered upon the last attempt, the reason for failure is shown. The queue
              ID string is followed by an optional status character:

              *      The message is in the  active  queue,  i.e.  the  message  is  selected  for
                     delivery.

              !      The  message  is in the hold queue, i.e. no further delivery attempt will be
                     made until the mail is taken off hold.

              This mode of operation is implemented by executing the postqueue(1) command.

       newaliases
              Initialize the alias database.  If no input file is specified (with the -oA option,
              see  below),  the  program  processes the file(s) specified with the alias_database
              configuration parameter.  If no alias database type is specified, the program  uses
              the  type  specified  with the default_database_type configuration parameter.  This
              mode of operation is implemented by running the postalias(1) command.

              Note: it may take a minute or so before an alias database update  becomes  visible.
              Use the "postfix reload" command to eliminate this delay.

       These  and  other  features  can  be selected by specifying the appropriate combination of
       command-line  options.  Some  features  are  controlled  by  parameters  in  the   main.cf
       configuration file.

       The following options are recognized:

       -Am (ignored)

       -Ac (ignored)
              Postfix  sendmail  uses  the same configuration file regardless of whether or not a
              message is an initial submission.

       -B body_type
              The message body MIME type: 7BIT or 8BITMIME.

       -bd    Go into daemon mode. This  mode  of  operation  is  implemented  by  executing  the
              "postfix start" command.

       -bh (ignored)

       -bH (ignored)
              Postfix has no persistent host status database.

       -bi    Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -bl    Go  into  daemon  mode.  To  accept  only  local connections as with Sendmail´s -bl
              option, specify "inet_interfaces = loopback" in the Postfix  main.cf  configuration
              file.

       -bm    Read  mail  from standard input and arrange for delivery.  This is the default mode
              of operation.

       -bp    List the mail queue. See the mailq command above.

       -bs    Stand-alone SMTP server mode. Read SMTP commands from  standard  input,  and  write
              responses  to  standard output.  In stand-alone SMTP server mode, mail relaying and
              other access controls are disabled by default. To enable them, run the  process  as
              the mail_owner user.

              This mode of operation is implemented by running the smtpd(8) daemon.

       -bv    Do  not collect or deliver a message. Instead, send an email report after verifying
              each recipient address.  This is useful for testing address rewriting  and  routing
              configurations.

              This feature is available in Postfix version 2.1 and later.

       -C config_file

       -C config_dir
              The  path  name  of  the  Postfix  main.cf  file,  or of its parent directory. This
              information is ignored with Postfix versions before 2.3.

              With  all  Postfix  versions,  you  can  specify  a  directory  pathname  with  the
              MAIL_CONFIG environment variable to override the location of configuration files.

       -F full_name
              Set the sender full name. This overrides the NAME environment variable, and is used
              only with messages that have no From: message header.

       -f sender
              Set the envelope sender address. This is the address where  delivery  problems  are
              sent  to. With Postfix versions before 2.1, the Errors-To: message header overrides
              the error return address.

       -G     Gateway (relay) submission, as opposed to initial user submission.  Either  do  not
              rewrite   addresses  at  all,  or  update  incomplete  addresses  with  the  domain
              information specified with remote_header_rewrite_domain.

              This option is ignored before Postfix version 2.3.

       -h hop_count (ignored)
              Hop count limit. Use the hopcount_limit configuration parameter instead.

       -I     Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -i     When reading a message from standard input, don´t  treat  a  line  with  only  a  .
              character as the end of input.

       -L label (ignored)
              The logging label. Use the syslog_name configuration parameter instead.

       -m (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -N dsn (default: 'delay, failure')
              Delivery  status  notification  control. Specify either a comma-separated list with
              one or more of  failure  (send  notification  when  delivery  fails),  delay  (send
              notification  when  delivery  is  delayed),  or success (send notification when the
              message is delivered); or specify never (don't send any notifications at all).

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -n (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -oAalias_database
              Non-default alias database. Specify pathname or type:pathname. See postalias(1) for
              details.

       -O option=value (ignored)
              Set  the  named  option  to  value.  Use  the equivalent configuration parameter in
              main.cf instead.

