Provided by: zsh-common_5.1.1-1ubuntu2_all bug

NAME

       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

       Some  shell  builtin  commands  take options as described in individual entries; these are
       often referred to in the list below as `flags' to  avoid  confusion  with  shell  options,
       which  may also have an effect on the behaviour of builtin commands.  In this introductory
       section, `option' always has the meaning of an option to a command that should be familiar
       to most command line users.

       Typically,  options  are  single  letters  preceded by a hyphen (-).  Options that take an
       argument accept it either immediately following the option letter or  after  white  space,
       for  example `print -C3 *' or `print -C 3 *' are equivalent.  Arguments to options are not
       the same as arguments to the command; the documentation indicates which is which.  Options
       that  do  not take an argument may be combined in a single word, for example `print -ca *'
       and `print -c -a *' are equivalent.

       Some shell builtin commands also take options that begin with `+'  instead  of  `-'.   The
       list below makes clear which commands these are.

       Options  (together  with their individual arguments, if any) must appear in a group before
       any non-option arguments; once the  first  non-option  argument  has  been  found,  option
       processing is terminated.

       All builtin commands other than precommand modifiers, even those that have no options, can
       be given the argument `--' to  terminate  option  processing.   This  indicates  that  the
       following  words  are  non-option  arguments, but is otherwise ignored.  This is useful in
       cases where arguments to the command may begin with `-'.   For  historical  reasons,  most
       builtin  commands  also  recognize  a single `-' in a separate word for this purpose; note
       that this is less standard and use of `--' is recommended.

       - simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment.

              If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell  looks  in  the
              components  of  $path  to find the directory containing file.  Files in the current
              directory are not read unless `.' appears somewhere in  $path.   If  a  file  named
              `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled form (created with the
              zcompile builtin) of file, then commands are read from that file instead of file.

              If any arguments arg are given, they become  the  positional  parameters;  the  old
              positional  parameters  are  restored when the file is done executing.  If file was
              not found the return status is 127; if file was found but contained a syntax  error
              the  return  status  is  126; else the return status is the exit status of the last
              command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This command does nothing, although normal argument expansions is  performed  which
              may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For  each  name  with  a  corresponding  value, define an alias with that value.  A
              trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias expansion.  If
              the  -g flag is present, define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if
              they do not occur in command position.

              If the -s flag is present, define a suffix alias: if the command word on a  command
              line is in the form `text.name', where text is any non-empty string, it is replaced
              by the text `value text.name'.  Note that name is treated as a literal string,  not
              a pattern.  A trailing space in value is not special in this case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps=gv

              will  cause  the command `*.ps' to be expanded to `gv *.ps'.  As alias expansion is
              carried out earlier than globbing,  the  `*.ps'  will  then  be  expanded.   Suffix
              aliases  constitute  a  different  name  space  from other aliases (so in the above
              example it is still possible to create an alias for the command  ps)  and  the  two
              sets are never listed together.

              For  each  name with no value, print the value of name, if any.  With no arguments,
              print all currently defined aliases other than suffix aliases.  If the -m  flag  is
              given  the  arguments are taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them
              from being interpreted as glob patterns), and the aliases matching  these  patterns
              are  printed.   When printing aliases and one of the -g, -r or -s flags is present,
              restrict the printing to global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular
              alias  is  one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+' instead of
              `-', or ending the option list with a  single  `+',  prevents  the  values  of  the
              aliases from being printed.

              If  the  -L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable for putting
              in a startup script.  The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given
              for which no alias has been defined.

              For  more  on  aliases,  include  common  problems,  see  the  section  ALIASING in
              zshmisc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}TUXkmtz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X and -w.

              The flag -X may be used only inside a shell function, and may not be followed by  a
              name.   It  causes  the  calling  function  to  be  marked for autoloading and then
              immediately loaded and executed, with the current array of positional parameters as
              arguments.   This replaces the previous definition of the function.  If no function
              definition is found, an error is printed and the  function  remains  undefined  and
              marked for autoloading.

              The  flag  +X  attempts  to  load each name as an autoloaded function, but does not
              execute it.  The exit status is zero (success) if the function was  not  previously
              defined  and  a  definition  for  it was found.  This does not replace any existing
              definition of the function.  The exit status is nonzero (failure) if  the  function
              was  already  defined  or  when  no  definition  was found.  In the latter case the
              function remains undefined and marked for autoloading.  If ksh-style autoloading is
              enabled,  the function created will contain the contents of the file plus a call to
              the function itself appended to it, thus giving normal ksh autoloading behaviour on
              the  first call to the function.  If the -m flag is also given each name is treated
              as a pattern and all functions already marked for autoload that match  the  pattern
              are loaded.

              With  the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled with the zcompile
              builtin, and all functions defined in them are marked for autoloading.

              The flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the zsh or ksh  style,
              as  if  the  option  KSH_AUTOLOAD  were unset or were set, respectively.  The flags
              override the setting of the option at the time the function is loaded.

              Note that the autoload command makes no attempt to ensure  the  shell  options  set
              during  the  loading or execution of the file have any particular value.  For this,
              the emulate command can be used:

                     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

              arranges that when func is loaded the shell is in native zsh  emulation,  and  this
              emulation is also applied when func is run.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit  from  an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If an arithmetic
              expression n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory.  In the first form, change the current  directory  to
              arg,  or  to  the value of $HOME if arg is not specified.  If arg is `-', change to
              the previous directory.

              Otherwise, if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the directory given  by
              arg.

              If  arg  does  not begin with a slash, the behaviour depends on whether the current
              directory `.' occurs in the list of directories contained in  the  shell  parameter
              cdpath.   If  it  does  not, first attempt to change to the directory arg under the
              current directory, and if that fails but cdpath is set and contains  at  least  one
              element  attempt  to  change to the directory arg under each component of cdpath in
              turn until successful.  If `.' occurs in cdpath, then cdpath is  searched  strictly
              in order so that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

              The order of testing cdpath is modified if the option POSIX_CD is set, as described
              in the documentation for the option.

              If no directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a parameter named  arg
              exists  whose value begins with a slash, treat its value as the directory.  In that
              case, the parameter is added to the named directory hash table.

              The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name  of
              the current directory, and tries to change to this new directory.

              The  third  form  of  cd extracts an entry from the directory stack, and changes to
              that directory.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack entry by  counting
              from  the  left  of  the  list  shown  by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An
              argument of the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set,
              the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
              the array chpwd_functions are not called.  This is useful for calls to cd  that  do
              not change the environment seen by an interactive user.

              If  the  -s  option is specified, cd refuses to change the current directory if the
              given pathname contains symlinks.  If the -P option is  given  or  the  CHASE_LINKS
              option  is set, symbolic links are resolved to their true values.  If the -L option
              is given symbolic links are retained in the directory (and not resolved) regardless
              of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The  simple  command argument is taken as an external command instead of a function
              or builtin and is executed. If the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also
              be  executed  but  certain  special  properties of them are suppressed. The -p flag
              causes a default path to be searched instead of that in $path. With  the  -v  flag,
              command is similar to whence and with -V, it is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       comparguments
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume  the  next  iteration  of  the enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat
              loop. If an arithmetic expression n is specified, break out of n-1 loops and resume
              at the nth enclosing loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With  no  arguments,  print  the  contents of the directory stack.  Directories are
              added to this stack with the pushd  command,  and  removed  with  the  cd  or  popd
              commands.   If  arguments  are  specified,  load  them  onto  the  directory stack,
              replacing anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~  expressions  (see
                     Dynamic and Static named directories in zshexpn(1)).

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.

       disable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Temporarily  disable  the named hash table elements or patterns.  The default is to
              disable builtin commands.  This allows you to use an external command with the same
              name  as  a  builtin  command.   The  -a option causes disable to act on regular or
              global aliases.  The -s option causes disable to act on  suffix  aliases.   The  -f
              option  causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r options causes disable to
              act on reserved words.  Without arguments all disabled hash table elements from the
              corresponding  hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken as
              patterns  (which  should  be  quoted  to  prevent  them  from  undergoing  filename
              expansion),  and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching
              these patterns are disabled.  Disabled objects  can  be  enabled  with  the  enable
              command.

              With  the  option  -p,  name ... refer to elements of the shell's pattern syntax as
              described in the section `Filename Generation'.  Certain elements can  be  disabled
              separately, as given below.

              Note   that   patterns  not  allowed  by  the  current  settings  for  the  options
              EXTENDED_GLOB, KSH_GLOB and SH_GLOB are never enabled, regardless  of  the  setting
              here.   For  example,  if EXTENDED_GLOB is not active, the pattern ^ is ineffective
              even if `disable -p "^"' has not been issued.  The list below indicates any  option
              settings  that  restrict  the  use of the pattern.  It should be noted that setting
              SH_GLOB has a wider effect than merely disabling patterns as  certain  expressions,
              in particular those involving parentheses, are parsed differently.

              The following patterns may be disabled; all the strings need quoting on the command
              line to prevent them  from  being  interpreted  immediately  as  patterns  and  the
              patterns are shown below in single quotes as a reminder.

              '?'    The  pattern  character  ?  wherever  it  occurs, including when preceding a
                     parenthesis with KSH_GLOB.

              '*'    The pattern character * wherever it occurs, including recursive globbing and
                     when preceding a parenthesis with KSH_GLOB.

              '['    Character classes.

              '<' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Numeric ranges.

              '|' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Alternation  in grouped patterns, case statements, or KSH_GLOB parenthesised
                     expressions.

              '(' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Grouping using single parentheses.  Disabling this does not disable the  use
                     of  parentheses  for  KSH_GLOB  where  they  are  introduced  by  a  special
                     character, nor  for  glob  qualifiers  (use  `setopt  NO_BARE_GLOB_QUAL'  to
                     disable glob qualifiers that use parentheses only).

              '~' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A~B.

              '^' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A^B.

