Provided by: libnet-telnet-cisco-perl_1.10-5.1_all bug


       Net::Telnet::Cisco - interact with a Cisco router


         use Net::Telnet::Cisco;

         my $session = Net::Telnet::Cisco->new(Host => '');
         $session->login('login', 'password');

         # Execute a command
         my @output = $session->cmd('show version');
         print @output;

         # Enable mode
         if ($session->enable("enable_password") ) {
             @output = $session->cmd('show privilege');
             print "My privileges: @output\n";
         } else {
             warn "Can't enable: " . $session->errmsg;



       Net::Telnet::Cisco provides additional functionality to Net::Telnet for dealing with Cisco

       cmd() parses router-generated error messages - the kind that begin with a '%' - and stows
       them in $obj->errmsg(), so that errmode can be used to perform automatic error-handling


       Before you use Net::Telnet::Cisco, you should have a good understanding of Net::Telnet, so
       read it's documentation first, and then come back here to see the improvements.

       Some things are easier to accomplish with UCD's C-based SNMP module, or the all-perl
       Net::SNMP. SNMP has three advantages: it's faster, handles errors better, and doesn't use
       any VTYs on the router. SNMP does have some limitations, so for anything you can't
       accomplish with SNMP, there's Net::Telnet::Cisco.


       new - create new Net::Telnet::Cisco object
               $session = Net::Telnet::Cisco->new(
                   [Autopage                 => $boolean,] # 1
                   [More_prompt              => $matchop,] # '/(?m:^[\s\0]*--More--)/',
                   [Always_waitfor_prompt    => $boolean,] # 1
                   [Waitfor_pause            => $milliseconds,] # 0.1
                   [Normalize_cmd            => $boolean,] # 1
                   [Send_wakeup              => $when,] # 0
                   [Ignore_warnings          => $boolean,] # 0
                   [Warnings                 => $matchop,] # see docs
                   [Errors                   => $matchop,] # see docs

                   # Net::Telnet arguments
                   [Binmode                => $mode,]
                   [Cmd_remove_mode                => $mode,]
                   [Dump_Log               => $filename,]
                   [Errmode                => $errmode,]
                   [Fhopen                 => $filehandle,]
                   [Host                   => $host,]
                   [Input_log              = => $file,]
                   [Input_record_separator => $chars,]
                   [Option_log             => $file,]
                   [Ors                    = => $chars,]
                   [Output_log             => $file,]
                   [Output_record_separator        => $chars,]
                   [Port                   => $port,]
                   [Prompt                 = => $matchop,] # see docs
                   [Rs                     => $chars,]
                   [Telnetmode             => $mode,]
                   [Timeout                => $secs,]);

           Creates a new object. Read `perldoc perlboot` if you don't understand that.

       login - login to a router
               $ok = $obj->login($username, $password);

               $ok = $obj->login([Name     => $username,]
                                 [Password => $password,]
                                 [Passcode => $passcode,] # for Secur-ID/XTACACS
                                 [Prompt   => $match,]
                                 [Timeout  => $secs,]);

           All arguments are optional as of v1.05. Some routers don't ask for a username, they
           start the login conversation with a password request.

       cmd - send a command
               $ok = $obj->cmd($string);
               $ok = $obj->cmd(String   => $string,
                               [Output  => $ref,]
                               [Cmd_remove_mode => $mode,]
                               [Errmode => $mode,]
                               [Input_record_separator => $chars,]
                               [Ors     => $chars,]
                               [Output_record_separator => $chars,]
                               [Prompt  => $match,]
                               [Rs      => $chars,]
                               [Timeout => $secs,]);

               @output = $obj->cmd($string);
               @output = $obj->cmd(String   => $string,
                                   [Output  => $ref,]
                                   [Cmd_remove_mode => $mode,]
                                   [Errmode => $mode,]
                                   [Input_record_separator => $chars,]
                                   [Ors     => $chars,]
                                   [Output_record_separator => $chars,]
                                   [Prompt  => $match,]
                                   [Rs      => $chars,]
                                   [Timeout => $secs,]);

