Provided by: libstring-print-perl_0.15-1_all bug


       String::Print - printf alternative


        ### Functional interface
        use String::Print qw/printi printp/, %config;

        # interpolation of arrays and hashes
        printi 'age {years}', years => 12;
        printi 'price-list: {prices%.2f}', prices => \@prices, _join => "+";
        printi 'dump: {hash}', hash => \%config;

        # same with positional parameters
        printp 'age %d", 12;
        printp 'price-list: %.2f', \@prices;
        printp 'dump: %s', \%settings;

        ### Object Oriented interface
        use String::Print 'oo';      # import nothing
        my $f = String::Print->new(%config);

        # same, called directly
        $f->printi('age {years}', years => 12);
        $f->printp('age %d', 12);

        ### via Log::Report's __* functions
        use Log::Report::Optional;
        print __x"age {years}", years => 12;


       This module inserts values into (translated) strings.  It provides "printf" and "sprintf"
       alternatives via both an object oriented and a functional interface.

       Read in the "DETAILS" chapter below, why this module provides a better alternative for
       "printf()".  Also, some extended examples can be found there.  Take a look at them first,
       when you start using this module!


   The Object Oriented interface
       See functions printi(), sprinti(), printp(), and sprintp(): you can also call them as

         use String::Print 'oo';
         my $f = String::Print->new(%config);
         $f->printi($format, @params);

         # exactly the same functionality:
         use String::Print 'printi', %config;
         printi $format, @params;

       The Object Oriented interface wins when you need the same configuration in multiple source
       files, or when you need different configurations within one program.  In these cases, the
       hassle of explicitly using the object has some benefits.

            -Option     --Default
             modifiers    [ qr/^%\S+/ = \&format_printf]>
             serializers  <useful defaults>

           modifiers => ARRAY
             Add one or more modifier handlers to power of the formatter.  They will get
             preference over the predefined modifiers, but lower than the modifiers passed to
             "print[ip]" itself.

           serializers => HASH|ARRAY
             How to serialize data elements.


             my $f = String::Print->new
               ( modifiers   => [ EUR   => sub {sprintf "%5.2f e", $_[0]} ]
               , serializers => [ UNDEF => sub {'-'} ]

             $f->printi("price: {p EUR}", p => 3.1415); # price: XX3.14 e
             $f->printi("count: {c}", c => undef);      # count: -

           The PAIRS are a combination of an selector and a CODE which processes the value when
           the modifier matches.  The selector is a string or (preferred) a regular expression.
           Later modifiers with the same name overrule earlier definitions.  You may also specify
           an ARRAY of modifiers per "print".

           See section "Interpolation: Modifiers" about the details.


       The functional interface creates a hidden object.  You may import any of these functions
       explicitly, or all together by not specifying the names.

       printi( [$fh], $format, PAIRS|HASH )
           Calls sprinti() to fill the data in PAIRS or HASH in $format, and then sends it to the
           $fh (by default the selected file)

             open my $fh, '>', $file;
             printi $fh, ...

             printi \*STDERR, ...

       printp( [$fh], $format, PAIRS|HASH )
           Calls sprintp() to fill the data in PAIRS or HASH in $format, and then sends it to the
           $fh (by default the selected file)

       sprinti($format, PAIRS|HASH)
           The $format refers to some string, maybe the result of a translation.

           The PAIRS (which may be passed as LIST or HASH) contains a mixture of special and
           normal variables to be filled in.  The names of the special variables (the options)
           start with an underscore ("_").

            -Option  --Default
             _append   undef
             _count    undef
             _join     ', '
             _prepend  undef

           _append => STRING|OBJECT
             Text as STRING appended after $format, without interpolation.

           _count => INTEGER
             Result of the translation process: when Log::Report subroutine __xn is are used for
             count-sensitive translation.  Those function may add more specials to the parameter

           _join => STRING
             Which STRING to use when an ARRAY is being filled-in as parameter.

           _prepend => STRING|OBJECT
             Text as STRING prepended before $format, without interpolation.  This may also be an
             OBJECT which gets stringified, but variables not filled-in.

       sprintp($format, LIST, PAIRS)
           Where sprinti() uses named parameters --especially useful when the strings need
           translation-- this function stays close to the standard "sprintf()".  All features of
           POSIX formats are supported.  This should say enough: you can use "%3$0#5.*d", if you

           It may be useful to know that the positional $format is rewritten and then fed into
           sprinti().  Be careful with the length of the LIST: superfluous parameter PAIRS are
           passed along to "sprinti()", and should only contain "specials".

           example: of the rewrite

             # positional parameters
             my $x = sprintp "dumpfiles: %s\n", \@dumpfiles
                , _join => ':';

             # is rewriten into, and then processed as
             my $x = sprinti "dumpfiles: {filenames}\n"
                , filenames => \@dumpfiles, _join => ':';


   Why use "printi()", not "printf()"?
       The "printf()" function is provided by Perl's CORE; you do not need to install any module
       to use it.  Why would you use consider using this module?

           "printf()" uses positional parameters, where printi() uses names to refer to the
           values to be filled-in.  Especially in a set-up with translations, where the format
           strings get extracted into PO-files, it is much clearer to use names.  This is also a
           disadvantage of printp()

       pluggable serializers
           "printi()" supports serialization for specific data-types: how to interpolate "undef",
           HASHes, etc.

       pluggable modifiers
           Especially useful in context of translations, the FORMAT string may contain (language
           specific) helpers to insert the values correctly.

       correct use of utf8
           Sized string formatting in "printf()" is broken: it takes your string as bytes, not
           Perl strings (which may be utf8).  In unicode, one "character" may use many bytes.
           Also, some characters are displayed double wide, for instance in Chinese.  The
           printi() implementation will use Unicode::GCString for correct behavior.