              '#' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     The  pattern  character  #  wherever  it  occurs,  both  for repetition of a
                     previous pattern and for indicating globbing flags.

              '?(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form ?(...).  Note this is also disabled if '?' is disabled.

              '*(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form *(...).  Note this is also disabled if '*' is disabled.

              '+(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form +(...).

              '!(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form !(...).

              '@(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form @(...).

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their
              status,  and  will  not  complain if you try to exit an interactive shell with them
              running or stopped.  If no job is specified, disown the current job.

              If the jobs are currently stopped and  the  AUTO_CONTINUE  option  is  not  set,  a
              warning is printed containing information about how to make them running after they
              have been disowned.  If one of  the  latter  two  forms  is  used,  the  jobs  will
              automatically  be  made  running,  independent  of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE
              option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one.  If the -n
              flag  is  not  present,  print a newline at the end.  echo recognizes the following
              escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences.
              In the latter case, -e flag can be used to enable them.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
              Without any argument print current emulation mode.

              With  single  argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as much as
              possible.  csh will never be fully emulated.  If the argument is  not  one  of  the
              shells  listed  above,  zsh  will  be  used as a default; more precisely, the tests
              performed on the argument are the same as those used to determine the emulation  at
              startup  based  on  the  shell  name, see the section COMPATIBILITY in zsh(1) .  In
              addition to setting shell options, the command also restores the pristine state  of
              pattern enables, as if all patterns had been enabled using enable -p.

              If  the emulate command occurs inside a function that has been marked for execution
              tracing with functions -t then the xtrace option will be turned  on  regardless  of
              emulation  mode  or  other options.  Note that code executed inside the function by
              the ., source, or eval commands is not considered to be running directly  from  the
              function, hence does not provoke this behaviour.

              If  the  -R  switch is given, all settable options are reset to their default value
              corresponding  to  the  specified  emulation  mode,  except  for  certain   options
              describing  the  interactive  environment;  otherwise, only those options likely to
              cause portability problems in scripts and functions are altered.  If the -L  switch
              is  given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS, LOCAL_PATTERNS and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as
              well, causing the effects of the emulate command and  any  setopt,  disable  -p  or
              enable  -p,  and  trap  commands  to  be local to the immediately surrounding shell
              function, if any; normally these options are turned  off  in  all  emulation  modes
              except ksh. The -L switch is mutually exclusive with the use of -c in flags.

              The  flags  may  be  any  of  the  invocation-time  flags  described in the section
              INVOCATION in zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS' and `-o VI' may not  be  used.   Flags
              such as `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED' may be prohibited in some circumstances.

              If  -c  arg  appears  in  flags,  arg is evaluated while the requested emulation is
              temporarily in effect.  In this  case  the  emulation  mode  and  all  options  are
              restored  to  their  previous  values  before  emulate  returns.  The -R switch may
              precede the name of the shell to emulate; note this has  a  meaning  distinct  from
              including -R in flags.

              Use  of  -c  enables  `sticky'  emulation  mode  for  functions  defined within the
              evaluated expression:   the  emulation  mode  is  associated  thereafter  with  the
              function so that whenever the function is executed the emulation (respecting the -R
              switch, if present) and all options are set (and pattern disables  cleared)  before
              entry  to  the  function, and the state is restored after exit.  If the function is
              called when the sticky emulation is already in effect, either  within  an  `emulate
              shell  -c'  expression  or  within another function with the same sticky emulation,
              entry and exit from the function do not cause options to be altered (except due  to
              standard  processing  such  as  the  LOCAL_OPTIONS  option).   This also applies to
              functions marked for autoload within the sticky emulation; the appropriate  set  of
              options  will  be applied at the point the function is loaded as well as when it is
              run.

              For example:

                     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
                     fno() { fni; }'
                     fno

              The two functions fni and fno are defined with sticky sh emulation.   fno  is  then
              executed,  causing  options associated with emulations to be set to their values in
              sh.  fno then calls fni; because fni is also marked for  sticky  sh  emulation,  no
              option  changes  take  place  on  entry  to  or  exit  from  it.   Hence the option
              cshnullglob, turned off by sh emulation, will be turned on within fni and remain on
              on  return  to  fno.   On exit from fno, the emulation mode and all options will be
              restored to the state they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

              The documentation above  is  typically  sufficient  for  the  intended  purpose  of
              executing  code designed for other shells in a suitable environment.  More detailed
              rules follow.
              1.     The sticky emulation environment provided by `emulate shell -c' is identical
                     to  that  provided  by  entry to a function marked for sticky emulation as a
                     consequence of being defined in such an environment.   Hence,  for  example,
                     the  sticky  emulation is inherited by subfunctions defined within functions
                     with sticky emulation.
              2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from functions that are
                     not  marked  for sticky emulation, other than those that would normally take
                     place, even if those functions are called within sticky emulation.
              3.     No special handling is provided for functions marked for  autoload  nor  for
                     functions present in wordcode created by the zcompile command.
              4.     The presence or absence of the -R switch to emulate corresponds to different
                     sticky emulation modes, so for example `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R  sh  -c'
                     and `emulate csh -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
              5.     Difference in shell options supplied in addition to the basic emulation also
                     mean the sticky emulations are different, so for example  `emulate  zsh  -c'
                     and `emulate zsh -o cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky emulations.

       enable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Enable  the  named  hash  table elements, presumably disabled earlier with disable.
              The default is to enable builtin commands.  The -a option causes enable to  act  on
              regular  or  global aliases.  The -s option causes enable to act on suffix aliases.
              The -f option causes enable to act on shell functions.  The -r option causes enable
              to  act  on reserved words.  Without arguments all enabled hash table elements from
              the corresponding hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken
              as  patterns  (should be quoted) and all hash table elements from the corresponding
              hash table matching these patterns are enabled.  Enabled objects  can  be  disabled
              with the disable builtin command.

              enable  -p  reenables  patterns  disabled  with  disable -p.  Note that it does not
              override globbing options; for example, `enable -p "~"' does not cause the  pattern
              character  ~  to  be active unless the EXTENDED_GLOB option is also set.  To enable
              all possible patterns (so that they may be individually disabled with disable  -p),
              use `setopt EXTENDED_GLOB KSH_GLOB NO_SH_GLOB'.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read  the  arguments  as input to the shell and execute the resulting command(s) in
              the current shell process.  The return status is the same as if  the  commands  had
              been  executed  directly  by  the  shell;  if  there are no args or they contain no
              commands (i.e. are an empty string or whitespace) the return status is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] [ command [ arg ... ] ]
              Replace the current shell with an external command rather than  forking.   With  -c
              clear  the  environment;  with  -l  prepend  - to the argv[0] string of the command
              executed (to simulate a login shell); with -a argv0 set the argv[0] string  of  the
              command executed.  See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

              If  command  is  omitted  but any redirections are specified, then the redirections
              will take effect in the current shell.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit the shell with the exit status specified by an  arithmetic  expression  n;  if
              none  is  specified,  use  the  exit status from the last command executed.  An EOF
              condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set.

              See notes at the end of the  section  JOBS  in  in  zshmisc(1)  for  some  possibly
              unexpected interactions of the exit command with jobs.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The  specified  names  are  marked  for  automatic  export  to  the  environment of
              subsequently executed  commands.   Equivalent  to  typeset  -gx.   If  a  parameter
              specified does not already exist, it is created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -LI ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -LI ] [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
             [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              The  fc  command controls the interactive history mechanism.  Note that reading and
              writing of history options is only performed if the shell is interactive.   Usually
              this  is  detected  automatically,  but it can be forced by setting the interactive
              option when starting the shell.

              The first two forms of this command select a range of events  from  first  to  last
              from  the  history list.  The arguments first and last may be specified as a number
              or as a string.  A negative number is used as an  offset  to  the  current  history
              event  number.   A  string specifies the most recent event beginning with the given
              string.  All substitutions old=new, if any, are then performed on the text  of  the
              events.

              In addition to the the number range,
              -I     restricts to only internal events (not from $HISTFILE)
              -L     restricts  to only local events (not from other shells, see SHARE_HISTORY in
                     zshoptions(1) -- note that  $HISTFILE  is  considered  local  when  read  at
                     startup)
              -m     takes  the  first  argument  as  a  pattern  (should be quoted) and only the
                     history events matching this pattern are considered

              If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent event), or to  -16
              if  the -l flag is given.  If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or to
              -1 if the -l flag is given.  However, if the current event has added entries to the
              history  with  `print -s' or `fc -R', then the default last for -l includes all new
              history entries since the current event began.

              When the -l flag is given, the resulting events  are  listed  on  standard  output.
              Otherwise  the  editor  program ename is invoked on a file containing these history
              events.  If ename is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used; if  that
              is  not set the value of the parameter EDITOR is used; if that is not set a builtin
              default, usually `vi' is used.  If ename  is  `-',  no  editor  is  invoked.   When
              editing is complete, the edited command is executed.

              The  flag  -r  reverses  the  order  of the events and the flag -n suppresses event
              numbers when listing.

              Also when listing,
              -d     prints timestamps for each event
              -f     prints full time-date stamps in the US `MM/DD/YY hh:mm' format
              -E     prints full time-date stamps in the European `dd.mm.yyyy hh:mm' format
              -i     prints full time-date stamps in ISO8601 `yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm' format
              -t fmt prints time and date stamps in the given format; fmt is formatted  with  the
                     strftime  function  with  the  zsh  extensions  described for the %D{string}
                     prompt format in the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT  SEQUENCES  in  zshmisc(1).
                     The  resulting  formatted string must be no more than 256 characters or will
                     not be printed
              -D     prints elapsed times; may be combined with one of the options above

              `fc -p' pushes the current history list onto a stack and switches to a new  history
              list.   If the -a option is also specified, this history list will be automatically
              popped when the current function scope is exited, which is a much  better  solution
              than  creating  a  trap  function  to  call  `fc -P' manually.  If no arguments are
              specified, the history list is left empty, $HISTFILE  is  unset,  and  $HISTSIZE  &
              $SAVEHIST  are set to their default values.  If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is
              set to that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left  unchanged,  and  the  history
              file is read in (if it exists) to initialize the new list.  If a second argument is
              specified, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are instead set to the  single  specified  numeric
              value.   Finally,  if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate
              value from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these environment values for the  new
              history list however you desire in order to manipulate the new history list.

