Provided by: rcs-blame_1.3.1-4_amd64 bug


       blame - annotate RCS files


       blame [options] file ...


       blame  outputs  an annotated revision from each RCS file.  An annotated RCS file describes
       the revision and date in which each line was added to the file, and  the  author  of  each

       Pathnames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files; all others denote working files.  Names
       are paired as explained in ci(1).

       A revision is selected by options  for  revision  or  branch  number,  checkin  date/time,
       author,  or state.  When the selection options are applied in combination, blame retrieves
       the latest revision that satisfies all of them.  If  none  of  the  selection  options  is
       specified,  blame retrieves the latest revision on the default branch (normally the trunk,
       see the -b option of rcs(1)).  The options -d (--date), -s (--state),  and  -w  (--author)
       retrieve from a single branch, the selected branch, which is specified by -r (--revision),
       or the default branch.

       blame always performs keyword substitution (see KEYWORD SUBSTITUTION in co(1)).


       -r, --revision[=rev]
              Retrieves the latest revision whose number is less than or equal to  rev.   If  rev
              indicates  a  branch  rather than a revision, the latest revision on that branch is
              retrieved.  If rev is omitted, the latest revision on the default branch  (see  the
              -b  option  of  rcs(1))  is  annotated.  If rev is $, blame determines the revision
              number from keyword values in the working file.  Otherwise, a revision is  composed
              of one or more numeric or symbolic fields separated by periods.  If rev begins with
              a period, then the default branch (normally the trunk) is prepended to it.  If  rev
              is a branch number followed by a period, then the latest revision on that branch is
              used.  The numeric equivalent of a symbolic field is specified with the  -n  option
              of the commands ci(1) and rcs(1).

       -kkv, --expand=kv
              Generate  keyword  strings  using  the  default form, e.g. $Revision: 1.3 $ for the
              Revision keyword.  This is the default.

       -kkvl, --expand=kvl
              Like -kkv, except that a locker's name is inserted into the value  of  the  Header,
              Id, and Locker keyword strings if the given revision is currently locked.

       -kk, --expand=k
              Generate  only  keyword  names  in keyword strings; omit their values.  See KEYWORD
              SUBSTITUTION in co(1).  For example, for the Revision keyword, generate the  string
              $Revision$  instead  of  $Revision:  1.3  $.  Log messages are inserted after $Log$
              keywords even if this option is specified.

       -ko, --expand=o
              Generate the old keyword string, present in the working file  just  before  it  was
              checked  in.  For example, for the Revision keyword, generate the string $Revision:
              1.1 $ instead of $Revision: 1.3 $ if that is how the string appeared when the  file
              was checked in.

       -kb, --expand=b
              Generate  a  binary image of the old keyword string.  This acts like -ko, except it
              performs all working file input and output  in  binary  mode.   This  makes  little
              difference on Posix and Unix hosts.

       -kv, --expand=v
              Generate  only  keyword  values for keyword strings.  For example, for the Revision
              keyword, generate the string 1.3 instead of $Revision: 1.3 $.

       -d, --date=date
              Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch  whose  checkin  date/time  is
              less  than  or  equal to date.  The date and time can be given in free format.  The
              time zone LT stands for local time; other common time zone  names  are  understood.
              For  example, the following dates are equivalent if local time is January 11, 1990,
              8pm Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC):

                     8:00 pm lt
                     4:00 AM, Jan. 12, 1990           default is UTC
                     1990-01-12 04:00:00+00           ISO 8601 (UTC)
                     1990-01-11 20:00:00-08           ISO 8601 (local time)
                     1990/01/12 04:00:00              traditional RCS format
                     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 1990 LT      output of ctime(3) + LT
                     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 PST 1990     output of date(1)
                     Fri Jan 12 04:00:00 GMT 1990
                     Thu, 11 Jan 1990 20:00:00 -0800  Internet RFC 822
                     12-January-1990, 04:00 WET

              Most fields in the date and time can  be  defaulted.   The  default  time  zone  is
              normally  UTC, but this can be overridden by the -z option.  The other defaults are
              determined in the order year, month, day, hour, minute, and second (most  to  least
              significant).   At  least one of these fields must be provided.  For omitted fields
              that are of higher significance than the highest provided field,  the  time  zone's
              current  values  are  assumed.   For  all other omitted fields, the lowest possible
              values are assumed.  For example, without  -z,  the  date  20,  10:30  defaults  to
              10:30:00  UTC  of  the  20th  of  the  UTC time zone's current month and year.  The
              date/time must be quoted if it contains spaces.

       -s, --state=state
              Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch whose state is set to state.

       -w, --login[=login]
              Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch which was checked  in  by  the
              user  with  login name login.  If the argument login is omitted, the caller's login
              is assumed.

       -V, --version[=ver]
              If no argument is supplied, print blame's version number, and the version of RCS it
              emulates  by  default.  Otherwise  emulate  the  specified  version.  See co(1) for

       -x, --suffixes=suffixes
              Use suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for details.

       -z, --zone=zone
              Specifies the date output format in keyword substitution, and specifies the default
              time  zone  for date in the -ddate option.  The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC
              offset, or the special string LT for local time.  The default  is  an  empty  zone,
              which  uses  the traditional RCS format of UTC without any time zone indication and
              with slashes separating the parts of the date; otherwise, times are output  in  ISO
              8601  format  with time zone indication.  For example, if local time is January 11,
              1990, 8pm Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time  is  output
              as follows:

                     option    time output
                     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00        (default)
                     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
                     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30


       Strings  of  the  form  $keyword$ and $keyword:...$ embedded in the text are replaced with
       strings of the form $keyword:value$ as described in co(1).


       blame never changes an RCS or working file.  It uses the effective user for all  accesses,
       and it does not even read the working file unless a revision number of $ is specified.


              Options  prepended  to  the  argument  list,  separated  by  spaces.  See ci(1) for


       The working pathname and a separator line is written to the diagnostic output.   The  exit
       status is zero if and only if all operations were successful.


       One day, there will be a whole bunch of useful examples here.


       rcsintro(1), ci(1), co(1), ctime(3), date(1), rcs(1), rcsfile(5)


       Michael Chapman <>

       Portions of this manual page are from ci(1) and co(1) by Walter F. Tichy and Paul Eggert.


       blame is copyright © 2004, 2005 Michael Chapman.

       blame is released under the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public License version
       2.  Please read the COPYING file carefully.

                                            2005/06/30                                   BLAME(1)