Provided by: avr-libc_1.8.0+Atmel3.5.0-1_all bug

NAME

       avr_stdlib - <stdlib.h>: General utilities

   Data Structures
       struct div_t
       struct ldiv_t

   Macros
       #define RAND_MAX   0x7FFF

   Typedefs
       typedef int(* __compar_fn_t) (const void *, const void *)

   Functions
       void abort (void) __ATTR_NORETURN__
       int abs (int __i)
       long labs (long __i)
       void * bsearch (const void *__key, const void *__base, size_t __nmemb, size_t __size,
           int(*__compar)(const void *, const void *))
       div_t div (int __num, int __denom) __asm__('__divmodhi4')
       ldiv_t ldiv (long __num, long __denom) __asm__('__divmodsi4')
       void qsort (void *__base, size_t __nmemb, size_t __size, __compar_fn_t __compar)
       long strtol (const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int __base)
       unsigned long strtoul (const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int __base)
       long atol (const char *__s) __ATTR_PURE__
       int atoi (const char *__s) __ATTR_PURE__
       void exit (int __status) __ATTR_NORETURN__
       void * malloc (size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
       void free (void *__ptr)
       void * calloc (size_t __nele, size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
       void * realloc (void *__ptr, size_t __size) __ATTR_MALLOC__
       double strtod (const char *__nptr, char **__endptr)
       double atof (const char *__nptr)
       int rand (void)
       void srand (unsigned int __seed)
       int rand_r (unsigned long *__ctx)

   Variables
       size_t __malloc_margin
       char * __malloc_heap_start
       char * __malloc_heap_end

   Non-standard (i.e. non-ISO C) functions.
       char * ltoa (long val, char *s, int radix)
       char * utoa (unsigned int val, char *s, int radix)
       char * ultoa (unsigned long val, char *s, int radix)
       long random (void)
       void srandom (unsigned long __seed)
       long random_r (unsigned long *__ctx)
       char * itoa (int val, char *s, int radix)
       #define RANDOM_MAX   0x7FFFFFFF

   Conversion functions for double arguments.
       Note that these functions are not located in the default library, libc.a, but in the
       mathematical library, libm.a. So when linking the application, the -lm option needs to be
       specified.
       char * dtostre (double __val, char *__s, unsigned char __prec, unsigned char __flags)
       char * dtostrf (double __val, signed char __width, unsigned char __prec, char *__s)
       #define DTOSTR_ALWAYS_SIGN   0x01        /* put '+' or ' ' for positives */
       #define DTOSTR_PLUS_SIGN   0x02        /* put '+' rather than ' ' */
       #define DTOSTR_UPPERCASE   0x04        /* put 'E' rather 'e' */
       #define EXIT_SUCCESS   0
       #define EXIT_FAILURE   1

Detailed Description

       #include <stdlib.h>

       This file declares some basic C macros and functions as defined by the ISO standard, plus
       some AVR-specific extensions.

Macro Definition Documentation

   #define DTOSTR_ALWAYS_SIGN   0x01        /* put '+' or ' ' for positives */
       Bit value that can be passed in flags to dtostre().

   #define DTOSTR_PLUS_SIGN   0x02        /* put '+' rather than ' ' */
       Bit value that can be passed in flags to dtostre().

   #define DTOSTR_UPPERCASE   0x04        /* put 'E' rather 'e' */
       Bit value that can be passed in flags to dtostre().

   #define EXIT_FAILURE   1
       Unsuccessful termination for exit(); evaluates to a non-zero value.

   #define EXIT_SUCCESS   0
       Successful termination for exit(); evaluates to 0.

   #define RAND_MAX   0x7FFF
       Highest number that can be generated by rand().

   #define RANDOM_MAX   0x7FFFFFFF
       Highest number that can be generated by random().

Typedef Documentation

   typedef int(* __compar_fn_t) (const void *, const void *)
       Comparision function type for qsort(), just for convenience.

Function Documentation

   void abort (void)
       The abort() function causes abnormal program termination to occur. This realization
       disables interrupts and jumps to _exit() function with argument equal to 1. In the limited
       AVR environment, execution is effectively halted by entering an infinite loop.

   int abs (int __i)
       The abs() function computes the absolute value of the integer i.