              `fc  -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by `fc -p'.  The current
              list is saved to its $HISTFILE before it is destroyed (assuming that $HISTFILE  and
              $SAVEHIST  are  set appropriately, of course).  The values of $HISTFILE, $HISTSIZE,
              and $SAVEHIST are restored to the values they had when `fc -p'  was  called.   Note
              that  this  restoration  can  conflict with making these variables "local", so your
              best bet is to avoid local declarations for these variables in functions  that  use
              `fc -p'.  The one other guaranteed-safe combination is declaring these variables to
              be local at the top of your function and using the automatic option (-a)  with  `fc
              -p'.   Finally,  note  that it is legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic
              popping if you need to do so before the function exits.

              `fc -R' reads the history from the given file, `fc -W' writes the  history  out  to
              the  given  file,  and  `fc  -A'  appends the history out to the given file.  If no
              filename is specified, the $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is added to  -R,
              only  those  events that are not already contained within the internal history list
              are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or -W, only those events that  are  new
              since  last  incremental append/write to the history file are appended/written.  In
              any case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job is specified, resume
              the current job.

       float [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZ [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent  to typeset -E, except that options irrelevant to floating point numbers
              are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UkmtTuz ] [ -x num ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn ...
              Equivalent to typeset -f, with the exception of the -x and -M options.

              The -x option indicates that any functions output will have each  leading  tab  for
              indentation,  added by the shell to show syntactic structure, expanded to the given
              number num of spaces.  num can also be 0 to suppress all indentation.

              Use of the -M option may not be combined with any of the options handled by typeset
              -f.

              functions  -M  mathfn  defines  mathfn  as  the  name  of  a  mathematical function
              recognised in all forms of arithmetical expressions; see  the  section  `Arithmetic
              Evaluation'   in   zshmisc(1).    By   default   mathfn  may  take  any  number  of
              comma-separated arguments.  If min is given, it must have exactly min args; if  min
              and max are both given, it must have at least min and at most max args.  max may be
              -1 to indicate that there is no upper limit.

              By default the function is implemented by a shell function of  the  same  name;  if
              shellfn  is  specified  it gives the name of the corresponding shell function while
              mathfn remains the name used in arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function
              in  $0  is  mathfn  (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided the option
              FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters  in  the  shell  function
              correspond  to  the arguments of the mathematical function call.  The result of the
              last arithmetical expression evaluated inside the shell function (even if it  is  a
              form  that  normally  only  returns  a status) gives the result of the mathematical
              function.

              functions -M with no arguments lists all such user-defined functions  in  the  same
              form  as  a definition.  With the additional option -m and a list of arguments, all
              functions whose mathfn matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the additional  option
              -m the arguments are treated as patterns and all functions whose mathfn matches the
              pattern are removed.  Note that the shell function implementing  the  behaviour  is
              not removed (regardless of whether its name coincides with mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read  the  top  value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell parameter name.
              Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are  omitted,  use  the  positional
              parameters.   A  valid option argument begins with a `+' or a `-'.  An argument not
              beginning with a `+' or a `-', or the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a
              single  `-'  is  not  considered  a  valid option argument.  optstring contains the
              letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by  a  `:',  that  option
              requires an argument.  The options can be separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each  time  it  is  invoked, getopts places the option letter it finds in the shell
              parameter name, prepended with a `+' when arg begins with a `+'.  The index of  the
              next arg is stored in OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The  first  option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning to OPTIND.
              OPTIND has an initial value of 1, and is normally set to 1 upon entry  to  a  shell
              function  and  restored  upon exit (this is disabled by the POSIX_BUILTINS option).
              OPTARG is not reset and retains its value from the most recent call to getopts.  If
              either  of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it remains unset, and the index or
              option argument is not stored.  The option itself is still stored in name  in  this
              case.

              A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option
              in OPTARG, and to set name to `?' for an unknown option and to `:' when a  required
              argument  is  missing.   Otherwise,  getopts  sets  name to `?' and prints an error
              message when an option is invalid.  The exit status is nonzero when  there  are  no
              more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command hash table, and the
              named directory hash table.  Normally one would modify these  tables  by  modifying
              one's PATH (for the command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters
              (for the named directory hash table).  The choice of  hash  table  to  work  on  is
              determined by the -d option; without the option the command hash table is used, and
              with the option the named directory hash table is used.

              Given no arguments, and neither the -r or -f options, the selected hash table  will
              be listed in full.

              The  -r  option  causes  the  selected  hash  table  to  be  emptied.   It  will be
              subsequently rebuilt in the normal fashion.  The -f option causes the selected hash
              table  to be fully rebuilt immediately.  For the command hash table this hashes all
              the absolute directories in the PATH, and for the named directory hash  table  this
              adds  all  users'  home  directories.   These  two  options cannot be used with any
              arguments.

              The -m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be quoted)
              and  the  elements  of the hash table matching those patterns are printed.  This is
              the only way to display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For each name with a corresponding value, put `name' in the  selected  hash  table,
              associating  it  with  the pathname `value'.  In the command hash table, this means
              that whenever `name' is used as a command argument, the shell will try  to  execute
              the  file  given  by  `value'.   In the named directory hash table, this means that
              `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

              For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the  hash  table,
              checking  what  the  appropriate value is in the normal manner for that hash table.
              If an appropriate value can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by  explicit
              specification.  If has no effect if used with -f.

              If  the  -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the form of a
              call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}LRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -i, except  that  options  irrelevant  to  integers  are  not
              permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is omitted.  The -l flag
              lists process IDs, and the -p flag  lists  process  groups.   If  the  -r  flag  is
              specified only running jobs will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped
              jobs are shown.  If the -d flag is given, the directory  from  which  the  job  was
              started (which may not be the current directory of the job) will also be shown.

              The  -Z  option  replaces the shell's argument and environment space with the given
              string, truncated if necessary to fit.  This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1))
              listings.  This feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends  either  SIGTERM  or  the  specified  signal  to the given jobs or processes.
              Signals are given by number or by names, with or without the `SIG' prefix.  If  the
              signal  being  sent  is  not  `KILL'  or `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT'
              signal if it is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a  job  not  in
              the  job  list.   In  the  second form, kill -l, if sig is not specified the signal
              names are listed.  Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal
              number  is  listed.   For each sig that is a signal number or a number representing
              the exit status of a process which was terminated or stopped by a signal  the  name
              of the signal is printed.

              On  some  systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few signals.  Typical
              examples are SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and SIGIO, assuming they  correspond  to
              the same signal number.  kill -l will only list the preferred form, however kill -l
              alt will show if the alternative form corresponds to a signal number.  For example,
              under  Linux  kill  -l  IO and kill -l POLL both output 29, hence kill -IO and kill
              -POLL have the same effect.

              Many systems will allow process IDs to be negative to kill a process group or  zero
              to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate  each  arg  as  an  arithmetic  expression.   See  the section `Arithmetic
              Evaluation' in zshmisc(1) for a description of arithmetic  expressions.   The  exit
              status  is 0 if the value of the last expression is nonzero, 1 if it is zero, and 2
              if an error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set or display resource limits.  Unless the -s flag is  given,  the  limit  applies
              only  the  children  of  the  shell.   If  -s is given without other arguments, the
              resource limits of the current shell is set to the previously set  resource  limits
              of the children.

              If  limit  is  not specified, print the current limit placed on resource, otherwise
              set the limit to the specified value.  If the -h flag is  given,  use  hard  limits
              instead of soft limits.  If no resource is given, print all limits.

              When  looping  over  multiple  resources,  the  shell  will abort immediately if it
              detects a badly formed argument.  However, if it fails to  set  a  limit  for  some
              other reason it will continue trying to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              kqueues
                     Maximum number of kqueues allocated.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              posixlocks
                     Maximum number of POSIX locks per user.
              pseudoterminals
                     Maximum number of pseudo-terminals.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              swapsize
                     Maximum amount of swap used.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which  of  these resource limits are available depends on the system.  resource can
              be abbreviated to any unambiguous  prefix.   It  can  also  be  an  integer,  which
              corresponds to the integer defined for the resource by the operating system.

              If  argument  corresponds  to  a  number which is out of the range of the resources
              configured into the shell, the shell will try to read or write  the  limit  anyway,
              and will report an error if this fails.  As the shell does not store such resources
              internally, an attempt to set the limit will fail unless the -s option is present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

              The limit command is not made available by default when the shell starts in a  mode
              emulating  another  shell.   It can be made available with the command `zmodload -F
              zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AHUahlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are  not  permitted.   In  this
              case  the  -x  option does not force the use of -g, i.e. exported variables will be
              local to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting  of  the
              watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       popd [ -q ] [ {+|-}n ]
              Remove  an  entry  from  the  directory  stack,  and  perform  a  cd to the new top
              directory.  With no argument, the current top entry is removed.  An argument of the
              form  `+n'  identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list shown by
              the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n counts  from  the
              right.   If  the  PUSHD_MINUS  option  is  set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this
              context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
              the  array  $chpwd_functions  are  not  called,  and the new directory stack is not
              printed.  This is useful for calls to popd that do not change the environment  seen
              by an interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
             [ -xX tab-stop ] [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With  the  `-f'  option  the arguments are printed as described by printf.  With no
              flags or with the flag `-', the arguments are printed on  the  standard  output  as
              described  by  echo, with the following differences: the escape sequence `\M-x' (or
              `\Mx') metafies the character x (sets the highest bit), `\C-x' (or `\Cx')  produces
              a  control  character  (`\C-@'  and  `\C-?' give the characters NULL and delete), a
              character code in octal is represented by `\NNN' (instead of `\0NNN'), and `\E'  is
              a  synonym  for  `\e'.   Finally,  if  not  in  an escape sequence, `\' escapes the
              following character and is not printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only useful with the -c
                     and -C options.