       -o7 (ignored)

       -o8 (ignored)
              To send 8-bit or binary content, use an appropriate MIME encapsulation and  specify
              the appropriate -B command-line option.

       -oi    When  reading  a  message  from  standard  input,  don´t treat a line with only a .
              character as the end of input.

       -om (ignored)
              The sender is never eliminated from alias etc. expansions.

       -o x value (ignored)
              Set option x to value.  Use  the  equivalent  configuration  parameter  in  main.cf
              instead.

       -r sender
              Set  the  envelope  sender address. This is the address where delivery problems are
              sent to. With Postfix versions before 2.1, the Errors-To: message header  overrides
              the error return address.

       -R return
              Delivery  status  notification  control.   Specify "hdrs" to return only the header
              when a message bounces, "full" to return a full copy (the default behavior).

              The -R option specifies an upper bound; Postfix will return only the header, when a
              full copy would exceed the bounce_size_limit setting.

              This option is ignored before Postfix version 2.10.

       -q     Attempt  to  deliver  all  queued  mail.  This  is  implemented  by  executing  the
              postqueue(1) command.

              Warning: flushing undeliverable  mail  frequently  will  result  in  poor  delivery
              performance of all other mail.

       -qinterval (ignored)
              The  interval  between  queue runs. Use the queue_run_delay configuration parameter
              instead.

       -qIqueueid
              Schedule immediate delivery of mail with the specified queue ID.   This  option  is
              implemented  by  executing  the postqueue(1) command, and is available with Postfix
              version 2.4 and later.

       -qRsite
              Schedule immediate delivery of all mail that is queued for  the  named  site.  This
              option  accepts only site names that are eligible for the "fast flush" service, and
              is implemented by executing  the  postqueue(1)  command.   See  flush(8)  for  more
              information about the "fast flush" service.

       -qSsite
              This command is not implemented. Use the slower "sendmail -q" command instead.

       -t     Extract  recipients  from  message  headers.  These  are  added  to  any recipients
              specified on the command line.

              With Postfix versions  prior  to  2.1,  this  option  requires  that  no  recipient
              addresses are specified on the command line.

       -U (ignored)
              Initial user submission.

       -V envid
              Specify the envelope ID for notification by servers that support DSN.

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -XV (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -V)
              Variable  Envelope  Return  Path.  Given  an  envelope  sender  address of the form
              owner-listname@origin, each recipient user@domain receives mail with a personalized
              envelope sender address.

              By     default,     the     personalized     envelope     sender     address     is
              owner-listname+user=domain@origin. The default + and = characters are  configurable
              with the default_verp_delimiters configuration parameter.

       -XVxy (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -Vxy)
              As  -XV,  but  uses  x  and  y  as  the  VERP  delimiter characters, instead of the
              characters specified with the default_verp_delimiters configuration parameter.

       -v     Send an email report of the  first  delivery  attempt  (Postfix  versions  2.1  and
              later).  Mail  delivery  always happens in the background. When multiple -v options
              are given, enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.

       -X log_file (ignored)
              Log mailer traffic. Use  the  debug_peer_list  and  debug_peer_level  configuration
              parameters instead.

SECURITY

       By  design,  this program is not set-user (or group) id. However, it must handle data from
       untrusted, possibly remote, users.  Thus, the usual precautions need to be  taken  against
       malicious inputs.

DIAGNOSTICS

       Problems are logged to syslogd(8) and to the standard error stream.

ENVIRONMENT

       MAIL_CONFIG
              Directory with Postfix configuration files.

       MAIL_VERBOSE (value does not matter)
              Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.

       MAIL_DEBUG (value does not matter)
              Enable  debugging  with an external command, as specified with the debugger_command
              configuration parameter.

       NAME   The sender full name. This is used only with messages that have  no  From:  message
              header. See also the -F option above.

CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS

       The  following main.cf parameters are especially relevant to this program.  The text below
       provides only a parameter summary. See postconf(5) for more details including examples.