       Note:
           The abs() and labs() functions are builtins of gcc.

   int atoi (const char * __s)
       The atoi() function converts the initial portion of the string pointed to by s to integer
       representation. In contrast to

       1 (int)strtol(s, (char **)NULL, 10);

       this function does not detect overflow (errno is not changed and the result value is not
       predictable), uses smaller memory (flash and stack) and works more quickly.

   long atol (const char * __s)
       The atol() function converts the initial portion of the string pointed to by s to long
       integer representation. In contrast to

       1 strtol(s, (char **)NULL, 10);

       this function does not detect overflow (errno is not changed and the result value is not
       predictable), uses smaller memory (flash and stack) and works more quickly.

   void* bsearch (const void * __key, const void * __base, size_t __nmemb, size_t __size,
       int(*)(const void *, const void *) __compar)
       The bsearch() function searches an array of nmemb objects, the initial member of which is
       pointed to by base, for a member that matches the object pointed to by key. The size of
       each member of the array is specified by size.

       The contents of the array should be in ascending sorted order according to the comparison
       function referenced by compar. The compar routine is expected to have two arguments which
       point to the key object and to an array member, in that order, and should return an
       integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero if the key object is found,
       respectively, to be less than, to match, or be greater than the array member.

       The bsearch() function returns a pointer to a matching member of the array, or a null
       pointer if no match is found. If two members compare as equal, which member is matched is
       unspecified.

   void* calloc (size_t __nele, size_t __size)
       Allocate nele elements of size each. Identical to calling malloc() using nele * size as
       argument, except the allocated memory will be cleared to zero.

   div_t div (int __num, int __denom)
       The div() function computes the value num/denom and returns the quotient and remainder in
       a structure named div_t that contains two int members named quot and rem.

   char* dtostre (double __val, char * __s, unsigned char __prec, unsigned char __flags)
       The dtostre() function converts the double value passed in val into an ASCII
       representation that will be stored under s. The caller is responsible for providing
       sufficient storage in s.

       Conversion is done in the format '[-]d.ddde┬▒dd' where there is one digit before the
       decimal-point character and the number of digits after it is equal to the precision prec;
       if the precision is zero, no decimal-point character appears. If flags has the
       DTOSTRE_UPPERCASE bit set, the letter 'E' (rather than 'e' ) will be used to introduce the
       exponent. The exponent always contains two digits; if the value is zero, the exponent is
       '00'.

       If flags has the DTOSTRE_ALWAYS_SIGN bit set, a space character will be placed into the
       leading position for positive numbers.

       If flags has the DTOSTRE_PLUS_SIGN bit set, a plus sign will be used instead of a space
       character in this case.

       The dtostre() function returns the pointer to the converted string s.

   char* dtostrf (double __val, signed char __width, unsigned char __prec, char * __s)
       The dtostrf() function converts the double value passed in val into an ASCII
       representationthat will be stored under s. The caller is responsible for providing
       sufficient storage in s.

       Conversion is done in the format '[-]d.ddd'. The minimum field width of the output string
       (including the '.' and the possible sign for negative values) is given in width, and prec
       determines the number of digits after the decimal sign. width is signed value, negative
       for left adjustment.

       The dtostrf() function returns the pointer to the converted string s.

   void exit (int __status)
       The exit() function terminates the application. Since there is no environment to return
       to, status is ignored, and code execution will eventually reach an infinite loop, thereby
       effectively halting all code processing. Before entering the infinite loop, interrupts are
       globally disabled.

       In a C++ context, global destructors will be called before halting execution.

   void free (void * __ptr)
       The free() function causes the allocated memory referenced by ptr to be made available for
       future allocations. If ptr is NULL, no action occurs.

   char* itoa (int val, char * s, int radix)
       Convert an integer to a string. The function itoa() converts the integer value from val
       into an ASCII representation that will be stored under s. The caller is responsible for
       providing sufficient storage in s.

       Note:
           The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix. For example, if the
           radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a buffer with a minimal length of 8 * sizeof
           (int) + 1 characters, i.e. one character for each bit plus one for the string
           terminator. Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal buffer size.

       Warning:
           If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.

       Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number between 2 (binary
       conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than 10, the next digit after '9' will be
       the letter 'a'.

       If radix is 10 and val is negative, a minus sign will be prepended.