              -b     Recognize  all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see the
                     section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a  is  also  given,  arguments  are
                     printed with the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a is also given, arguments are
                     printed with the row incrementing first.

              -D     Treat  the  arguments  as  paths,  replacing  directory  prefixes   with   ~
                     expressions corresponding to directory names, as appropriate.

              -i     If given together with -o or -O, sorting is performed case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces.

              -m     Take  the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it from
                     the argument list together with subsequent arguments that do not match  this
                     pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform prompt expansion (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process escape sequences unless
                     the -e flag is given.  The -n flag suppresses the  trailing  newline.   Only
                     the -e and -n flags are recognized after -R; all other arguments and options
                     are printed.

              -s     Place the results in the history list instead of  on  the  standard  output.
                     Each  argument  to  the  print  command  is  treated as a single word in the
                     history, regardless of its content.

              -S     Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output.  In
                     this  case only a single argument is allowed; it will be split into words as
                     if it were a full shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading  the
                     line from a history file with the HIST_LEX_WORDS option active.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -x tab-stop
                     Expand  leading tabs on each line of output in the printed string assuming a
                     tab stop every tab-stop characters.  This is appropriate for formatting code
                     that  may  be indented with tabs.  Note that leading tabs of any argument to
                     print, not just the first, are expanded, even if print is  using  spaces  to
                     separate  arguments (the column count is maintained across arguments but may
                     be incorrect on output owing to previous unexpanded tabs).

                     The start of the output of each print command is assumed to be aligned  with
                     a  tab  stop.   Widths  of  multibyte  characters  are handled if the option
                     MULTIBYTE is in effect.  This option is ignored if other formatting  options
                     are in effect, namely column alignment or printf style, or if output is to a
                     special location such as shell history or the command line editor.

              -X tab-stop
                     This is similar to -x, except that  all  tabs  in  the  printed  string  are
                     expanded.   This  is  appropriate if tabs in the arguments are being used to
                     produce a table format.

              -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces.

              If any of `-m', `-o' or `-O' are used in combination with `-f'  and  there  are  no
              arguments (after the removal process in the case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf format [ arg ... ]
              Print the arguments according to the format specification. Formatting rules are the
              same as used in C. The same escape sequences as for  echo  are  recognised  in  the
              format.  All  C  conversion  specifications  ending  in  one  of csdiouxXeEfgGn are
              handled. In addition to this, `%b' can be used instead  of  `%s'  to  cause  escape
              sequences  in  the  argument  to  be  recognised  and `%q' can be used to quote the
              argument in such a way that allows it to be reused as shell input. With the numeric
              format specifiers, if the corresponding argument starts with a quote character, the
              numeric value of the following character is used as the number to print;  otherwise
              the  argument is evaluated as an arithmetic expression. See the section `Arithmetic
              Evaluation' in zshmisc(1) for a description of arithmetic expressions.  With  `%n',
              the corresponding argument is taken as an identifier which is created as an integer
              parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument in order but  they
              can explicitly specify the nth argument is to be used by replacing `%' by `%n$' and
              `*' by `*n$'.  It is recommended that you do not mix references  of  this  explicit
              style with the normal style and the handling of such mixed styles may be subject to
              future change.

              If arguments remain unused after formatting, the format string is reused until  all
              arguments  have  been  consumed.  With the print builtin, this can be suppressed by
              using the -r option. If more arguments are required by the format  than  have  been
              specified, the behaviour is as if zero or an empty string had been specified as the
              argument.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory onto the directory
              stack.   In  the  first  form,  change the current directory to arg.  If arg is not
              specified, change to the second directory on the stack (that is, exchange  the  top
              two  entries), or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if there is
              only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is interpreted as it would be  by  cd.
              The meaning of old and new in the second form is also the same as for cd.

              The  third  form  of  pushd  changes  directory by rotating the directory list.  An
              argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the
              list  shown  by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form `-n'
              counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of  `+'  and
              `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
              the array $chpwd_functions are not called, and  the  new  directory  stack  is  not
              printed.  This is useful for calls to pushd that do not change the environment seen
              by an interactive user.

              If the option -q is not specified and the shell option PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the
              directory stack will be printed after a pushd is performed.

              The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for the cd builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print  the absolute pathname of the current working directory.  If the -r or the -P
              flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option is set and the -L flag is  not  given,
              the printed path will not contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
            [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read  one line and break it into fields using the characters in $IFS as separators,
              except as noted below.  The first field is assigned to the first name,  the  second
              field to the second name, etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If
              name is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

              -r     Raw mode: a `\' at the end of a line does not signify line continuation  and
                     backslashes  in  the  line  don't  quote the following character and are not
                     removed.

              -s     Don't echo back characters if reading from the terminal.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal  and  set  name  to  `y'  if  this
                     character  was  `y'  or  `Y'  and  to `n' otherwise.  With this flag set the
                     return status is zero only if the character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may
                     be used with a timeout (see -t); if the read times out, or encounters end of
                     file, status 2 is returned.  Input is read from the terminal unless  one  of
                     -u or -p is present.  This option may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read  only  one  (or  num)  characters.  All are assigned to the first name,
                     without word splitting.  This flag is ignored when -q is present.  Input  is
                     read  from  the terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option may
                     also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note that despite the mnemonic `key' this option does read full  characters,
                     which may consist of multiple bytes if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name,
                     without word splitting.  Text is pushed onto the stack with  `print  -z'  or
                     with  push-line  from the line editor (see zshzle(1)).  This flag is ignored
                     when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard output.  If the  -e  flag
                     is used, no input is assigned to the parameters.

              -A     The  first  name is taken as the name of an array and all words are assigned
                     to it.

              -c
              -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion
                     (specified with the -K flag to compctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words
                     of the current command are read. If the -l flag is given, the whole line  is
                     assigned  as  a  scalar.   If  both  flags are present, -l is used and -c is
                     ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on is read.  With -l,
                     the  index of the character the cursor is on is read.  Note that the command
                     name is word number 1, not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
                     the line, its character index is the length of the line plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input is terminated by the first character of delim instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If num is present, it
                     must begin with a digit and will be evaluated to give a number  of  seconds,
                     which  may  be  a  floating point number; in this case the read times out if
                     input is not available within this time.  If num is not present, it is taken
                     to  be  zero, so that read returns immediately if no input is available.  If
                     no input is available, return status 1 and do not set any variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor  buffer  with  -z,
                     when  called  from within completion with -c or -l, with -q which clears the
                     input queue before reading, or within zle where other mechanisms  should  be
                     used to test for input.

                     Note  that  read  does  not attempt to alter the input processing mode.  The
                     default mode is canonical input, in which an entire line is read at a  time,
                     so  usually  `read  -t' will not read anything until an entire line has been
                     typed.  However, when reading from the terminal with -k input  is  processed
                     one key at a time; in this case, only availability of the first character is
                     tested, so that e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second character.
                     Use two instances of `read -t -k' if this is not what is wanted.

              If  the  first  argument  contains  a  `?', the remainder of this word is used as a
              prompt on standard error when the shell is interactive.

              The value (exit status) of read is 1 when an end-of-file is encountered, or when -c
              or  -l  is  present  and  the  command is not called from a compctl function, or as
              described for -q.  Otherwise the value is 0.

              The behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z flags is  undefined.
              Presently -q cancels all the others, -p cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z
              cancels both -p and -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes a shell function or `.' script to return to the  invoking  script  with  the
              return  status specified by an arithmetic expression n. If n is omitted, the return
              status is that of the last command executed.

              If return was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the effect  is  different
              for zero and non-zero return status.  With zero status (or after an implicit return
              at the end of the trap), the shell  will  return  to  whatever  it  was  previously
              processing;  with  a  non-zero  status, the shell will behave as interrupted except
              that the return status of the trap is retained.  Note that the numeric value of the
              signal  which  caused  the  trap  is passed as the first argument, so the statement
              `return $((128+$1))' will return the same status as if  the  signal  had  not  been
              trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ]
           [ arg ... ]
              Set  the options for the shell and/or set the positional parameters, or declare and
              set an array.  If the -s option is given, it causes the specified arguments  to  be
              sorted  before assigning them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if
              -A is used).  With +s sort arguments in descending order.  For the meaning  of  the
              other  flags,  see  zshoptions(1).   Flags  may  be  specified by name using the -o
              option. If no option name is supplied  with  -o,  the  current  option  states  are
              printed:   see  the description of setopt below for more information on the format.
              With +o they are printed in a form that can be used as input to the shell.

              If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing the given args;  if
              no name is specified, all arrays are printed together with their values.

              If  +A  is  used and name is an array, the given arguments will replace the initial
              elements of that array; if no name is specified, all  arrays  are  printed  without
              their values.

              The  behaviour  of arguments after -A name or +A name depends on whether the option
              KSH_ARRAYS is set.  If it is not set, all arguments following name are  treated  as
              values  for  the  array,  regardless  of  their form.  If the option is set, normal
              option processing continues at that point; only regular arguments  are  treated  as
              values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets  array  to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the array to foo and
              turns on the option `-x' if it is set.

              If the -A flag is not present, but there are  arguments  beyond  the  options,  the
              positional  parameters are set.  If the option list (if any) is terminated by `--',
              and there are no further arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values of all  parameters
              are  printed on the standard output.  If the only argument is `+', the names of all
              parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set -  args'  as  `set
              +xv -- args' when in any other emulation mode than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ -m ] [ name ... ]
              Set  the options for the shell.  All options specified either with flags or by name
              are set.