           Normalize_cmd has been added to the default Net::Telnet args. It lets you temporarily
           change whether backspace, delete, and kill characters are parsed in the command
           output. (This is performed by default)

       prompt - return control to the program whenever this string occurs in router output
               $matchop = $obj->prompt;

               $prev = $obj->prompt($matchop);

           The default cmd_prompt changed in v1.05. It's suitable for matching prompts like
           "router$ ", "router# ", "router> (enable) ", and "router(config-if)# "

           Let's take a closer look, shall we?

             (?m:                  # Net::Telnet doesn't accept quoted regexen (i.e. qr//)
                                   # so we need to use an embedded pattern-match modifier
                                   # to treat the input as a multiline buffer.

               ^                   # beginning of line

                 \r?               # optional linefeed

                 [\w.-]+           # router hostname

                 \s?               # optional space

                 (?:               # Strings like "(config)" and "(config-if)", "(config-line)",
                                   # and "(config-router)" indicate that we're in privileged
                   \(config[^\)]*\) # EXEC mode (i.e. we're enabled).
                 )?                # The middle backslash is only there to appear my syntax
                                   # highlighter.

                 \s?               # more optional space

                 [\$#>]            # Prompts typically end with "$", "#", or ">". Backslash
                                   # for syntax-highlighter.

                 \s?               # more space padding

                 (?:               # Catalyst switches print "(enable)" when in privileged
                   \(enable\)      # EXEC mode.

                 \s*               # spaces before the end-of-line aren't important to us.

               $                   # end of line

             )                     # end of (?m:

           The default prompt published in 1.03 was
           "/^\s*[\w().-]*[\$#>]\s?(?:\(enable\))?\s*$/". As you can see, the prompt was
           drastically overhauled in 1.05. If your code suddenly starts timing out after
           upgrading Net::Telnet::Cisco, this is the first thing to investigate.

       enable - enter enabled mode
               $ok = $obj->enable;

               $ok = $obj->enable($password);

               $ok = $obj->enable(
                   [Name           => $name,]
                   [Password       => $password,]
                   [Passcode       => $passcode,]
                   [Level          => $level,]

           This method changes privilege level to enabled mode, (i.e. root)

           If a single argument is provided by the caller, it will be used as a password. For
           more control, including the ability to set the privilege-level, you must use the
           named-argument scheme.

           enable() returns 1 on success and undef on failure.

       is_enabled - Am I root?
               $bool = $obj->is_enabled;

           A trivial check to see whether we have a root-style prompt, with either the word
           "(enable)" in it, or a trailing "#".

           Warning: this method will return false positives if your prompt has "#"s in it. You
           may be better off calling "$obj->cmd("show privilege")" instead.

       disable - leave enabled mode
               $ok = $obj->disable;

           This method exits the router's privileged mode.

       ios_break - send a break (control-^)
               $ok = $obj->ios_break( [ additional strings to print, ... ]  );

           You may have to use errmode(), fork, or threads to break at the an appropriate time.

       last_prompt - displays the last prompt matched by prompt()
               $match = $obj->last_prompt;

           last_prompt() will return '' if the program has not yet matched a prompt.

       always_waitfor_prompt - waitfor and cmd prompt behaviour
               $boolean = $obj->always_waitfor_prompt;

               $boolean = $obj->always_waitfor_prompt($boolean);

           Default value: 1

           If you pass a Prompt argument to cmd() or waitfor() a String or Match, they will
           return control on a successful match of your argument(s) or the default prompt. Set
           always_waitfor_prompt to 0 to return control only for your arguments.

