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       Funfilters - Filtering Rows in a Table


       This document contains a summary of the user interface for filtering rows in binary


       Table filtering allows a program to select rows from an table (e.g., X-ray event list) by
       checking each row against one or more expressions involving the columns in the table. When
       a table is filtered, only valid rows satisfying these expressions are passed through for

       A filter expression is specified using bracket notation appended to the filename of the
       data being processed:


       It is also possible to put region specification inside a file and then pass the filename
       in bracket notation:


       Filters must be placed after the extension and image section information, when such
       information is present. The correct order is:

       ·   file[fileinfo,sectioninfo][filters]

       ·   file[fileinfo,sectioninfo,filters]


       ·   file is the Funtools file name

       ·   fileinfo is an ARRAY, EVENT, FITS extension, or FITS index

       ·   sectioninfo is the image section to extract

       ·   filters are spatial region and table (row) filters to apply

       See Funtools Files for more information on file and image section specifications.

       Filter Expressions

       Table filtering can be performed on columns of data in a FITS binary table or a raw event
       file.  Table filtering is accomplished by means of table filter specifications.  An table
       filter specification consists of one or more filter expressions Filter specifications also
       can contain comments and local/global processing directives.

       More specifically, a filter specification consist of one or more lines containing:

         # comment until end of line
         # include the following file in the table descriptor
         # each row expression can contain filters separated by operators
         [filter_expression] BOOLOP [filter_expression2], ...
         # each row expression can contain filters separated by the comma operator
         [filter_expression1], [filter_expression2], ...
         # the special row# keyword allows a range of rows to be processed
         # or a single row
         # regions are supported -- but are described elsewhere

       A single filter expression consists of an arithmetic, logical, or other operations
       involving one or more column values from a table. Columns can be compared to other
       columns, to header values, or to numeric constants. Standard math functions can be applied
       to columns. Separate filter expressions can be combined using boolean operators.  Standard
       C semantics can be used when constructing expressions, with the usual precedence and
       associativity rules holding sway:

         Operator                                Associativity
         --------                                -------------
         ()                                      left to right
         !! (logical not)                        right to left
         !  (bitwise not) - (unary minus)        right to left
         *  /                                    left to right
         +  -                                    left to right
         < <= > >=                               left to right
         == !=                                   left to right
         &  (bitwise and)                        left to right
         ^  (bitwise exclusive or)               left to right
         ⎪  (bitwise inclusive or)               left to right
         && (logical and)                        left to right
         ⎪⎪ (logical or)                         left to right
         =                                       right to left

       For example, if energy and pha are columns in a table, then the following are valid

         energy == pha
         (pha>1) && (energy<=2)

       Comparison values can be integers or floats. Integer comparison values can be specified in
       decimal, octal (using '0' as prefix), hex (using '0x' as prefix) or binary (using '0b' as
       prefix). Thus, the following all specify the same comparison test of a status mask:

         (status & 15) == 8           # decimal
         (status & 017) == 010        # octal
         (status & 0xf) == 0x8        # hex
         (status & 0b1111) == 0b1000  # binary

       The special keyword row# allows you to process a range of rows.  When row# is specified,
       the filter code skips to the designated row  and only processes the specified number of
       rows. The "*" character can be utilized as the high limit value to denote processing of
       the remaining rows. Thus:


       processes 10 rows, starting with row 100 (counting from 1), while:


       specifies that all but the first 99 rows are to be processed.

       Spatial region filtering allows a program to select regions of an image or rows of a table
       (e.g., X-ray events) using simple geometric shapes and boolean combinations of shapes.
       For a complete description of regions, see Spatial Region Filtering.

       Separators Also Are Operators

       As mentioned previously, multiple filter expressions can be specified in a filter
       descriptor, separated by commas or new-lines.  When such a comma or new-line separator is
       used, the boolean AND operator is automatically generated in its place. Thus and
       expression such as:


       is equivalent to:

         (pha==1) && (pi>=2&&pi<=4)

       [Note that the behavior of separators is different for filter expressions and spatial
       region expressions.  The former uses AND as the operator, while the latter user OR. See
       Combining Region and Table Filters for more information about these conventions and how
       they are treated when combined.]