              If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently set  are  printed.
              The  form  is chosen so as to minimize the differences from the default options for
              the current emulation (the default emulation being native  zsh,  shown  as  <Z>  in
              zshoptions(1)).   Options  that  are on by default for the emulation are shown with
              the prefix no only if they are off, while  other  options  are  shown  without  the
              prefix no and only if they are on.  In addition to options changed from the default
              state by the user, any options activated automatically by the shell  (for  example,
              SHIN_STDIN  or  INTERACTIVE)  will  be  shown  in  the list.  The format is further
              modified by the option KSH_OPTION_PRINT, however the rationale for choosing options
              with or without the no prefix remains the same in this case.

              If the -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted
              to protect them from filename expansion), and all options with names matching these
              patterns are set.

              Note that a bad option name does not cause execution of subsequent shell code to be
              aborted; this is behaviour is different from that of `set -o'.  This is because set
              is regarded as a special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt is not.

       shift [ -p ] [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The  positional  parameters  ${n+1}  ...  are  renamed  to  $1  ...,  where n is an
              arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If any names are given then  the  arrays
              with these names are shifted instead of the positional parameters.

              If  the  option  -p  is  given  arguments are instead removed (popped) from the end
              rather than the start of the array.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as `.', except that the current directory is always  searched  and  is  always
              searched first, before directories in $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it receives a SIGCONT.
              Unless the -f option is given, this will refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like the  system  version  of  test.   Added  for  compatibility;  use  conditional
              expressions   instead  (see  the  section  `Conditional  Expressions').   The  main
              differences between the conditional expression syntax and the test and  [  builtins
              are:   these  commands  are  not  handled  syntactically,  so  for example an empty
              variable expansion may cause an argument to be omitted; syntax errors cause  status
              2  to be returned instead of a shell error; and arithmetic operators expect integer
              arguments rather than arithmetic expressions.

              The command attempts  to  implement  POSIX  and  its  extensions  where  these  are
              specified.   Unfortunately  there  are  intrinsic  ambiguities  in  the  syntax; in
              particular there is no distinction between test operators and strings that resemble
              them.  The standard attempts to resolve these for small numbers of arguments (up to
              four); for five or more arguments compatibility cannot be  relied  on.   Users  are
              urged  wherever  possible  to  use  the  `[[' test syntax which does not have these
              ambiguities.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for the shell  and  for  processes  run
              from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect it from immediate evaluation
              by the shell) to be read and executed when the shell receives any  of  the  signals
              specified  by  one  or more sig args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the
              name of a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1,  HUP,  and
              SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If  arg  is  `-', then the specified signals are reset to their defaults, or, if no
              sig args are present, all traps are reset.

              If arg is an empty string, then the specified signals are ignored by the shell (and
              by the commands it invokes).

              If  arg  is omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.  the first argument
              is a valid signal number or name), the effect is  the  same  as  if  arg  had  been
              specified as `-'.

              The  trap  command with no arguments prints a list of commands associated with each
              signal.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command  with  a  nonzero  exit
              status.   ERR  is  an alias for ZERR on systems that have no SIGERR signal (this is
              the usual case).

              If sig is DEBUG then arg will  be  executed  before  each  command  if  the  option
              DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD  is  set  (as it is by default), else after each command.  Here, a
              `command' is what is described as a `sublist' in the shell grammar, see the section
              SIMPLE  COMMANDS  &  PIPELINES  in  zshmisc(1).  If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set various
              additional features are available.  First, it is possible to skip the next  command
              by  setting  the  option  ERR_EXIT;  see  the description of the ERR_EXIT option in
              zshoptions(1).  Also, the shell  parameter  ZSH_DEBUG_CMD  is  set  to  the  string
              corresponding  to  the  command  to be executed following the trap.  Note that this
              string is reconstructed from the internal format and may not be formatted the  same
              way as the original text.  The parameter is unset after the trap is executed.

              If  sig  is  0  or  EXIT  and  the  trap statement is executed inside the body of a
              function, then the command arg is executed after the function completes.  The value
              of  $?  at  the  start  of  execution is the exit status of the shell or the return
              status of the function exiting.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is  not
              executed  inside  the body of a function, then the command arg is executed when the
              shell terminates; the trap runs before any zshexit hook functions.

              ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.   ZERR  and  DEBUG
              traps are kept within subshells, while other traps are reset.

              Note  that  traps  defined  with the trap builtin are slightly different from those
              defined as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the latter have their own function  environment
              (line  numbers,  local variables, etc.) while the former use the environment of the
              command in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will print the line number of a command executed after it has run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative signal names are allowed as described under  kill  above.   Defining  a
              trap  under  either  name  causes any trap under an alternative name to be removed.
              However, it is recommended that for consistency users stick exclusively to one name
              or another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl [ -fu ]
              The  -f  option  freezes  the  tty  (i.e.  terminal  or  terminal emulator), and -u
              unfreezes it.  When the tty is frozen, no changes  made  to  the  tty  settings  by
              external  programs  will be honored by the shell, except for changes in the size of
              the screen; the shell will simply reset the settings to their  previous  values  as
              soon  as  each command exits or is suspended.  Thus, stty and similar programs have
              no effect when the tty is frozen.  Freezing the tty  does  not  cause  the  current
              state  to  be  remembered:  instead,  it  causes  future changes to the state to be
              blocked.

              Without options it reports whether the terminal is frozen or not.

              Note that, regardless of whether the tty is frozen  or  not,  the  shell  needs  to
              change  the  settings  when  the line editor starts, so unfreezing the tty does not
              guarantee settings made on the command line are preserved.  Strings of commands run
              between  editing  the  command  line will see a consistent tty state.  See also the
              shell variable STTY for a means of initialising the  tty  before  running  external
              commands.

       type [ -wfpamsS ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AHUaghlmprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ] ]
               [ + ] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Uglprux ] [ {+|-}LRZ [ n ] ]
               [ + | SCALAR[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
       typeset -f [ {+|-}TUkmtuz ] [ + ] [ name ... ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              A  parameter  is  created  for  each name that does not already refer to one.  When
              inside a function, a new parameter is created  for  every  name  (even  those  that
              already  exist),  and  is  unset  again  when  the  function completes.  See `Local
              Parameters' in zshparam(1).  The same rules  apply  to  special  shell  parameters,
              which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For  each  name=value assignment, the parameter name is set to value.  All forms of
              the command handle scalar assignment.

              If any of the reserved words declare, export, float, integer,  local,  readonly  or
              typeset is matched when the line is parsed (N.B. not when it is executed) the shell
              will try to parse arguments as assignments, except that the  `+='  syntax  and  the
              GLOB_ASSIGN  option  are not supported.  This has two major differences from normal
              command line argument parsing: array assignment  is  possible,  and  scalar  values
              after  =  are  not  split  further  into  words even if expanded (regardless of the
              setting of the KSH_TYPESET option; this option is obsolete).  Here is an example:

                     # Reserved word parsing
                     typeset svar=$(echo one word) avar=(several words)

              The above creates a scalar parameter svar and an array parameter  avar  as  if  the
              assignments had been

                     svar="one word"
                     avar=(several words)

              On the other hand:

                     # Normal builtin interface
                     builtin typeset svar=$(echo two words)

              The  builtin  keyword  causes  the  above  to use the standard builtin interface to
              typeset in which argument parsing  is  perfomed  in  the  same  way  as  for  other
              commands.   This example creates a scalar svar containing the value two and another
              scalar parameter words with no value.  An array value in  this  case  would  either
              cause an error or be treated as an obscure set of glob qualifiers.

              Arbitrary  arguments are allowed if they take the form of assignments after command
              line expansion; however, these only perform scalar assignment:

                     var='svar=val'
                     typeset $var

              The above sets the scalar parameter svar to the value val.  Parentheses around  the
              value  within  var  would  not  cause  array  assignment as they will be treated as
              ordinary characters when $var is substituted.  Any  non-trivial  expansion  in  the
              name part of the assignment causes the argument to be treated in this fashion:

                     typeset {var1,var2,var3}=name

              The  above  syntax  is  valid,  and  has  the  expected effect of setting the three
              parameters to the same value, but the command line is parsed  as  a  set  of  three
              normal command line arguments to typeset after expansion.  Hence it is not possible
              to assign to multiple arrays by this means.

              Note that each interface to any of the commands my  be  disabled  separately.   For
              example,  `disable  -r  typeset'  disables  the reserved word interface to typeset,
              exposing the builtin interface, while `disable typeset' disables the builtin.

              If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each remaining name that  refers
              to a parameter that is already set, the name and value of the parameter are printed
              in the form of an assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created parameters,  or
              when  any  attribute  flags  listed below are given along with the name.  Using `+'
              instead of minus to introduce an attribute turns it off.

              If no name is present, the names and values of all parameters are printed.  In this
              case  the  attribute  flags restrict the display to only those parameters that have
              the specified attributes, and using `+' rather  than  `-'  to  introduce  the  flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no parameter name.

              If  no  attribute  flags are given, and either no name arguments are present or the
              flag +m is used, then each parameter name printed is preceded  by  a  list  of  the
              attributes  of  that  parameter  (array,  association,  exported,  float,  integer,
              readonly, or undefined for autoloaded parameters not yet loaded).  If  +m  is  used
              with  attribute  flags,  and  all  those  flags are introduced with +, the matching
              parameter names are printed but their values are not.

              The following control flags change the behavior of typeset:

              +      If `+' appears by itself in a separate word as the  last  option,  then  the
                     names  of  all  parameters  (functions  with -f) are printed, but the values
                     (function bodies) are not.  No name arguments may appear, and it is an error
                     for  any  other  options  to  follow  `+'.   The  effect of `+' is as if all
                     attribute flags which precede it were given with a `+' prefix.  For example,
                     `typeset  -U  +' is equivalent to `typeset +U' and displays the names of all
                     arrays having the uniqueness attribute, whereas `typeset -f -U  +'  displays
                     the names of all autoloadable functions.  If + is the only option, then type
                     information (array, readonly, etc.) is also printed for each  parameter,  in
                     the same manner as `typeset +m "*"'.