       The itoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.

   long labs (long __i)
       The labs() function computes the absolute value of the long integer i.

       Note:
           The abs() and labs() functions are builtins of gcc.

   ldiv_t ldiv (long __num, long __denom)
       The ldiv() function computes the value num/denom and returns the quotient and remainder in
       a structure named ldiv_t that contains two long integer members named quot and rem.

   char* ltoa (long val, char * s, int radix)
       Convert a long integer to a string. The function ltoa() converts the long integer value
       from val into an ASCII representation that will be stored under s. The caller is
       responsible for providing sufficient storage in s.

       Note:
           The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix. For example, if the
           radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a buffer with a minimal length of 8 * sizeof
           (long int) + 1 characters, i.e. one character for each bit plus one for the string
           terminator. Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal buffer size.

       Warning:
           If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.

       Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number between 2 (binary
       conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than 10, the next digit after '9' will be
       the letter 'a'.

       If radix is 10 and val is negative, a minus sign will be prepended.

       The ltoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.

   void* malloc (size_t __size)
       The malloc() function allocates size bytes of memory. If malloc() fails, a NULL pointer is
       returned.

       Note that malloc() does not initialize the returned memory to zero bytes.

       See the chapter about malloc() usage for implementation details.

   void qsort (void * __base, size_t __nmemb, size_t __size, __compar_fn_t __compar)
       The qsort() function is a modified partition-exchange sort, or quicksort.

       The qsort() function sorts an array of nmemb objects, the initial member of which is
       pointed to by base. The size of each object is specified by size. The contents of the
       array base are sorted in ascending order according to a comparison function pointed to by
       compar, which requires two arguments pointing to the objects being compared.

       The comparison function must return an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero
       if the first argument is considered to be respectively less than, equal to, or greater
       than the second.

   int rand (void)
       The rand() function computes a sequence of pseudo-random integers in the range of 0 to
       RAND_MAX (as defined by the header file <stdlib.h>).

       The srand() function sets its argument seed as the seed for a new sequence of pseudo-
       random numbers to be returned by rand(). These sequences are repeatable by calling srand()
       with the same seed value.

       If no seed value is provided, the functions are automatically seeded with a value of 1.

       In compliance with the C standard, these functions operate on int arguments. Since the
       underlying algorithm already uses 32-bit calculations, this causes a loss of precision.
       See random() for an alternate set of functions that retains full 32-bit precision.

   int rand_r (unsigned long * __ctx)
       Variant of rand() that stores the context in the user-supplied variable located at ctx
       instead of a static library variable so the function becomes re-entrant.

   long random (void)
       The random() function computes a sequence of pseudo-random integers in the range of 0 to
       RANDOM_MAX (as defined by the header file <stdlib.h>).

       The srandom() function sets its argument seed as the seed for a new sequence of pseudo-
       random numbers to be returned by rand(). These sequences are repeatable by calling
       srandom() with the same seed value.

       If no seed value is provided, the functions are automatically seeded with a value of 1.

   long random_r (unsigned long * __ctx)
       Variant of random() that stores the context in the user-supplied variable located at ctx
       instead of a static library variable so the function becomes re-entrant.

   void* realloc (void * __ptr, size_t __size)
       The realloc() function tries to change the size of the region allocated at ptr to the new
       size value. It returns a pointer to the new region. The returned pointer might be the same
       as the old pointer, or a pointer to a completely different region.

       The contents of the returned region up to either the old or the new size value (whatever
       is less) will be identical to the contents of the old region, even in case a new region
       had to be allocated.

       It is acceptable to pass ptr as NULL, in which case realloc() will behave identical to
       malloc().

       If the new memory cannot be allocated, realloc() returns NULL, and the region at ptr will
       not be changed.

   void srand (unsigned int __seed)
       Pseudo-random number generator seeding; see rand().

   void srandom (unsigned long __seed)
       Pseudo-random number generator seeding; see random().

   double strtod (const char * nptr, char ** endptr)
       The strtod() function converts the initial portion of the string pointed to by nptr to
       double representation.

       The expected form of the string is an optional plus ( '+' ) or minus sign ( '-' ) followed
       by a sequence of digits optionally containing a decimal-point character, optionally
       followed by an exponent. An exponent consists of an 'E' or 'e', followed by an optional
       plus or minus sign, followed by a sequence of digits.

