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NAME

       INSERT - create new rows in a table

SYNOPSIS

       [ WITH [ RECURSIVE ] with_query [, ...] ]
       INSERT INTO table_name [ AS alias ] [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ]
           { DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) [, ...] | query }
           [ ON CONFLICT [ conflict_target ] conflict_action ]
           [ RETURNING * | output_expression [ [ AS ] output_name ] [, ...] ]

       where conflict_target can be one of:

           ( { index_column_name | ( index_expression ) } [ COLLATE collation ] [ opclass ] [, ...] ) [ WHERE index_predicate ]
           ON CONSTRAINT constraint_name

       and conflict_action is one of:

           DO NOTHING
           DO UPDATE SET { column_name = { expression | DEFAULT } |
                           ( column_name [, ...] ) = ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) |
                           ( column_name [, ...] ) = ( sub-SELECT )
                         } [, ...]
                     [ WHERE condition ]

DESCRIPTION

       INSERT inserts new rows into a table. One can insert one or more rows specified by value
       expressions, or zero or more rows resulting from a query.

       The target column names can be listed in any order. If no list of column names is given at
       all, the default is all the columns of the table in their declared order; or the first N
       column names, if there are only N columns supplied by the VALUES clause or query. The
       values supplied by the VALUES clause or query are associated with the explicit or implicit
       column list left-to-right.

       Each column not present in the explicit or implicit column list will be filled with a
       default value, either its declared default value or null if there is none.

       If the expression for any column is not of the correct data type, automatic type
       conversion will be attempted.

       ON CONFLICT can be used to specify an alternative action to raising a unique constraint or
       exclusion constraint violation error. (See ON CONFLICT Clause below.)

       The optional RETURNING clause causes INSERT to compute and return value(s) based on each
       row actually inserted (or updated, if an ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE clause was used). This is
       primarily useful for obtaining values that were supplied by defaults, such as a serial
       sequence number. However, any expression using the table's columns is allowed. The syntax
       of the RETURNING list is identical to that of the output list of SELECT. Only rows that
       were successfully inserted or updated will be returned. For example, if a row was locked
       but not updated because an ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE ... WHERE clause condition was not
       satisfied, the row will not be returned.

       You must have INSERT privilege on a table in order to insert into it. If ON CONFLICT DO
       UPDATE is present, UPDATE privilege on the table is also required.

       If a column list is specified, you only need INSERT privilege on the listed columns.
       Similarly, when ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE is specified, you only need UPDATE privilege on the
       column(s) that are listed to be updated. However, ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE also requires
       SELECT privilege on any column whose values are read in the ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE
       expressions or condition.

       Use of the RETURNING clause requires SELECT privilege on all columns mentioned in
       RETURNING. If you use the query clause to insert rows from a query, you of course need to
       have SELECT privilege on any table or column used in the query.

PARAMETERS

   Inserting
       This section covers parameters that may be used when only inserting new rows. Parameters
       exclusively used with the ON CONFLICT clause are described separately.

       with_query
           The WITH clause allows you to specify one or more subqueries that can be referenced by
           name in the INSERT query. See Section 7.8, “WITH Queries (Common Table Expressions)”,
           in the documentation and SELECT(7) for details.

           It is possible for the query (SELECT statement) to also contain a WITH clause. In such
           a case both sets of with_query can be referenced within the query, but the second one
           takes precedence since it is more closely nested.

       table_name
           The name (optionally schema-qualified) of an existing table.

       alias
           A substitute name for table_name. When an alias is provided, it completely hides the
           actual name of the table. This is particularly useful when ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE
           targets a table named excluded, since that's also the name of the special table
           representing rows proposed for insertion.

       column_name
           The name of a column in the table named by table_name. The column name can be
           qualified with a subfield name or array subscript, if needed. (Inserting into only
           some fields of a composite column leaves the other fields null.) When referencing a
           column with ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE, do not include the table's name in the
           specification of a target column. For example, INSERT ... ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE tab
           SET table_name.col = 1 is invalid (this follows the general behavior for UPDATE).

       DEFAULT VALUES
           All columns will be filled with their default values.

       expression
           An expression or value to assign to the corresponding column.

       DEFAULT
           The corresponding column will be filled with its default value.

       query
           A query (SELECT statement) that supplies the rows to be inserted. Refer to the
           SELECT(7) statement for a description of the syntax.

       output_expression
           An expression to be computed and returned by the INSERT command after each row is
           inserted or updated. The expression can use any column names of the table named by
           table_name. Write * to return all columns of the inserted or updated row(s).

       output_name
           A name to use for a returned column.