              -g     The -g (global) means that any resulting parameter will not be restricted to
                     local scope.  Note that this does not necessarily mean  that  the  parameter
                     will  be  global,  as the flag will apply to any existing parameter (even if
                     unset) from an enclosing function.  This flag does not affect the  parameter
                     after creation, hence it has no effect when listing existing parameters, nor
                     does the flag +g have any effect except in combination with -m (see below).

              -m     If the -m flag is given the  name  arguments  are  taken  as  patterns  (use
                     quoting  to prevent these from being interpreted as file patterns).  With no
                     attribute flags, all  parameters  (or  functions  with  the  -f  flag)  with
                     matching  names  are printed (the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not used in
                     this case).

                     If the +g flag is combined with -m, a new local  parameter  is  created  for
                     every  matching  parameter  that is not already local.  Otherwise -m applies
                     all other flags or assignments to the existing parameters.

                     Except when assignments are  made  with  name=value,  using  +m  forces  the
                     matching  parameters  and  their  attributes  to  be  printed, even inside a
                     function.  Note that -m is ignored if no patterns are given, so `typeset -m'
                     displays attributes but `typeset -a +m' does not.

              -p     If  the -p option is given, parameters and values are printed in the form of
                     a typeset command and an assignment (which will be  printed  separately  for
                     arrays and associative arrays), regardless of other flags and options.  Note
                     that the -H flag on parameters is respected; no  value  will  be  shown  for
                     these parameters.

                     As  the  intention  of this option is to produce output that can restore the
                     current state, readonly specials (whose values cannot be  changed)  are  not
                     shown  and  assignments to arrays are shown before the typeset rendering the
                     array readonly.

              -T [ scalar[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see  below.   Otherwise
                     the -T option requires zero, two, or three arguments to be present.  With no
                     arguments, the list of parameters created in this fashion  is  shown.   With
                     two  or  three  arguments,  the first two are the name of a scalar and of an
                     array parameter (in that order) that will be tied together in the manner  of
                     $PATH  and  $path.   The  optional  third  argument  is  a  single-character
                     separator which will be used to join the elements of the array to  form  the
                     scalar; if absent, a colon is used, as with $PATH.  Only the first character
                     of the separator is  significant;  any  remaining  characters  are  ignored.
                     Multibyte characters are not yet supported.

                     Only one of the scalar and array parameters may be assigned an initial value
                     (the restrictions on assignment forms described above also apply).

                     Both the scalar and the array may be  manipulated  as  normal.   If  one  is
                     unset,  the  other  will  automatically  be  unset  too.  There is no way of
                     untying the variables without unsetting them, nor of converting the type  of
                     one  of  them  with  another typeset command; +T does not work, assigning an
                     array to scalar is an error, and assigning a scalar to array sets it to be a
                     single-element array.

                     Note  that  both  `typeset  -xT ...'  and `export -T ...' work, but only the
                     scalar will be marked for  export.   Setting  the  value  using  the  scalar
                     version  causes  a  split on all separators (which cannot be quoted).  It is
                     possible to apply -T to two previously tied variables but with  a  different
                     separator character, in which case the variables remain joined as before but
                     the separator is changed.

              Attribute flags that transform the final value  (-L,  -R,  -Z,  -l,  -u)  are  only
              applied  to  the  expanded  value  at the point of a parameter expansion expression
              using `$'.  They are not applied when a parameter is retrieved  internally  by  the
              shell for any purpose.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The  names  refer to associative array parameters; see `Array Parameters' in
                     zshparam(1).

              -L [ n ]
                     Left justify and remove leading blanks from the value when the parameter  is
                     expanded.   If  n  is  nonzero,  it defines the width of the field.  If n is
                     zero, the width is determined by  the  width  of  the  value  of  the  first
                     assignment.   In  the case of numeric parameters, the length of the complete
                     value assigned to the parameter is used to  determine  the  width,  not  the
                     value that would be output.

                     The  width  is the count of characters, which may be multibyte characters if
                     the MULTIBYTE option is in effect.   Note  that  the  screen  width  of  the
                     character  is  not taken into account; if this is required, use padding with
                     parameter expansion flags ${(ml...)...} as described in `Parameter Expansion
                     Flags' in zshexpn(1).

                     When  the  parameter  is  expanded, it is filled on the right with blanks or
                     truncated if necessary to fit  the  field.   Note  truncation  can  lead  to
                     unexpected  results  with  numeric parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if
                     the -Z flag is also set.

              -R [ n ]
                     Similar to -L, except that right justification is used; when  the  parameter
                     is expanded, the field is left filled with blanks or truncated from the end.
                     May not be combined with the -Z flag.

              -U     For arrays (but not for associative arrays), keep only the first  occurrence
                     of  each duplicated value.  This may also be set for colon-separated special
                     parameters like PATH or FIGNORE, etc.  This flag  has  a  different  meaning
                     when used with -f; see below.

              -Z [ n ]
                     Specially  handled if set along with the -L flag.  Otherwise, similar to -R,
                     except that leading zeros are used for padding  instead  of  blanks  if  the
                     first  non-blank  character  is  a  digit.  Numeric parameters are specially
                     handled: they are always eligible for padding with zeroes,  and  the  zeroes
                     are inserted at an appropriate place in the output.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array parameter may be created this
                     way, but it  may  not  be  assigned  to  in  the  typeset  statement.   When
                     displaying, both normal and associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The  names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No assignments can be
                     made, and the only other valid flags are -t, -T, -k, -u,  -U  and  -z.   The
                     flag  -t  turns on execution tracing for this function; the flag -T does the
                     same, but turns off tracing on any function called  from  the  present  one,
                     unless  that function also has the -t or -T flag.  The -u and -U flags cause
                     the function to be marked for autoloading; -U also causes alias expansion to
                     be  suppressed  when  the  function  is loaded.  The fpath parameter will be
                     searched to  find  the  function  definition  when  the  function  is  first
                     referenced;  see  the  section  `Functions'.  The  -k  and -z flags make the
                     function be loaded using ksh-style or zsh-style autoloading respectively. If
                     neither  is given, the setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option determines how the
                     function is loaded.

                     Note that the builtin functions provides  the  same  basic  capabilities  as
                     typeset -f but gives access to a few extra options.

              -h     Hide: only useful for special parameters (those marked `<S>' in the table in
                     zshparam(1)), and for local parameters with  the  same  name  as  a  special
                     parameter,  though  harmless  for  others.   A  special  parameter with this
                     attribute will not retain its special effect when made  local.   Thus  after
                     `typeset  -h  PATH',  a  function  containing  `typeset PATH' will create an
                     ordinary  local   parameter   without   the   usual   behaviour   of   PATH.
                     Alternatively, the local parameter may itself be given this attribute; hence
                     inside a function `typeset -h PATH' creates an ordinary local parameter  and
                     the  special  PATH parameter is not altered in any way.  It is also possible
                     to create a local parameter using `typeset +h special', where the local copy
                     of  special  will  retain its special properties regardless of having the -h
                     attribute.  Global special parameters loaded from shell  modules  (currently
                     those  in  zsh/mapfile  and  zsh/parameter)  are  automatically given the -h
                     attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide value: specifies that  typeset  will  not  display  the  value  of  the
                     parameter when listing parameters; the display for such parameters is always
                     as if the `+' flag had been  given.   Use  of  the  parameter  is  in  other
                     respects normal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is specified
                     by name, or by pattern with the -m option.  This is on by  default  for  the
                     parameters  in  the  zsh/parameter  and zsh/mapfile modules.  Note, however,
                     that unlike the -h flag this is also useful for non-special parameters.

              -i [ n ]
                     Use an internal integer representation.  If n  is  nonzero  it  defines  the
                     output  arithmetic base, otherwise it is determined by the first assignment.
                     Bases from 2 to 36 inclusive are allowed.

              -E [ n ]
                     Use an internal double-precision floating point representation.   On  output
                     the  variable  will be converted to scientific notation.  If n is nonzero it
                     defines the number of significant figures to display; the default is ten.

              -F [ n ]
                     Use an internal double-precision floating point representation.   On  output
                     the  variable  will  be  converted to fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is
                     nonzero it defines the number of digits to display after the decimal  point;
                     the default is ten.

              -l     Convert  the  result  to lower case whenever the parameter is expanded.  The
                     value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The given names are marked  readonly.   Note  that  if  name  is  a  special
                     parameter,  the  readonly  attribute  can  be  turned on, but cannot then be
                     turned off.

                     If the  POSIX_BUILTINS  option  is  set,  the  readonly  attribute  is  more
                     restrictive:  unset variables can be marked readonly and cannot then be set;
                     furthermore, the readonly attribute cannot be  removed  from  any  variable.
                     Note  that  in  zsh  (unlike  other shells) it is still possible to create a
                     local variable of the same name as this is considered a  different  variable
                     (though this variable, too, can be marked readonly).

              -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning to the shell.  This
                     flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert the result to upper case whenever the parameter  is  expanded.   The
                     value  is  not  converted  when assigned.  This flag has a different meaning
                     when used with -f; see above.

              -x     Mark for automatic  export  to  the  environment  of  subsequently  executed
                     commands.   If  the option GLOBAL_EXPORT is set, this implies the option -g,
                     unless +g is also explicitly given; in other words the parameter is not made
                     local  to  the  enclosing function.  This is for compatibility with previous
                     versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ -HSa ] [ { -bcdfiklmnpqrsTtvwx | -N resource } [ limit ] ... ]
              Set or display resource limits of the shell and the processes started by the shell.
              The value of limit can be a number in the unit specified below or one of the values
              `unlimited', which removes the limit on the resource, or  `hard',  which  uses  the
              current value of the hard limit on the resource.

              By  default,  only  soft  limits  are manipulated. If the -H flag is given use hard
              limits instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is given together with the  -H  flag
              set both hard and soft limits.

              If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

              If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources are printed.  When
              more than one resource value is printed, the limit name and unit is printed  before
              each value.