       Range Lists

       Aside from the standard C syntax, filter expressions can make use of IRAF-style range
       lists which specify a range of values. The syntax requires that the column name be
       followed by an '=' sign, which is followed by one or more comma-delimited range
       expressions of the form:

         col = vv              # col == vv in range
         col = :vv             # col <= vv in range
         col = vv:             # col >= vv in range
         col = vv1:vv2         # vv1 <= col <= vv2 in range

       The vv's above must be numeric constants; the right hand side of a range list cannot
       contain a column name or header value.

       Note that, unlike an ordinary comma separator, the comma separator used between two or
       more range expressions denotes OR.  Thus, when two or more range expressions are combined
       with a comma separator, the resulting expression is a shortcut for more complicated
       boolean logic. For example:

         col = :3,6:8,10:

       is equivalent to:

         (col=6 && col =10)

       Note also that the single-valued rangelist:

         col = val

       is equivalent to the C-based filter expression:

         col == val

       assuming, of course, that val is a numeric constant.

       Math Operations and Functions

       It is permissible to specify C math functions as part of the filter syntax.  When the
       filter parser recognizes a function call, it automatically includes the math.h and links
       in the C math library.  Thus, it is possible to filter rows by expressions such as these:

       ·   (pi+pha)>(2+log(pi)-pha)

       ·   min(pi,pha)*14>x

       ·   max(pi,pha)==(pi+1)

       ·   feq(pi,pha)

       ·   div(pi,pha)>0

       The function feq(a,b) returns true (1) if the difference between a and b (taken as double
       precision values) is less than approximately 10E-15.  The function div(a,b) divides a by
       b, but returns NaN (not a number) if b is 0. It is a safe way to avoid floating point
       errors when dividing one column by another.

       Include Files

       The special @filename directive specifies an include file containing filter expressions.
       This file is processed as part of the overall filter descriptor:


       Header Parameters

       The filter syntax supports comparison between a column value and a header parameter value
       of a FITS binary tables (raw event files have no such header).  The header parameters can
       be taken from the binary table header or the primary header.  For example, assuming there
       is a header value MEAN_PHA in one of these headers, you can select photons having exactly
       this value using:

       ·   pha==MEAN_PHA

       Table filtering is more easily described by means of examples.  Consider data containing
       the following table structure:

       ·   double TIME

       ·   int X

       ·   int Y

       ·   short PI

       ·   short PHA

       ·   int DX

       ·   int DY

       Tables can be filtered on these columns using IRAF/QPOE range syntax or any valid C
       syntax.  The following examples illustrate the possibilities:

       ·   pha=10

       ·   pha==10

           select rows whose pha value is exactly 10

       ·   pha=10:50

           select rows whose pha value is in the range of 10 to 50

       ·   pha=10:50,100

           select rows whose pha value is in the range of 10 to 50 or is equal to 100

       ·   pha>=10 && pha<=50

           select rows whose pha value is in the range of 10 to 50

       ·   pi=1,2&&pha>3

           select rows whose pha value is 1 or 2 and whose pi value is 3

       ·   pi=1,2 ⎪⎪ pha>3

           select rows whose pha value is 1 or 2 or whose pi value is 3

       ·   pha==pi+1

           select rows whose pha value is 1 less than the pi value

       ·   (pha==pi+1) && (time>50000.0)

           select rows whose pha value is 1 less than the pi value and whose time value is
           greater than 50000

       ·   (pi+pha)>20

           select rows in which the sum of the pi and pha values is greater than 20

       ·   pi%2==1

           select rows in which the pi value is odd

       Currently, integer range list limits cannot be specified in binary notation (use decimal,
       hex, or octal instead). Please contact us if this is a problem.


       See funtools(7) for a list of Funtools help pages