   ON CONFLICT Clause
       The optional ON CONFLICT clause specifies an alternative action to raising a unique
       violation or exclusion constraint violation error. For each individual row proposed for
       insertion, either the insertion proceeds, or, if an arbiter constraint or index specified
       by conflict_target is violated, the alternative conflict_action is taken.  ON CONFLICT DO
       NOTHING simply avoids inserting a row as its alternative action.  ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE
       updates the existing row that conflicts with the row proposed for insertion as its
       alternative action.

       conflict_target can perform unique index inference. When performing inference, it consists
       of one or more index_column_name columns and/or index_expression expressions, and an
       optional
        index_predicate. All table_name unique indexes that, without regard to order, contain
       exactly the conflict_target-specified columns/expressions are inferred (chosen) as arbiter
       indexes. If an index_predicate is specified, it must, as a further requirement for
       inference, satisfy arbiter indexes. Note that this means a non-partial unique index (a
       unique index without a predicate) will be inferred (and thus used by ON CONFLICT) if such
       an index satisfying every other criteria is available. If an attempt at inference is
       unsuccessful, an error is raised.

       ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE guarantees an atomic INSERT or UPDATE outcome; provided there is no
       independent error, one of those two outcomes is guaranteed, even under high concurrency.
       This is also known as UPSERT — “UPDATE or INSERT”.

       conflict_target
           Specifies which conflicts ON CONFLICT takes the alternative action on by choosing
           arbiter indexes. Either performs unique index inference, or names a constraint
           explicitly. For ON CONFLICT DO NOTHING, it is optional to specify a conflict_target;
           when omitted, conflicts with all usable constraints (and unique indexes) are handled.
           For ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE, a conflict_target must be provided.

       conflict_action
           conflict_action specifies an alternative ON CONFLICT action. It can be either DO
           NOTHING, or a DO UPDATE clause specifying the exact details of the UPDATE action to be
           performed in case of a conflict. The SET and WHERE clauses in ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE
           have access to the existing row using the table's name (or an alias), and to rows
           proposed for insertion using the special excluded table.  SELECT privilege is required
           on any column in the target table where corresponding excluded columns are read.

           Note that the effects of all per-row BEFORE INSERT triggers are reflected in excluded
           values, since those effects may have contributed to the row being excluded from
           insertion.

       index_column_name
           The name of a table_name column. Used to infer arbiter indexes. Follows CREATE INDEX
           format.  SELECT privilege on index_column_name is required.

       index_expression
           Similar to index_column_name, but used to infer expressions on table_name columns
           appearing within index definitions (not simple columns). Follows CREATE INDEX format.
           SELECT privilege on any column appearing within index_expression is required.

       collation
           When specified, mandates that corresponding index_column_name or index_expression use
           a particular collation in order to be matched during inference. Typically this is
           omitted, as collations usually do not affect whether or not a constraint violation
           occurs. Follows CREATE INDEX format.

       opclass
           When specified, mandates that corresponding index_column_name or index_expression use
           particular operator class in order to be matched during inference. Typically this is
           omitted, as the equality semantics are often equivalent across a type's operator
           classes anyway, or because it's sufficient to trust that the defined unique indexes
           have the pertinent definition of equality. Follows CREATE INDEX format.

       index_predicate
           Used to allow inference of partial unique indexes. Any indexes that satisfy the
           predicate (which need not actually be partial indexes) can be inferred. Follows CREATE
           INDEX format.  SELECT privilege on any column appearing within index_predicate is
           required.

       constraint_name
           Explicitly specifies an arbiter constraint by name, rather than inferring a constraint
           or index.

       condition
           An expression that returns a value of type boolean. Only rows for which this
           expression returns true will be updated, although all rows will be locked when the ON
           CONFLICT DO UPDATE action is taken. Note that condition is evaluated last, after a
           conflict has been identified as a candidate to update.

       Note that exclusion constraints are not supported as arbiters with ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE.
       In all cases, only NOT DEFERRABLE constraints and unique indexes are supported as
       arbiters.

       INSERT with an ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE clause is a “deterministic” statement. This means
       that the command will not be allowed to affect any single existing row more than once; a
       cardinality violation error will be raised when this situation arises. Rows proposed for
       insertion should not duplicate each other in terms of attributes constrained by an arbiter
       index or constraint.

           Tip
           It is often preferable to use unique index inference rather than naming a constraint
           directly using ON CONFLICT ON CONSTRAINT
            constraint_name. Inference will continue to work correctly when the underlying index
           is replaced by another more or less equivalent index in an overlapping way, for
           example when using CREATE UNIQUE INDEX ... CONCURRENTLY before dropping the index
           being replaced.

OUTPUTS

       On successful completion, an INSERT command returns a command tag of the form

           INSERT oid count

       The count is the number of rows inserted or updated. If count is exactly one, and the
       target table has OIDs, then oid is the OID assigned to the inserted row. The single row
       must have been inserted rather than updated. Otherwise oid is zero.

       If the INSERT command contains a RETURNING clause, the result will be similar to that of a
       SELECT statement containing the columns and values defined in the RETURNING list, computed
       over the row(s) inserted or updated by the command.

