Provided by: groff_1.22.3-7_i386 bug


       pdfroff - create PDF documents using groff


       pdfroff [-abcegilpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir]
               [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn]
               [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name] [--emit-ps] [--no-toc-relocation]
               [--no-kill-null-pages] [--stylesheet=name] [--no-pdf-output]
               [--pdf-output=name] [--no-reference-dictionary]
               [--reference-dictionary=name] [--report-progress]
               [--keep-temporary-files] file ...
       pdfroff -h | --help
       pdfroff -v | --version [option ...]


       pdfroff is a wrapper program for the GNU text processing system, groff.
       It  transparently  handles  the  mechanics  of  multiple   pass   groff
       processing, when applied to suitably marked up groff source files, such
       that tables of contents and body text are formatted separately, and are
       subsequently  combined in the correct order, for final publication as a
       single PDF document.  A further optional “style  sheet”  capability  is
       provided;  this  allows for the definition of content which is required
       to precede the table of contents, in the published document.

       For each invocation of pdfroff, the ultimate  groff  output  stream  is
       post-processed  by  the  GhostScript interpreter, to produce a finished
       PDF document.

       pdfroff makes no assumptions about, and imposes no restrictions on, the
       use of any groff macro packages which the user may choose to employ, in
       order to achieve a desired document format; however,  it  does  include
       specific  built  in  support  for the pdfmark macro package, should the
       user choose to employ it.  Specifically, if the pdfhref macro,  defined
       in  the pdfmark.tmac package, is used to define public reference marks,
       or dynamic links to such reference marks, then pdfroff performs as many
       preformatting  groff passes as required, up to a maximum limit of four,
       in order  to  compile  a  document  reference  dictionary,  to  resolve
       references, and to expand the dynamically defined content of links.


       The  command  line is parsed in accordance with normal GNU conventions,
       but with one exception — when specifying any short form option (i.e., a
       single  character  option  introduced  by a single hyphen), and if that
       option expects an argument, then it  must  be  specified  independently
       (i.e.,  it  may  not be appended to any group of other single character
       short form options).

       Long form option names (i.e., those introduced by a double hyphen)  may
       be abbreviated to their minimum length unambiguous initial substring.

       Otherwise, pdfroff usage closely mirrors that of groff itself.  Indeed,
       with the exception of the -h, -v, and -T dev short  form  options,  and
       all  long  form  options,  which  are parsed internally by pdfroff, all
       options and file name arguments  specified  on  the  command  line  are
       passed  on  to  groff,  to  control the formatting of the PDF document.
       Consequently, pdfroff accepts all options and arguments,  as  specified
       in  groff(1),  which may also be considered as the definitive reference
       for all standard pdfroff options and argument usage.


       pdfroff accepts all of the short form options (i.e.,  those  introduced
       by  a  single  hyphen), which are available with groff itself.  In most
       cases, these are simply passed transparently to groff;  the  following,
       however, are handled specially by pdfroff.

       -h     Same as --help; see below.

       -i     Process  standard  input, after all other specified input files.
              This is passed transparently to  groff,  but,  if  grouped  with
              other  options,  it  must  be the first in the group.  Hiding it
              within a group breaks standard input processing, in the multiple
              pass groff processing context of pdfroff.

       -T dev Only  -T ps  is supported by pdfroff.  Attempting to specify any
              other device causes pdfroff to abort.

       -v     Same as --version; see below.

       See groff(1) for a description of all other short form  options,  which
       are transparently passed through pdfroff to groff.

       All  long  form options (i.e., those introduced by a double hyphen) are
       interpreted locally by pdfroff; they are not passed on to groff, unless
       otherwise stated below.

       --help Causes pdfroff to display a summary of the its usage syntax, and
              supported options, and then exit.

              Suppresses the final output conversion step, causing pdfroff  to
              emit  PostScript  output instead of PDF.  This may be useful, to
              capture intermediate PostScript output, when using a specialised
              postprocessor,  such  as  gpresent  for example, in place of the
              default GhostScript PDF writer.

              Suppresses the  deletion  of  temporary  files,  which  normally
              occurs after pdfroff has completed PDF document formatting; this
              may be useful, when debugging formatting problems.

              See section FILES, for a description of the temporary files used
              by pdfroff.

              May   be   used   with  the  --reference-dictionary=name  option
              (described below) to eliminate the overhead of  PDF  formatting,
              when  running  pdfroff to create a reference dictionary, for use
              in a different document.

              May be used to eliminate the overhead of  creating  a  reference
              dictionary,  when  it  is  known  that  the  target PDF document
              contains no public references, created by the pdfhref macro.

              May be used to eliminate the extra groff processing pass,  which
              is  required to generate a table of contents, and relocate it to
              the start of the PDF  document,  when  processing  any  document
              which lacks an automatically generated table of contents.