              When  looping  over  multiple  resources,  the  shell  will abort immediately if it
              detects a badly formed argument.  However, if it fails to  set  a  limit  for  some
              other reason it will continue trying to set the remaining limits.

              Not  all  the  following resources are supported on all systems.  Running ulimit -a
              will show which are supported.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -k     The number of kqueues allocated.
              -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -p     The number of pseudo-terminals.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -r     Maximum real time priority.  On some systems where this  is  not  available,
                     such as NetBSD, this has the same effect as -T for compatibility with sh.
              -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
              -T     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -u     The number of processes available to the user.
              -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems this refers to the
                     limit called `address space'.
              -w     Kilobytes on the size of swapped out memory.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A resource may also be specified by  integer  in  the  form  `-N  resource',  where
              resource  corresponds  to  the  integer  defined  for the resource by the operating
              system.  This may be used to set the limits for resources known to the shell  which
              do  not  correspond  to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by number in the
              output of `ulimit -a'.

              The number may alternatively be out of the range of limits compiled into the shell.
              The  shell  will try to read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if
              this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or a  symbolic  value
              as  described  in chmod(1).  If mask is omitted, the current value is printed.  The
              -S option causes the mask to be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise,  the  mask
              is  printed as an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the permissions you
              specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied) to the users specified.

       unalias [ -ams ] name ...
              Removes aliases.  This command works the same as unhash  -a,  except  that  the  -a
              option  removes  all  regular  or global aliases, or with -s all suffix aliases: in
              this case no name arguments may appear.  The options -m (remove by pattern) and  -s
              without  -a  (remove listed suffix aliases) behave as for unhash -a.  Note that the
              meaning of -a is different between unalias and unhash.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.  The default  is  remove
              elements  from  the  command  hash  table.   The  -a option causes unhash to remove
              regular or global aliases; note when removing a global aliases  that  the  argument
              must  be  quoted  to  prevent  it  from  being  expanded before being passed to the
              command.  The -s option causes unhash to remove  suffix  aliases.   The  -f  option
              causes  unhash  to  remove shell functions.  The -d options causes unhash to remove
              named directories.  If the -m flag is given the arguments  are  taken  as  patterns
              (should  be  quoted) and all elements of the corresponding hash table with matching
              names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The resource limit for each resource is set to the hard limit.  If the -h  flag  is
              given  and  the  shell has appropriate privileges, the hard resource limit for each
              resource is removed.  The resources of the shell process are only changed if the -s
              flag is given.

              The  unlimit  command  is  not made available by default when the shell starts in a
              mode emulating another shell.  It can be made available with the command  `zmodload
              -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each  named  parameter is unset.  Local parameters remain local even if unset; they
              appear unset within scope, but the previous value  will  still  reappear  when  the
              scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset by using subscript
              syntax on name, which should be quoted (or the entire command prefixed with noglob)
              to protect the subscript from filename generation.

              If  the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted)
              and all parameters with matching names are unset.  Note that this  cannot  be  used
              when unsetting associative array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part
              of the pattern.

              The -v flag  specifies  that  name  refers  to  parameters.  This  is  the  default
              behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset  the  options  for  the shell.  All options specified either with flags or by
              name are unset.  If no arguments are supplied, the names of all  options  currently
              unset  are  printed.   If  the -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns
              (which should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob  patterns),
              and all options with names matching these patterns are unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait  for  the specified jobs or processes.  If job is not given then all currently
              active child processes are waited for.  Each job can be either a job  specification
              or  the process ID of a job in the job table.  The exit status from this command is
              that of the job waited for.

              It is possible to wait for recent processes (specified by process ID, not  by  job)
              that  were running in the background even if the process has exited.  Typically the
              process ID will be recorded by capturing the value of the variable  $!  immediately
              after  the process has been started.  There is a limit on the number of process IDs
              remembered by the shell; this is given by the value  of  the  system  configuration
              parameter  CHILD_MAX.  When this limit is reached, older process IDs are discarded,
              least recently started processes first.

              Note there is no protection against the process ID wrapping, i.e. if  the  wait  is
              not executed soon enough there is a chance the process waited for is the wrong one.
              A conflict implies both process IDs have been generated  by  the  shell,  as  other
              processes are not recorded, and that the user is potentially interested in both, so
              this problem is intrinsic to process IDs.

       whence [ -vcwfpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a command name.

              whence is most useful when name is only the last path component of a command,  i.e.
              does  not  include a `/'; in particular, pattern matching only succeeds if just the
              non-directory component of the command is passed.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print the results in a csh-like format.  This takes precedence over -v.

              -w     For each name, print `name: word' where  word  is  one  of  alias,  builtin,
                     command,  function,  hashed, reserved or none, according as name corresponds
                     to an alias, a built-in command, an external command, a  shell  function,  a
                     command  defined  with  the  hash  builtin,  a  reserved  word,  or  is  not
                     recognised.  This takes precedence over -v and -c.

              -f     Causes the contents of  a  shell  function  to  be  displayed,  which  would
                     otherwise not happen unless the -c flag were used.

              -p     Do  a  path  search  for  name  even if it is an alias, reserved word, shell
                     function or builtin.

              -a     Do a search for  all  occurrences  of  name  throughout  the  command  path.
                     Normally only the first occurrence is printed.

              -m     The  arguments  are taken as patterns (pattern characters should be quoted),
                     and the information is displayed for each  command  matching  one  of  these
                     patterns.

              -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free pathname as well.

              -S     As  -s,  but  if  the  pathname  had  to  be  resolved by following multiple
                     symlinks, the intermediate steps are printed, too.  The symlink resolved  at
                     each step might be anywhere in the path.

              -x num Expand  tabs  when outputting shell functions using the -c option.  This has
                     the same effect as the -x option to the functions builtin.

       where [ -wpmsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This builtin command can be used to  compile  functions  or  scripts,  storing  the
              compiled  form  in a file, and to examine files containing the compiled form.  This
              allows faster autoloading of functions and execution of scripts by avoiding parsing
              of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a compiled file.  If only
              the file argument is given, the output file has the name  `file.zwc'  and  will  be
              placed  in  the  same directory as the file.  The shell will load the compiled file
              instead of the normal function file  when  the  function  is  autoloaded;  see  the
              section  `Autoloading  Functions' in zshmisc(1) for a description of how autoloaded
              functions are searched.  The extension .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

              If there is at least one name argument, all the named files are compiled  into  the
              output  file  given  as  the  first  argument.   If file does not end in .zwc, this
              extension is automatically appended.  Files containing multiple compiled  functions
              are  called  `digest'  files,  and  are  intended  to  be  used  as elements of the
              FPATH/fpath special array.

              The second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled definitions for all
              the  named  functions  into  file.   For  -c, the names must be functions currently
              defined in the shell, not those marked for autoloading.  Undefined  functions  that
              are marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in which case the
              fpath is searched and the contents of the definition files for those functions,  if
              found,  are compiled into file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined
              functions and functions marked for autoloading may be given.  In either  case,  the
              functions  in  files  written with the -c or -a option will be autoloaded as if the
              KSH_AUTOLOAD option were unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with different  options
              is  that some definition files for autoloading define multiple functions, including
              the function with the same name as the file, and, at the end, call  that  function.
              In such cases the output of `zcompile -c' does not include the additional functions
              defined in the file, and any other initialization code in the file is lost.   Using
              `zcompile -a' captures all this extra information.

              If  the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used as patterns and all
              functions whose names match one of these patterns will be written. If  no  name  is
              given,  the  definitions of all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded
              will be written.

              Note  the  second  form  cannot  be  used  for  compiling  functions  that  include
              redirections as part of the definition rather than within the body of the function;
              for example

                     fn1() { { ... } >~/logfile }

              can be compiled but

                     fn1() { ... } >~/logfile

              cannot.  It is possible to use the first form of zcompile to  compile  autoloadable
              functions that include the full function definition instead of just the body of the
              function.

              The third form, with the -t option, examines an existing  compiled  file.   Without
              further  arguments,  the  names  of the original files compiled into it are listed.
              The first line of output shows the version of the shell which compiled the file and
              how  the  file  will  be  used  (i.e.  by reading it directly or by mapping it into
              memory).  With arguments, nothing is output and the return status is set to zero if
              definitions  for  all  names  were  found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the
              definition for at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When the compiled file is read, its contents are  copied  into  the  shell's
                     memory,  rather  than memory-mapped (see -M).  This happens automatically on
                     systems that do not support memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts  instead  of  autoloadable  functions,  it  is  often
                     desirable  to  use this option; otherwise the whole file, including the code
                     to define functions which have already been  defined,  will  remain  mapped,
                     consequently wasting memory.

              -M     The  compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory when read. This is done
                     in such a way that multiple instances of the shell running on the same  host
                     will  share  this  mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
                     builtin decides what to do based on the size of the compiled file.

              -k
              -z     These options are used when the compiled file contains functions  which  are
                     to  be autoloaded. If -z is given, the function will be autoloaded as if the
                     KSH_AUTOLOAD option is not set, even if it is set at the time  the  compiled
                     file  is  read,  while if the -k is given, the function will be loaded as if
                     KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options also take precedence over any -k  or  -z
                     options  specified  to  the autoload builtin. If neither of these options is
                     given, the function will be loaded as  determined  by  the  setting  of  the
                     KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time the compiled file is read.

                     These  options may also appear as many times as necessary between the listed
                     names to specify the loading style of all following  functions,  up  to  the
                     next -k or -z.

                     The  created  file  always contains two versions of the compiled format, one
                     for big-endian machines and one for small-endian machines.   The  upshot  of
                     this  is  that the compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
                     mapped, only one half of the file is actually used (and mapped).

       zformat
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -alLme -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading of  modules  while
              the  shell  is  running  (`dynamical  loading')  is  not available on all operating
              systems, or on all installations on a particular  operating  system,  although  the
              zmodload  command  itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules
              built into versions of the shell executable without dynamical loading.