EXAMPLES

       Insert a single row into table films:

           INSERT INTO films VALUES
               ('UA502', 'Bananas', 105, '1971-07-13', 'Comedy', '82 minutes');

       In this example, the len column is omitted and therefore it will have the default value:

           INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind)
               VALUES ('T_601', 'Yojimbo', 106, '1961-06-16', 'Drama');

       This example uses the DEFAULT clause for the date columns rather than specifying a value:

           INSERT INTO films VALUES
               ('UA502', 'Bananas', 105, DEFAULT, 'Comedy', '82 minutes');
           INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind)
               VALUES ('T_601', 'Yojimbo', 106, DEFAULT, 'Drama');

       To insert a row consisting entirely of default values:

           INSERT INTO films DEFAULT VALUES;

       To insert multiple rows using the multirow VALUES syntax:

           INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind) VALUES
               ('B6717', 'Tampopo', 110, '1985-02-10', 'Comedy'),
               ('HG120', 'The Dinner Game', 140, DEFAULT, 'Comedy');

       This example inserts some rows into table films from a table tmp_films with the same
       column layout as films:

           INSERT INTO films SELECT * FROM tmp_films WHERE date_prod < '2004-05-07';

       This example inserts into array columns:

           -- Create an empty 3x3 gameboard for noughts-and-crosses
           INSERT INTO tictactoe (game, board[1:3][1:3])
               VALUES (1, '{{" "," "," "},{" "," "," "},{" "," "," "}}');
           -- The subscripts in the above example aren't really needed
           INSERT INTO tictactoe (game, board)
               VALUES (2, '{{X," "," "},{" ",O," "},{" ",X," "}}');

       Insert a single row into table distributors, returning the sequence number generated by
       the DEFAULT clause:

           INSERT INTO distributors (did, dname) VALUES (DEFAULT, 'XYZ Widgets')
              RETURNING did;

       Increment the sales count of the salesperson who manages the account for Acme Corporation,
       and record the whole updated row along with current time in a log table:

           WITH upd AS (
             UPDATE employees SET sales_count = sales_count + 1 WHERE id =
               (SELECT sales_person FROM accounts WHERE name = 'Acme Corporation')
               RETURNING *
           )
           INSERT INTO employees_log SELECT *, current_timestamp FROM upd;

       Insert or update new distributors as appropriate. Assumes a unique index has been defined
       that constrains values appearing in the did column. Note that the special excluded table
       is used to reference values originally proposed for insertion:

           INSERT INTO distributors (did, dname)
               VALUES (5, 'Gizmo Transglobal'), (6, 'Associated Computing, Inc')
               ON CONFLICT (did) DO UPDATE SET dname = EXCLUDED.dname;

       Insert a distributor, or do nothing for rows proposed for insertion when an existing,
       excluded row (a row with a matching constrained column or columns after before row insert
       triggers fire) exists. Example assumes a unique index has been defined that constrains
       values appearing in the did column:

           INSERT INTO distributors (did, dname) VALUES (7, 'Redline GmbH')
               ON CONFLICT (did) DO NOTHING;

       Insert or update new distributors as appropriate. Example assumes a unique index has been
       defined that constrains values appearing in the did column.  WHERE clause is used to limit
       the rows actually updated (any existing row not updated will still be locked, though):

           -- Don't update existing distributors based in a certain ZIP code
           INSERT INTO distributors AS d (did, dname) VALUES (8, 'Anvil Distribution')
               ON CONFLICT (did) DO UPDATE
               SET dname = EXCLUDED.dname || ' (formerly ' || d.dname || ')'
               WHERE d.zipcode <> '21201';

           -- Name a constraint directly in the statement (uses associated
           -- index to arbitrate taking the DO NOTHING action)
           INSERT INTO distributors (did, dname) VALUES (9, 'Antwerp Design')
               ON CONFLICT ON CONSTRAINT distributors_pkey DO NOTHING;

       Insert new distributor if possible; otherwise DO NOTHING. Example assumes a unique index
       has been defined that constrains values appearing in the did column on a subset of rows
       where the is_active Boolean column evaluates to true:

           -- This statement could infer a partial unique index on "did"
           -- with a predicate of "WHERE is_active", but it could also
           -- just use a regular unique constraint on "did"
           INSERT INTO distributors (did, dname) VALUES (10, 'Conrad International')
               ON CONFLICT (did) WHERE is_active DO NOTHING;

COMPATIBILITY

       INSERT conforms to the SQL standard, except that the RETURNING clause is a PostgreSQL
       extension, as is the ability to use WITH with INSERT, and the ability to specify an
       alternative action with ON CONFLICT. Also, the case in which a column name list is
       omitted, but not all the columns are filled from the VALUES clause or query, is disallowed
       by the standard.

       Possible limitations of the query clause are documented under SELECT(7).