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       realpath - return the canonicalized absolute pathname


       #include <limits.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>

       char *realpath(const char *path, char *resolved_path);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

           _BSD_SOURCE || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500 ||


       realpath() expands all symbolic links and resolves references  to  /./,
       /../  and  extra  '/' characters in the null-terminated string named by
       path to produce  a  canonicalized  absolute  pathname.   The  resulting
       pathname  is  stored  as  a  null-terminated string, up to a maximum of
       PATH_MAX bytes,  in  the  buffer  pointed  to  by  resolved_path.   The
       resulting path will have no symbolic link, /./ or /../ components.

       If  resolved_path  is specified as NULL, then realpath() uses malloc(3)
       to allocate a buffer of up to  PATH_MAX  bytes  to  hold  the  resolved
       pathname,  and  returns  a  pointer  to this buffer.  The caller should
       deallocate this buffer using free(3).


       If  there  is  no  error,  realpath()  returns   a   pointer   to   the

       Otherwise, it returns NULL, the contents of the array resolved_path are
       undefined, and errno is set to indicate the error.


       EACCES Read or search permission was denied for a component of the path

       EINVAL path is NULL.  (In glibc versions before 2.3, this error is also
              returned if resolved_path is NULL.)

       EIO    An I/O error occurred while reading from the filesystem.

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links  were  encountered  in  translating  the

              A  component  of  a pathname exceeded NAME_MAX characters, or an
              entire pathname exceeded PATH_MAX characters.

       ENOMEM Out of memory.

       ENOENT The named file does not exist.

              A component of the path prefix is not a directory.


       For  an  explanation  of  the  terms  used   in   this   section,   see

       │InterfaceAttributeValue   │
       │realpath() │ Thread safety │ MT-Safe │


       4.4BSD, POSIX.1-2001.

       POSIX.1-2001  says  that  the  behavior  if  resolved_path  is  NULL is
       implementation-defined.  POSIX.1-2008 specifies the behavior  described
       in this page.


       In  4.4BSD  and Solaris, the limit on the pathname length is MAXPATHLEN
       (found in <sys/param.h>).  SUSv2 prescribes PATH_MAX and  NAME_MAX,  as
       found in <limits.h> or provided by the pathconf(3) function.  A typical
       source fragment would be

           #ifdef PATH_MAX
             path_max = PATH_MAX;
             path_max = pathconf(path, _PC_PATH_MAX);
             if (path_max <= 0)
               path_max = 4096;

       (But see the BUGS section.)

   GNU extensions
       If the call fails with either EACCES or ENOENT and resolved_path is not
       NULL, then the prefix of path that is not readable or does not exist is
       returned in resolved_path.


       The POSIX.1-2001 standard version of this function is broken by design,
       since  it  is  impossible  to  determine a suitable size for the output
       buffer, resolved_path.  According to  POSIX.1-2001  a  buffer  of  size
       PATH_MAX suffices, but PATH_MAX need not be a defined constant, and may
       have to be obtained using pathconf(3).  And asking pathconf(3) does not
       really  help,  since,  on  the  one hand POSIX warns that the result of
       pathconf(3) may be huge and unsuitable for mallocing memory, and on the
       other  hand  pathconf(3)  may return -1 to signify that PATH_MAX is not
       bounded.   The  resolved_path == NULL  feature,  not  standardized   in
       POSIX.1-2001,  but  standardized  in  POSIX.1-2008,  allows this design
       problem to be avoided.


       realpath(1),   readlink(2),    canonicalize_file_name(3),    getcwd(3),
       pathconf(3), sysconf(3)


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       description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
       latest     version     of     this    page,    can    be    found    at

                                  2015-04-19                       REALPATH(3)