              Without arguments the names of all currently loaded  binary  modules  are  printed.
              The  -L option causes this list to be in the form of a series of zmodload commands.
              Forms with arguments are:

              zmodload [ -i ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In the simplest case, zmodload loads a binary module.  The module must be in
                     a  file  with a name consisting of the specified name followed by a standard
                     suffix, usually `.so' (`.sl' on HPUX).   If  the  module  to  be  loaded  is
                     already  loaded  the  duplicate  module  is ignored.  If zmodload detects an
                     inconsistency, such as an invalid module name or circular  dependency  list,
                     the  current code block is aborted.   Hence `zmodload module 2>/dev/null' is
                     sufficient to test whether a module is available.  If it is  available,  the
                     module is loaded if necessary, while if it is not available, non-zero status
                     is silently returned.  The option -i is accepted for compatibility  but  has
                     no effect.

                     The  named  module  is  searched  for  in  the  same way a command is, using
                     $module_path instead of $path.  However, the path search is  performed  even
                     when the module name contains a `/', which it usually does.  There is no way
                     to prevent the path search.

                     If the module supports features (see below), zmodload tries  to  enable  all
                     features  when  loading a module.  If the module was successfully loaded but
                     not all features could be enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must  be  given  that  was
                     given  when the module was loaded, but it is not necessary for the module to
                     exist in the file system.  The -i option suppresses the error if the  module
                     is already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each  module  has  a  boot  and  a cleanup function.  The module will not be
                     loaded if its boot function fails.  Similarly a module can only be  unloaded
                     if its cleanup function runs successfully.

              zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
                     zmodload  -F  allows  more  selective  control over the features provided by
                     modules.  With no options apart from -F, the module named module is  loaded,
                     if  it  was  not  already  loaded,  and  the  list of features is set to the
                     required state.  If no features are specified, the module is loaded,  if  it
                     was  not  already  loaded,  but  the  state  of features is unchanged.  Each
                     feature may be preceded by a + to turn the feature on, or - to turn it  off;
                     the  +  is  assumed  if  neither  character  is  present.   Any  feature not
                     explicitly mentioned is left in its current state; if  the  module  was  not
                     previously  loaded  this  means any such features will remain disabled.  The
                     return status is zero if all features were set, 1 if the  module  failed  to
                     load,  and  2  if  some  features could not be set (for example, a parameter
                     couldn't be added because there was a different parameter of the same  name)
                     but the module was loaded.

                     The   standard  features  are  builtins,  conditions,  parameters  and  math
                     functions; these are indicated by the prefix `b:', `c:' (`C:' for  an  infix
                     condition),  `p:'  and  `f:',  respectively,  followed  by the name that the
                     corresponding feature would have in the shell.   For  example,  `b:strftime'
                     indicates  a builtin named strftime and p:EPOCHSECONDS indicates a parameter
                     named EPOCHSECONDS.  The module may provide other (`abstract')  features  of
                     its own as indicated by its documentation; these have no prefix.

                     With -l or -L, features provided by the module are listed.  With -l alone, a
                     list of features together with their states is shown, one feature per  line.
                     With  -L  alone,  a zmodload -F command that would cause enabled features of
                     the module to be turned on is shown.  With -lL, a zmodload -F  command  that
                     would  cause all the features to be set to their current state is shown.  If
                     one of these combinations is  given  with  the  option  -P  param  then  the
                     parameter  param  is  set  to an array of features, either features together
                     with their state or (if -L alone is given) enabled features.

                     With the option -L the module name may  be  omitted;  then  a  list  of  all
                     enabled  features  for all modules providing features is printed in the form
                     of zmodload -F commands.  If -l is also given, the state of both enabled and
                     disabled features is output in that form.

                     A  set of features may be provided together with -l or -L and a module name;
                     in that case only the state of those features is considered.   Each  feature
                     may  be  preceded  by  + or - but the character has no effect.  If no set of
                     features is provided, all features are considered.

                     With -e, the command first tests that the module is loaded; if  it  is  not,
                     status  1  is returned.  If the module is loaded, the list of features given
                     as an argument is examined.  Any feature given  with  no  prefix  is  simply
                     tested  to  see if the module provides it; any feature given with a prefix +
                     or - is tested to see if is provided and in the given state.  If  the  tests
                     on all features in the list succeed, status 0 is returned, else status 1.

                     With  -m,  each entry in the given list of features is taken as a pattern to
                     be matched against the list of features provided by the module.  An  initial
                     +  or  -  must  be  given  explicitly.  This may not be combined with the -a
                     option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

                     With -a, the given  list  of  features  is  marked  for  autoload  from  the
                     specified  module,  which  may  not yet be loaded.  An optional + may appear
                     before the feature name.  If the feature is prefixed with  -,  any  existing
                     autoload  is  removed.  The options -l and -L may be used to list autoloads.
                     Autoloading is specific to individual features; when the  module  is  loaded
                     only  the  requested feature is enabled.  Autoload requests are preserved if
                     the module is subsequently unloaded until an explicit `zmodload  -Fa  module
                     -feature'  is  issued.   It  is  not  an  error to request an autoload for a
                     feature of a module that is already loaded.

                     When the module is loaded each autoload  is  checked  against  the  features
                     actually provided by the module; if the feature is not provided the autoload
                     request is deleted.  A warning message is output; if  the  module  is  being
                     loaded  to  provide  a  different  feature, and that autoload is successful,
                     there is no effect on the status of the current command.  If the  module  is
                     already  loaded  at  the  time when zmodload -Fa is run, an error message is
                     printed and status 1 returned.

                     zmodload -Fa can be used with the -l, -L, -e and -P options for listing  and
                     testing  the existence of autoloadable features.  In this case -l is ignored
                     if -L is specified.  zmodload -FaL with no module name lists  autoloads  for
                     all modules.

                     Note that only standard features as described above can be autoloaded; other
                     features require the module to be loaded before enabling.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.  The modules named
                     in  the  second  and  subsequent  arguments will be loaded before the module
                     named in the first argument.

                     With -d and one argument, all dependencies for that module are listed.  With
                     -d and no arguments, all module dependencies are listed.  This listing is by
                     default in a Makefile-like format.  The -L option changes this format  to  a
                     list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If  -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If only one argument
                     is given, all dependencies for that module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The -ab option  defines  autoloaded  builtins.   It  defines  the  specified
                     builtins.  When any of those builtins is called, the module specified in the
                     first argument is loaded and all its features  are  enabled  (for  selective
                     control  of  features use `zmodload -F -a' as described above).  If only the
                     name is given, one builtin is defined, with the same name as the module.  -i
                     suppresses  the  error  if the builtin is already defined or autoloaded, but
                     not if another builtin of the same name is already defined.

                     With -ab and no arguments, all autoloaded  builtins  are  listed,  with  the
                     module name (if different) shown in parentheses after the builtin name.  The
                     -L option changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If -b is used together with the -u option, it  removes  builtins  previously
                     defined  with  -ab.  This is only possible if the builtin is not yet loaded.
                     -i suppresses the  error  if  the  builtin  is  already  removed  (or  never
                     existed).

                     Autoload  requests are retained if the module is subsequently unloaded until
                     an explicit `zmodload -ub builtin' is issued.

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The -ac option is used  to  define  autoloaded  condition  codes.  The  cond
                     strings give the names of the conditions defined by the module. The optional
                     -I option is used to define  infix  condition  names.  Without  this  option
                     prefix condition names are defined.

                     If  given  no  condition names, all defined names are listed (as a series of
                     zmodload commands if the -L option is given).

                     The -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded conditions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The -p option is like the -b and -c options,  but  makes  zmodload  work  on
                     autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The -f option is like the -b, -p, and -c options, but makes zmodload work on
                     autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules; if the  -A  option
                     is  also  given,  module  aliases  corresponding  to loaded modules are also
                     shown.  If arguments are provided, nothing is printed; the return status  is
                     set  to  zero  if all strings given as arguments are names of loaded modules
                     and to one if at least on string is not the name of a loaded  module.   This
                     can  be  used to test for the availability of things implemented by modules.
                     In this case, any aliases are automatically resolved and the -A flag is  not
                     used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given, define modalias to
                     be an alias  for  the  module  module.   If  the  module  modalias  is  ever
                     subsequently  requested,  either  via  a call to zmodload or implicitly, the
                     shell will attempt to load module instead.  If module is not given, show the
                     definition  of modalias.  If no arguments are given, list all defined module
                     aliases.  When listing, if the -L flag was also given, list  the  definition
                     as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The  existence  of  aliases for modules is completely independent of whether
                     the name resolved is actually loaded as a module: while  the  alias  exists,
                     loading and unloading the module under any alias has exactly the same effect
                     as using the resolved name, and does not affect the connection  between  the
                     alias and the resolved name which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by
                     redefining the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the first resolved name
                     is  itself  an  alias)  are valid so long as these are not circular.  As the
                     aliases take the  same  format  as  module  names,  they  may  include  path
                     separators:   in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the path
                     named  to  exist  as  the  alias  will  be  resolved  first.   For  example,
                     `any/old/alias' is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies  added  to  aliased  modules are actually added to the resolved
                     module; these remain if the alias is removed.  It  is  valid  to  create  an
                     alias  whose name is one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to
                     a different module.  However, if a module has dependencies, it will  not  be
                     possible  to  use  the module name as an alias as the module will already be
                     marked as a loadable module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload  command  anywhere
                     module  names  are required.  However, aliases will not be shown in lists of
                     loaded modules with a bare `zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as a module alias via
                     zmodload  -A,  delete the alias.  If any was not defined, an error is caused
                     and the remainder of the line is ignored.

              Note that zsh makes no distinction between modules that were linked into the  shell
              and  modules that are loaded dynamically. In both cases this builtin command has to
              be used to make available the builtins and other things defined by modules  (unless
              the  module is autoloaded on these definitions). This is true even for systems that
              don't support dynamic loading of modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).