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       newlocale, freelocale - create, modify, and free a locale object


       #include <locale.h>

       locale_t newlocale(int category_mask, const char *locale,
                          locale_t base);

       void freelocale(locale_t locobj);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       newlocale(), freelocale():
           Since glibc 2.10:
                  _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 700
           Before glibc 2.10:


       The  newlocale()  function  creates a new locale object, or modifies an
       existing object, returning a reference to the new or modified object as
       the function result.  Whether the call creates a new object or modifies
       an existing object is determined by the value of base:

       *  If base is (locale_t) 0, a new object is created.

       *  If base refers to valid existing  locale  object  (i.e.,  an  object
          returned  by  a  previous call to newlocale() or duplocale(3)), then
          that object is modified by the call.  If the call is successful, the
          contents of base are unspecified (in particular, the object referred
          to by base may be freed, and a new object created).  Therefore,  the
          caller  should  ensure  that  it stops using base before the call to
          newlocale(), and should subsequently refer to  the  modified  object
          via  the  reference  returned  as  the function result.  If the call
          fails, the contents of base remain valid and unchanged.

       If  base  is  the   special   locale   object   LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE   (see
       duplocale(3)),  or is not (locale_t) 0 and is not a valid locale object
       handle, the behavior is undefined.

       The category_mask argument is a bit  mask  that  specifies  the  locale
       categories  that  are  to  be  set  in a newly created locale object or
       modified in an existing object.  The mask is constructed by  a  bitwise
       OR  of  the  constants LC_ADDRESS_MASK, LC_CTYPE_MASK, LC_COLLATE_MASK,
       LC_TELEPHONE_MASK, and LC_TIME_MASK.  Alternatively, the  mask  can  be
       specified  as  LC_ALL_MASK,  which  is  equivalent  to ORing all of the
       preceding constants.

       For each category specified in  category_mask,  the  locale  data  from
       locale  will  be  used in the object returned by newlocale().  If a new
       locale object is being created, data for all categories  not  specified
       in category_mask is taken from the default ("POSIX") locale.

       The  following  preset  values of locale are defined for all categories
       that can be specified in category_mask:

              A minimal locale environment for C language programs.

       "C"    Equivalent to "POSIX".

       ""     An implementation-defined native  environment  corresponding  to
              the  values  of  the  LC_*  and  LANG environment variables (see

       The freelocale() function deallocates  the  resources  associated  with
       locobj, a locale object previously returned by a call to newlocale() or
       duplocale(3).  If locobj is LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE or  is  not  valid  locale
       object handle, the results are undefined.

       Once a locale object has been freed, the program should make no further
       use of it.


       On success, newlocale() returns a handle that can be used in  calls  to
       duplocale(3),  freelocale(),  and  other functions that take a locale_t
       argument.  On error, newlocale() returns (locale_t) 0, and  sets  errno
       to indicate the cause of the error.


       EINVAL One  or  more bits in category_mask do not correspond to a valid
              locale category.

       EINVAL locale is NULL.

       ENOENT locale is not a string pointer referring to a valid locale.

       ENOMEM Insufficient memory to create a locale object.


       The newlocale() and freelocale() functions first  appeared  in  version
       2.3 of the GNU C library.




       Each  locale  object created by newlocale() should be deallocated using


       The program below takes up to two command-line  arguments,  which  each
       identify  locales.   The first argument is required, and is used to set
       the LC_NUMERIC category in a locale object created  using  newlocale().
       The  second  command-line argument is optional; if it is present, it is
       used to set the LC_TIME category of the locale object.

       Having created and initialized the  locale  object,  the  program  then
       applies  it using uselocale(3), and then tests the effect of the locale
       changes by:

       1. Displaying a floating-point number with  a  fractional  part.   This
          output  will  be  affected  by  the  LC_NUMERIC  setting.   In  many
          European-language locales, the fractional  part  of  the  number  is
          separated from the integer part using a comma, rather than a period.

       2. Displaying  the date.  The format and language of the output will be
          affected by the LC_TIME setting.

       The following shell sessions show some example runs of this program.

       Set the LC_NUMERIC category to fr_FR (French):

           $ ./a.out fr_FR
           Fri Mar  7 00:25:08 2014

       Set the LC_NUMERIC category to fr_FR (French), and the LC_TIME category
       to it_IT (Italian):

           $ ./a.out fr_FR it_IT
           ven 07 mar 2014 00:26:01 CET

       Specify  the LC_TIME setting as an empty string, which causes the value
       to be taken from environment variable settings  (which,  here,  specify
       mi_NZ, New Zealand Māori):

           $ LC_ALL=mi_NZ ./a.out fr_FR ""
           Te Paraire, te 07 o Poutū-te-rangi, 2014 00:38:44 CET

   Program source
       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE 700
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <locale.h>
       #include <time.h>

       #define errExit(msg)    do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); \
                               } while (0)

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
           char buf[100];
           time_t t;
           size_t s;
           struct tm *tm;
           locale_t loc, nloc;

           if (argc < 2) {
               fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s locale1 [locale2]\n", argv[0]);

           /* Create a new locale object, taking the LC_NUMERIC settings
              from the locale specified in argv[1] */

           loc = newlocale(LC_NUMERIC_MASK, argv[1], (locale_t) 0);
           if (loc == (locale_t) 0)

           /* If a second command-line argument was specified, modify the
              locale object to take the LC_TIME settings from the locale
              specified in argv[2]. We assign the result of this newlocale()
              call to 'nloc' rather than 'loc', since in some cases, we might
              want to preserve 'loc' if this call fails. */

           if (argc > 2) {
               nloc = newlocale(LC_TIME_MASK, argv[2], loc);
               if (nloc == (locale_t) 0)
               loc = nloc;

           /* Apply the newly created locale to this thread */


           /* Test effect of LC_NUMERIC */

           printf("%8.3f\n", 123456.789);

           /* Test effect of LC_TIME */

           t = time(NULL);
           tm = localtime(&t);
           if (tm == NULL)

           s = strftime(buf, sizeof(buf), "%c", tm);
           if (s == 0)

           printf("%s\n", buf);

           /* Free the locale object */




       locale(1),   duplocale(3),   setlocale(3),   uselocale(3),   locale(5),


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