       Leading white-space characters in the string are skipped.

       The strtod() function returns the converted value, if any.

       If endptr is not NULL, a pointer to the character after the last character used in the
       conversion is stored in the location referenced by endptr.

       If no conversion is performed, zero is returned and the value of nptr is stored in the
       location referenced by endptr.

       If the correct value would cause overflow, plus or minus INFINITY is returned (according
       to the sign of the value), and ERANGE is stored in errno. If the correct value would cause
       underflow, zero is returned and ERANGE is stored in errno.

   long strtol (const char * __nptr, char ** __endptr, int __base)
       The strtol() function converts the string in nptr to a long value. The conversion is done
       according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special
       value 0.

       The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace())
       followed by a single optional '+' or '-' sign. If base is zero or 16, the string may then
       include a '0x' prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is
       taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is '0', in which case it is taken as 8
       (octal).

       The remainder of the string is converted to a long value in the obvious manner, stopping
       at the first character which is not a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10,
       the letter 'A' in either upper or lower case represents 10, 'B' represents 11, and so
       forth, with 'Z' representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid character in
       *endptr. If there were no digits at all, however, strtol() stores the original value of
       nptr in endptr. (Thus, if *nptr is not '\0' but **endptr is '\0' on return, the entire
       string was valid.)

       The strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the value would
       underflow or overflow. If no conversion could be performed, 0 is returned. If an overflow
       or underflow occurs, errno is set to ERANGE and the function return value is clamped to
       LONG_MIN or LONG_MAX, respectively.

   unsigned long strtoul (const char * __nptr, char ** __endptr, int __base)
       The strtoul() function converts the string in nptr to an unsigned long value. The
       conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive,
       or be the special value 0.

       The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace())
       followed by a single optional '+' or '-' sign. If base is zero or 16, the string may then
       include a '0x' prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is
       taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is '0', in which case it is taken as 8
       (octal).

       The remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long value in the obvious manner,
       stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in the given base. (In bases
       above 10, the letter 'A' in either upper or lower case represents 10, 'B' represents 11,
       and so forth, with 'Z' representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL, strtoul() stores the address of the first invalid character in
       *endptr. If there were no digits at all, however, strtoul() stores the original value of
       nptr in endptr. (Thus, if *nptr is not '\0' but **endptr is '\0' on return, the entire
       string was valid.)

       The strtoul() function return either the result of the conversion or, if there was a
       leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the conversion, unless the original
       (non-negated) value would overflow; in the latter case, strtoul() returns ULONG_MAX, and
       errno is set to ERANGE. If no conversion could be performed, 0 is returned.

   char* ultoa (unsigned long val, char * s, int radix)
       Convert an unsigned long integer to a string. The function ultoa() converts the unsigned
       long integer value from val into an ASCII representation that will be stored under s. The
       caller is responsible for providing sufficient storage in s.

       Note:
           The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix. For example, if the
           radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a buffer with a minimal length of 8 * sizeof
           (unsigned long int) + 1 characters, i.e. one character for each bit plus one for the
           string terminator. Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal buffer size.

       Warning:
           If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.

       Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number between 2 (binary
       conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than 10, the next digit after '9' will be
       the letter 'a'.

       The ultoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.

   char* utoa (unsigned int val, char * s, int radix)
       Convert an unsigned integer to a string. The function utoa() converts the unsigned integer
       value from val into an ASCII representation that will be stored under s. The caller is
       responsible for providing sufficient storage in s.

       Note:
           The minimal size of the buffer s depends on the choice of radix. For example, if the
           radix is 2 (binary), you need to supply a buffer with a minimal length of 8 * sizeof
           (unsigned int) + 1 characters, i.e. one character for each bit plus one for the string
           terminator. Using a larger radix will require a smaller minimal buffer size.

       Warning:
           If the buffer is too small, you risk a buffer overflow.

       Conversion is done using the radix as base, which may be a number between 2 (binary
       conversion) and up to 36. If radix is greater than 10, the next digit after '9' will be
       the letter 'a'.

       The utoa() function returns the pointer passed as s.

Variable Documentation

   char* __malloc_heap_end
       malloc() tunable.

   char* __malloc_heap_start
       malloc() tunable.

   size_t __malloc_margin
       malloc() tunable.

Author

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