COMPATIBILITY CONTROLS

       Available with Postfix 2.9 and later:

       sendmail_fix_line_endings (always)
              Controls how the Postfix sendmail command converts email message line endings  from
              <CR><LF> into UNIX format (<LF>).

TROUBLE SHOOTING CONTROLS

       The DEBUG_README file gives examples of how to trouble shoot a Postfix system.

       debugger_command (empty)
              The  external  command to execute when a Postfix daemon program is invoked with the
              -D option.

       debug_peer_level (2)
              The increment in verbose logging level when a remote client  or  server  matches  a
              pattern in the debug_peer_list parameter.

       debug_peer_list (empty)
              Optional  list of remote client or server hostname or network address patterns that
              cause  the  verbose  logging  level  to  increase  by  the  amount   specified   in
              $debug_peer_level.

ACCESS CONTROLS

       Available in Postfix version 2.2 and later:

       authorized_flush_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to flush the queue.

       authorized_mailq_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to view the queue.

       authorized_submit_users (static:anyone)
              List  of  users who are authorized to submit mail with the sendmail(1) command (and
              with the privileged postdrop(1) helper command).

RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS

       bounce_size_limit (50000)
              The maximal amount of  original  message  text  that  is  sent  in  a  non-delivery
              notification.

       fork_attempts (5)
              The maximal number of attempts to fork() a child process.

       fork_delay (1s)
              The delay between attempts to fork() a child process.

       hopcount_limit (50)
              The  maximal  number  of  Received:  message headers that is allowed in the primary
              message headers.

       queue_run_delay (300s)
              The time between deferred queue scans by the queue manager; prior  to  Postfix  2.4
              the default value was 1000s.

FAST FLUSH CONTROLS

       The  ETRN_README  file describes configuration and operation details for the Postfix "fast
       flush" service.

       fast_flush_domains ($relay_domains)
              Optional list of destinations that are eligible for per-destination  logfiles  with
              mail that is queued to those destinations.

VERP CONTROLS

       The  VERP_README file describes configuration and operation details of Postfix support for
       variable envelope return path addresses.

       default_verp_delimiters (+=)
              The two default VERP delimiter characters.

       verp_delimiter_filter (-=+)
              The characters  Postfix  accepts  as  VERP  delimiter  characters  on  the  Postfix
              sendmail(1) command line and in SMTP commands.

MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS

       alias_database (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  alias  databases  for  local(8) delivery that are updated with "newaliases" or
              with "sendmail -bi".

       command_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of all postfix administrative commands.

       config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The default location of the Postfix main.cf and master.cf configuration files.

       daemon_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.

       default_database_type (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The default database type for use in  newaliases(1),  postalias(1)  and  postmap(1)
              commands.

       delay_warning_time (0h)
              The time after which the sender receives a copy of the message headers of mail that
              is still queued.

       mail_owner (postfix)
              The UNIX system account that  owns  the  Postfix  queue  and  most  Postfix  daemon
              processes.

       queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.

       remote_header_rewrite_domain (empty)
              Don't  rewrite  message  headers  from remote clients at all when this parameter is
              empty; otherwise, rewrite message headers and append the specified domain  name  to
              incomplete addresses.

       syslog_facility (mail)
              The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  mail  system  name that is prepended to the process name in syslog records, so
              that "smtpd" becomes, for example, "postfix/smtpd".

FILES

       /var/spool/postfix, mail queue
       /etc/postfix, configuration files

SEE ALSO

       pickup(8), mail pickup daemon
       qmgr(8), queue manager
       smtpd(8), SMTP server
       flush(8), fast flush service
       postsuper(1), queue maintenance
       postalias(1), create/update/query alias database
       postdrop(1), mail posting utility
       postfix(1), mail system control
       postqueue(1), mail queue control
       syslogd(8), system logging

README_FILES

       Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to locate this information.
       DEBUG_README, Postfix debugging howto
       ETRN_README, Postfix ETRN howto
       VERP_README, Postfix VERP howto

LICENSE

       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

AUTHOR(S)

       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

       Wietse Venema
       Google, Inc.
       111 8th Avenue
       New York, NY 10011, USA

                                                                                      SENDMAIL(1)