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       gfdl - GNU Free Documentation License


       GNU Free Documentation License

       Version 1.2, November 2002

               Copyright (c) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
               59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA

               Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
               of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

       0.  PREAMBLE

           The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and
           useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom
           to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or
           noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a
           way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
           modifications made by others.

           This License is a kind of ``copyleft'', which means that derivative works of the
           document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It complements the GNU General
           Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

           We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software,
           because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with
           manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.  But this License is not
           limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of
           subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this
           License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


           This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a
           notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of
           this License.  Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in
           duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The ``Document'',
           below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a licensee, and
           is addressed as ``you''.  You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the
           work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

           A ``Modified Version'' of the Document means any work containing the Document or a
           portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into
           another language.

           A ``Secondary Section'' is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document
           that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the
           Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains
           nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
           is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
           mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the
           subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or
           political position regarding them.

           The ``Invariant Sections'' are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated,
           as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is
           released under this License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
           Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may
           contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify any Invariant
           Sections then there are none.

           The ``Cover Texts'' are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover
           Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under
           this License.  A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be
           at most 25 words.

           A ``Transparent'' copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a
           format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for
           revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
           composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
           drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic
           translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy
           made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has
           been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not
           Transparent.  An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of
           text.  A copy that is not ``Transparent'' is called ``Opaque''.

           Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without
           markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, @acronym{SGML} or @acronym{XML}
           using a publicly available @acronym{DTD}, and standard-conforming simple
           @acronym{HTML}, PostScript or @acronym{PDF} designed for human modification.  Examples
           of transparent image formats include @acronym{PNG}, @acronym{XCF} and @acronym{JPG}.
           Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
           proprietary word processors, @acronym{SGML} or @acronym{XML} for which the
           @acronym{DTD} and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-
           generated @acronym{HTML}, PostScript or @acronym{PDF} produced by some word processors
           for output purposes only.

           The ``Title Page'' means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
           following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to
           appear in the title page.  For works in formats which do not have any title page as
           such, ``Title Page'' means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's
           title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

           A section ``Entitled XYZ'' means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is
           precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in
           another language.  (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such
           as ``Acknowledgements'', ``Dedications'', ``Endorsements'', or ``History''.)  To
           ``Preserve the Title'' of such a section when you modify the Document means that it
           remains a section ``Entitled XYZ'' according to this definition.

           The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that
           this License applies to the Document.  These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be
           included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any
           other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect
           on the meaning of this License.


           You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or
           noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license
           notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and
           that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
           technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies
           you make or distribute.  However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.
           If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions
           in section 3.

           You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly
           display copies.


           If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers)
           of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires
           Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly,
           all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
           the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the
           publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present the full title with all words
           of the title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material on the covers
           in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the
           title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying
           in other respects.

           If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should
           put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and
           continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

           If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
           you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque
           copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the
           general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network
           protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you
           use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
           distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
           remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last
           time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of
           that edition to the public.

           It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well
           before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you
           with an updated version of the Document.


           You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of
           sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely
           this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
           licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a
           copy of it.  In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

           A.  Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of
               the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were
               any, be listed in the History section of the Document).  You may use the same
               title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives

           B.  List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible
               for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at
               least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors,
               if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.

           C.  State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the

           D.  Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

           E.  Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other
               copyright notices.

           F.  Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the
               public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in
               the form shown in the Addendum below.

           G.  Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required
               Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.

           H.  Include an unaltered copy of this License.

           I.  Preserve the section Entitled ``History'', Preserve its Title, and add to it an
               item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified
               Version as given on the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled ``History''
               in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the
               Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
               Version as stated in the previous sentence.

           J.  Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to
               a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in
               the Document for previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in the
               ``History'' section.  You may omit a network location for a work that was
               published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
               publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

           K.  For any section Entitled ``Acknowledgements'' or ``Dedications'', Preserve the
               Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of
               each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

           L.  Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and
               in their titles.  Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the
               section titles.

           M.  Delete any section Entitled ``Endorsements''.  Such a section may not be included
               in the Modified Version.

           N.  Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ``Endorsements'' or to conflict
               in title with any Invariant Section.

           O.  Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

           If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify
           as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at
           your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add
           their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license
           notice.  These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

           You may add a section Entitled ``Endorsements'', provided it contains nothing but
           endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties---for example, statements of
           peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
           definition of a standard.

           You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up
           to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the
           Modified Version.  Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may
           be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document already
           includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement
           made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you
           may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added
           the old one.

           The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission
           to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified


           You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under
           the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include
           in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
           unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
           license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

           The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical
           Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy.  If there are multiple
           Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each
           such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
           original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.  Make
           the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the
           license notice of the combined work.

           In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled ``History'' in the various
           original documents, forming one section Entitled ``History''; likewise combine any
           sections Entitled ``Acknowledgements'', and any sections Entitled ``Dedications''.
           You must delete all sections Entitled ``Endorsements.''


           You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released
           under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various
           documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you
           follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
           other respects.

           You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
           individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the
           extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim
           copying of that document.


           A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent
           documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called
           an ``aggregate'' if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit
           the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
           When the Document is included an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other
           works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

           If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the
           Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the
           Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the
           aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
           form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

       8.  TRANSLATION

           Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations
           of the Document under the terms of section 4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with
           translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may
           include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original
           versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a translation of this License,
           and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warrany Disclaimers, provided
           that you also include the original English version of this License and the original
           versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a disagreement between the
           translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the
           original version will prevail.

           If a section in the Document is Entitled ``Acknowledgements'', ``Dedications'', or
           ``History'', the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will
           typically require changing the actual title.

       9.  TERMINATION

           You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly
           provided for under this License.  Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or
           distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under
           this License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
           this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in
           full compliance.


           The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free
           Documentation License from time to time.  Such new versions will be similar in spirit
           to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
           See <>.

           Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Document
           specifies that a particular numbered version of this License ``or any later version''
           applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
           that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a
           draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
           number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by
           the Free Software Foundation.

       ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

       To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the
       document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

                 Copyright (C)  <year>  <your name>.
                 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
                 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
                 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
                 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
                 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
                 Free Documentation License''.

       If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the
       ``with...Texts.'' line with this:

                   with the Invariant Sections being <list their titles>, with
                   the Front-Cover Texts being <list>, and with the Back-Cover Texts
                   being <list>.

       If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the
       three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

       If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing
       these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU
       General Public License, to permit their use in free software.


       gpl(7), fsf-funding(7).


       Copyright (c) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA
       02111-1307, USA

       Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but
       changing it is not allowed.