              While  preparing  for  simulation  of the manual collation step,
              which is traditionally  required  to  relocate  of  a  table  of
              contents  to  the  start  of  a  document, pdfroff accumulates a
              number  of  empty  page  descriptions  into   the   intermediate
              PostScript  output  stream.   During  the  final collation step,
              these empty pages  are  normally  discarded  from  the  finished
              document; this option forces pdfroff to leave them in place.

              Specifies the name to be used for the resultant PDF document; if
              unspecified, the PDF output is written to  standard  output.   A
              future  version  of  pdfroff  may use this option, to encode the
              document name in a generated reference dictionary.

              Specifies the name  to  be  used  for  the  generated  reference
              dictionary  file;  if  unspecified,  the reference dictionary is
              created in a temporary  file,  which  is  deleted  when  pdfroff
              completes  processing of the current document.  This option must
              be specified, if it is desired to save the reference dictionary,
              for use in references placed in other PDF documents.

              Causes  pdfroff  to display an informational message on standard
              error, at the start of each groff processing pass.

              Specifies the name of an input file, to be used as a style sheet
              for  formatting  of  content,  which  is to be placed before the
              table of contents, in the formatted PDF document.

              Causes pdfroff to display a version identification message.  The
              entire  command line is then passed transparently to groff, in a
              one pass operation only, in  order  to  display  the  associated
              groff version information, before exiting.


       The following environment variables may be set, and exported, to modify
       the behaviour of pdfroff.

              Specifies the program to be used for collation of  the  finished
              PDF document.

              This  collation  step may be required to move tables of contents
              to the start of the finished PDF document, when formatting  with
              traditional  macro  packages,  which  print  them  at  the  end.
              However,   users   should   not   normally   need   to   specify
              PDFROFF_COLLATE,  (and indeed, are not encouraged to do so).  If
              unspecified, pdfroff uses  sed(1)  by  default,  which  normally

              If  PDFROFF_COLLATE  is specified, then it must act as a filter,
              accepting a list of file name arguments, and write its output to
              the    stdout    stream,    whence    it   is   piped   to   the
              PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND,  to  produce  the  finished   PDF

              When  specifying  PDFROFF_COLLATE,  it  is normally necessary to
              also specify PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES.

              PDFROFF_COLLATE is ignored,  if  pdfroff  is  invoked  with  the
              --no-kill-null-pages option.

              Specifies options to be passed to the PDFROFF_COLLATE program.

              It    should    not    normally    be   necessary   to   specify
              PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES.   The  internal  default  is  a  sed(1)
              script,  which is intended to remove completely blank pages from
              the collated output stream, and which should be  appropriate  in
              most  applications  of  pdfroff.  However, if any alternative to
              sed(1) is specified for PDFROFF_COLLATE, then it is likely  that
              a      corresponding      alternative      specification     for
              PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES is required.

              As in the case of  PDFROFF_COLLATE,  PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES  is
              ignored,  if  pdfroff  is  invoked with the --no-kill-null-pages

              Specifies  the  command  to  be  used  for  the  final  document
              conversion  from PostScript intermediate output to PDF.  It must
              behave as a filter, writing its output to the stdout stream, and
              must accept an arbitrary number of files ... arguments, with the
              special case of - representing the stdin stream.

              If unspecified, PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND defaults to

                gs -dBATCH -dQUIET -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sDEVICE=pdfwrite

              Identifies   the   directory  in  which  pdfroff  should  create
              temporary files.  If GROFF_TMPDIR is  not  specified,  then  the
              variables  TMPDIR,  TMP  and  TEMP  are  considered  in turn, as
              possible temporary file repositories.  If none of these are set,
              then temporary files are created in the current directory.

              Specifies the program to be invoked, when pdfroff converts groff
              PostScript output to PDF.  If  PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND  is
              specified,  then  the  command  name  it specifies is implicitly
              assigned  to   GROFF_GHOSTSCRIPT_INTERPRETER,   overriding   any
              explicit    setting    specified   in   the   environment.    If
              GROFF_GHOSTSCRIPT_INTERPRETER is  not  specified,  then  pdfroff
              searches the process PATH, looking for a program with any of the
              well  known  names  for  the  GhostScript  interpreter;  if   no
              GhostScript interpreter can be found, pdfroff aborts.

              Specifies  the program to be invoked, when pdfroff is extracting
              reference dictionary entries from a groff  intermediate  message
              stream.  If GROFF_AWK_INTERPRETER is not specified, then pdfroff
              searches the process PATH, looking  for  any  of  the  preferred
              programs,  ‘gawk’,  ‘mawk’,  ‘nawk’, and awk’, in this order; if
              none of these are found, pdfroff issues a warning  message,  and
              continue   processing;  however,  in  this  case,  no  reference
              dictionary is created.