           This method has no effect on login(). login() will always wait for a prompt.

       waitfor_pause - insert a small delay before waitfor()
               $boolean = $obj->waitfor_pause;

               $boolean = $obj->waitfor_pause($milliseconds);

           Default value: 0.1

           In rare circumstances, the last_prompt is set incorrectly. By adding a very small
           delay before calling the parent class's waitfor(), this bug is eliminated. If you ever
           find reason to modify this from it's default setting, please let me know.

       autopage - Turn autopaging on and off
               $boolean = $obj->autopage;

               $boolean = $obj->autopage($boolean);

           Default value: 1

           IOS pages output by default. It expects human eyes to be reading the output, not
           programs. Humans hit the spacebar to scroll page by page so autopage() mimicks that
           behaviour. This is the slow way to handle paging. See the Paging EXAMPLE for a faster

       normalize_cmd - Turn normalization on and off
               $boolean = $obj->normalize_cmd;

               $boolean = $obj->normalize_cmd($boolean);

           Default value: 1

           IOS clears '--More--' prompts with backspaces (e.g. ^H). If you're excited by the
           thought of having raw control characters like ^H (backspace), ^? (delete), and ^U
           (kill) in your command output, turn this feature off.

           Logging is unaffected by this setting.

       more_prompt - Matchop used by autopage()
               $matchop = $obj->prompt;

               $prev = $obj->prompt($matchop);

           Default value:  '/(?m:^(?:[\s\0]*--More--)/',

           Please email me if you find others.

       send_wakeup - send a newline to the router at login time
               $when = $obj->send_wakeup;

               $when = $obj->send_wakeup( 'connect' );
               $when = $obj->send_wakeup( 'timeout' );
               $when = $obj->send_wakeup( 0 );

           Default value: 0

           Some routers quietly allow you to connect but don't display the expected login
           prompts. Sends a newline in the hopes that this spurs the routers to print something.

           'connect' sends a newline immediately upon connection.  'timeout' sends a newline if
           the connection timeouts.  0 turns this feature off.

           I understand this works with Livingston Portmasters.

       ignore_warnings - Don't call error() for warnings
               $boolean = $obj->ignore_warnings;

               $boolean = $obj->ignore_warnings($boolean);

           Default value: 0

           Not all strings that begin with a '%' are really errors. Some are just warnings. By
           setting this, you are ignoring them. This will show up in the logs, but that's it.

       warnings - Matchop used by ignore_warnings().
               $boolean = $obj->warnings;

               $boolean = $obj->warnings($matchop);

           Default value:

                   '/(?mx:^%\s?Unknown\ VPN
                    |^%\s?IP\ routing\ table\ VRF.*\ does\ not\ exist\.\ Create\ first$
                    |^%\s?No\ CEF\ interface\ information
                    |^%\s?No\ matching\ route\ to\ delete$
                    |^%\s?Not\ all\ config\ may\ be\ removed\ and\ may\ reappear\ after\ reactivating

           Not all strings that begin with a '%' are really errors. Some are just warnings. Cisco
           calls these the CIPMIOSWarningExpressions.

       errors - Matchop used to catch special-cased errors.
               $boolean = $obj->errors;

               $boolean = $obj->errors($matchop);

           Default value:

               '/(?mx:^Unknown\ command\ "[^\"]*"\ Use\ \'help\'\ for\ more\ info\.)/',

           Some errors don't begin with a '%'. Trap them here.


       v1.08 added internal autopaging support to cmd(). Whenever a '--Page--' prompt appears on
       the screen, we send a space right back. It works, but it's slow. You'd be better off
       sending one of the following commands just after login():

         # To a router
         $session->cmd('terminal length 0');

         # To a switch
         $session->cmd('set length 0');

       Want to see the session transcript? Just call input_log().

         my $session = Net::Telnet::Cisco->new(Host => $router,
                                               Input_log => "input.log",

       See input_log() in Net::Telnet for info.

       Input logs are easy-to-read translated transcripts with all of the control characters and
       telnet escapes cleaned up. If you want to view the raw session, see dump_log() in
       Net::Telnet. If you're getting tricky and using print() in addition to cmd(), you may also
       want to use output_log().