       OSTYPE Typically defined automatically by the operating system,  OSTYPE
              is  used  on Microsoft Win32/MS-DOS platforms only, to infer the
              default PATH_SEPARATOR character, which is used when parsing the
              process PATH to search for external helper programs.

              If   set,   PATH_SEPARATOR   overrides   the  default  separator
              character, (‘:’ on POSIX/UNIX systems, inferred from  OSTYPE  on
              Microsoft  Win32/MS-DOS), which is used when parsing the process
              PATH to search for external helper programs.

              If this is set to a non-empty value, then pdfroff always behaves
              as  if the --report-progress option is specified, on the command


       Input and output files for  pdfroff  may  be  named  according  to  any
       convention  of  the user's choice.  Typically, input files may be named
       according to the choice of  the  principal  formatting  macro  package,
       e.g., might be an input file for formatting using the ms macros
       (s.tmac); normally, the final output file should be named file.pdf.

       Temporary files, created by pdfroff, are  placed  in  the  file  system
       hierarchy, in or below the directory specified by environment variables
       (see section ENVIRONMENT).  If mktemp(1) is available, it is invoked to
       create   a  private  subdirectory  of  the  nominated  temporary  files
       directory, (with subdirectory name derived from the  template  pdfroff-
       XXXXXXXXXX);   if   this  subdirectory  is  successfully  created,  the
       temporary files will be placed within it, otherwise they will be placed
       directly in the directory nominated in the environment.

       All  temporary  files  themselves are named according to the convention
       pdf$$.*, where $$ is  the  standard  shell  variable  representing  the
       process  ID  of the pdfroff process itself, and * represents any of the
       extensions used by pdfroff to  identify  the  following  temporary  and
       intermediate files.

              A  scratch  pad  file, used to capture reference data emitted by
              groff, during the reference dictionary compilation phase.

              The reference dictionary, as compiled in the last but  one  pass
              of  the reference dictionary compilation phase; (at the start of
              the first pass,  this  file  is  created  empty;  in  successive
              passes,   it  contains  the  reference  dictionary  entries,  as
              collected in the preceding pass).

              If the --reference-dictionary=name  option  is  specified,  this
              intermediate  file  becomes permanent, and is named name, rather
              than pdf$$.ref.

              Used to collect reference dictionary entries during  the  active
              pass  of the reference dictionary compilation phase.  At the end
              of any pass, when the content of pdf$$.cmp compares as identical
              to   pdf$$.ref,   (or   the  corresponding  file  named  by  the
              --reference-dictionary=name option), then  reference  dictionary
              compilation  is  terminated,  and  the document reference map is
              appended to this intermediate file, for inclusion in  the  final
              formatting passes.

              An  intermediate  PostScript  file, in which “Table of Contents”
              entries are collected, to facilitate relocation before the  body
              text, on ultimate output to the GhostScript postprocessor.

              An  intermediate  PostScript  file,  in  which  the body text is
              collected  prior  to  ultimate   output   to   the   GhostScript
              postprocessor, in the proper sequence, after pdf$$.tc.


       See  groff(1)  for the definitive reference to document formatting with
       groff.  Since pdfroff provides a superset of  all  groff  capabilities,
       groff(1)  may  also be considered to be the definitive reference to all
       standard capabilities of pdfroff,  with  this  document  providing  the
       reference to pdfroff's extended features.

       While  pdfroff  imposes neither any restriction on, nor any requirement
       for, the use of any specific groff macro package, a number of  supplied
       macro  packages,  and  in  particular those associated with the package
       pdfmark.tmac, are best suited for use with  pdfroff  as  the  preferred
       formatter.   Detailed documentation on the use of these packages may be
       found, in PDF format, in the reference guide “Portable Document  Format
       Publishing with GNU Troff”, included in the installed documentation set
       as /usr/share/doc/groff-base/pdf/pdfmark.pdf.gz.


       Copyright © 2005-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This file is part of groff, the free GNU roff type-setting system.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify  this  document
       under  the  terms  of the GNU Free Documentation License (FDL), Version
       1.3 or any later version published by  the  Free  Software  Foundation;
       with  no  Front-Cover  Texts,  no  Back-Cover  Texts, and the following
       Invariant Sections:--

           a)  This "Legal Matters" section, extending from the definition of
               .co to the end of the enclosing .au definition.

           b) The entire sections bearing the heading "COPYING" and

       A copy of the Free Documentation License is included as a  file  called
       FDL  in  the  main  directory  of  the groff source package, it is also
       available in the internet at the GNU copyleft site ⟨


       It   was   originally  written  by  Keith  Marshall  ⟨keith.d.marshall@⟩,  who  also  wrote  the  implementation  of  the  pdfroff
       program, to which it relates.