   Big output
       Trying to dump the entire BGP table? (e.g. "show ip bgp") The default buffer size is 1MB,
       so you'll have to increase it.

         my $MB = 1024 * 1024;
         $session->max_buffer_length(5 * $MB);

   Sending multiple lines at once
       Some commands like "extended ping" and "copy" prompt for several lines of data. It's not
       necessary to change the prompt for each line. Instead, send everything at once, separated
       by newlines.


         router# ping
         Protocol [ip]:
         Target IP address:
         Repeat count [5]: 10
         Datagram size [100]: 1500
         Timeout in seconds [2]:
         Extended commands [n]:
         Sweep range of sizes [n]:

       Try this:

         my $protocol  = ''; # default value
         my $ip       = '';
         my $repeat    = 10;
         my $datagram  = 1500;
         my $timeout   = ''; # default value
         my $extended  = ''; # default value
         my $sweep     = ''; # default value


       If you prefer, you can put the cmd on a single line and replace every static newline with
       the "\n" character.


                     . "$timeout\n$extended\n$sweep\n");

   Backup via TFTP
       Backs up the running-confg to a TFTP server. Backup file is in the form "router-confg".
       Make sure that file exists on the TFTP server or the transfer will fail!

         my $backup_host  = "";
         my $device       = "";
         my $type         = "router"; # or "switch";
         my $ios_version  = 12;

         my @out;
         if ($type eq "router") {
             if ($ios_version >= 12) {
                 @out = $session->cmd("copy system:/running-config "
                               . "tftp://$backup_host/$device-confg\n\n\n");
             } elsif ($ios_version >= 11) {
                 @out = $session->cmd("copy running-config tftp\n$backup_host\n"
                               . "$device-confg\n");
             } elsif ($ios_version >= 10) {
                 @out = $session->cmd("write net\n$backup_host\n$device-confg\n\n");
         } elsif ($type eq "switch") {
             @out = $session->cmd("copy system:/running-config "
                           . "tftp://$backup_host/$device-confg\n\n\n");

   Sending control characters
       Use print() if you expect to get a prompt back.  Use cmd() if you don't.

         $session->print("\c^"); # send control-^
         $session->cmd("\cZ"); # send control-Z

       See also: "ios_break()"


   Mailing lists
       nettelnetcisco-announce is for important security bulletins and upgrades. Very low
       traffic, no spam, HIGHLY RECOMMENDED!

       nettelnetcisco-users is for usage discussion, help, tips, tricks, etc.

       nettelnetcisco-devel is for uber-hackers; you know who you are.

   Help/discussion forums

   Bug tracker




       UCD NetSNMP -

       RAT/NCAT -

AUTHOR $Date: 2002/12/31 00:12:32 $

       It would greatly amuse the author if you would send email to him and tell him how you are
       using Net::Telnet::Cisco.

       As of Mar 2002, over 200 people have emailed me or posted to the Net::Telnet::Cisco site.
       N::T::C is used to help manage over 14,000 machines! Keep the email rolling in!


       The following people understand what Open Source Software is all about. Thanks Brian
       Landers, Aaron Racine, Niels van Dijke, Tony Mueller, Frank Eickholt, Al Sorrell, Jebi
       Punnoose, Christian Alfsen, Niels van Dijke, Kevin der Kinderen, Ian Batterbee, Leonardo
       Cont, Steve Meier, Andre Bonhote, Rob Patrick, FtR, James "mcaizjb3" Brown, and Hiro
       "Paul" Protagonist.

       Paul gets a ++ for code-ninja skills.

       Institutions: #perl,,, the geeks at, and

       Send in a patch and we can make the world a better place.


       Copyright (c) 2000-2002 Joshua Keroes, Electric Lightwave Inc.  All rights reserved. This
       program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as
       Perl itself.