   Three components
       To fill-in a FORMAT, three clearly separated components play a role:

       1. modifiers
           How to change the provided values, for instance to hide locale differences.

       2. serializer
           How to represent (the modified) the values correctly, for instance "undef" and ARRAYs.

       3. conversion
           The standard UNIX format rules, like %d.  One conversion rule has been added 'S',
           which provides unicode correct behavior.


         # sprinti() replaces "{$key$modifiers$conversion}" by

         # sprintp() replaces "%pos{$modifiers}$conversion" by


         printi "price: {price X %-10s}", price => $cost;
         printp "price: %-10{X}s", $cost;

         $conversion = column width %-10s
         $serializer = show float as string
         $modifier   = X to local currency
         $value      = $cost (in X)

   Interpolation: Serialization
       The 'interpolation' functions have named VARIABLES to be filled-in, but also additional
       OPTIONS.  To distinguish between the OPTIONS and VARIABLES (both a list of key-value
       pairs), the keys of the OPTIONS start with an underscore "_".  As result of this, please
       avoid the use of keys which start with an underscore in variable names.  On the other
       hand, you are allowed to interpolate OPTION values in your strings.

       There is no way of checking beforehand whether you have provided all values to be
       interpolated in the translated string.  When you refer to value which is missing, it will
       be interpreted as "undef".

           When a value is passed as CODE reference, that function will get called to return the
           value to be filled in.  For interpolating, the following rules apply:

           Simple scalar values are interpolated "as is"

           Takes the value where the scalar reference points to.

           All members will be interpolated with ",X" between the elements.  Alternatively (maybe
           nicer), you can pass an interpolation parameter via the "_join" OPTION.

             printi "matching files: {files}", files => \@files, _join => ', '

           By default, HASHes are interpolated with sorted keys,

              $key => $value, $key2 => $value2, ...

           There is no quoting on the keys or values (yet).  Usually, this will produce an ugly
           result anyway.

           With the "serialization" parameter, you can overrule the interpolation of above
           defaults, but also add rules for your own objects.  By default, objects get

             serialization => [ $myclass => \&name_in_reverse ]

             sub name_in_reverse($$$)
             {   my ($formatter, $object, $args) = @_;
                 # the $args are all parameters to be filled-in
                 scalar reverse $object->name;

   Interpolation: Modifiers
       Modifiers are used to change the value to be inserted, before the characters get
       interpolated in the line.

       Modifiers: unix format

       Next to the name, you can specify a format code.  With (gnu) "gettext()", you often see

        printf gettext("approx pi: %.6f\n"), PI;

       Locale::TextDomain has two ways:

        printf __"approx pi: %.6f\n", PI;
        print __x"approx pi: {approx}\n", approx => sprintf("%.6f", PI);

       The first does not respect the wish to be able to reorder the arguments during translation
       (although there are ways to work around that)  The second version is quite long.  The
       content of the translation table differs between the examples.

       With "Log::Report", above syntaxes do work, but you can also do:

        # with optional translations
        print __x"approx pi: {pi%.6f}\n", pi => PI;

       The base for "__x()" is the printi() provided by this module. Internally, it will call
       "printi" to fill in parameters:

        printi   "approx pi: {pi%.6f}\n", pi => PI;

       Another example:

        printi "{perms} {links%2d} {user%-8s} {size%10d} {fn}\n"
          , perms => '-rw-r--r--', links => 7, user => 'me'
          , size => 12345, fn => $filename;

       An additional advantage is the fact that not all languages produce comparable length
       strings.  Now, the translators can take care that the layout of tables is optimal.  Above
       example in printp() syntax, shorter but less maintainable:

        printp "%s %2d %-8s 10d %s\n"
          , '-rw-r--r--', 7, 'me', 12345, $filename;

       Modifiers: unix format improvements

       The POSIX "printf()" does not handle unicode strings.  Perl does understand that the 's'
       modifier may need to insert utf8 so does not count bytes but characters.  "printi()" does
       not use characters but "grapheme clusters" via Unicode::GCString.  Now, also composed
       characters do work correctly.

       Additionally, you can use the new 'S' conversion to count in columns.  In fixed-width
       fonts, graphemes can have width 0, 1 or 2.  For instance, Chinese characters have width 2.
       When printing in fixed-width, this 'S' is probably the better choice over 's'.  When the
       field does not specify its width, then there is no performance penalty for using 'S'.

       Modifiers: private modifiers

       You may pass your own modifiers.  A modifier consists of a selector and a CODE, which is
       called when the selector matches.  The selector is either a string or a regular

         # in Object Oriented syntax:
         my $f = String::Print->new
           ( modifiers => [ qr/[XX]/ => \&money ]

         # in function syntax:
         use String::Print 'printi', 'sprinti'
           , modifiers => [ qr/[XX]/ => \&money ];

         # the implementation:
         sub money$$$$)
         { my ($formatter, $modif, $value, $args) = @_;

             $modif eq 'X' ? sprintf("%.2f EUR", $value+0.0001)
           : $modif eq 'X' ? sprintf("%.2f GBP", $value/1.16+0.0001)
           :                 'ERROR';

       Using printp() makes it a little shorter, but will become quite complex when there are
       more parameter in one string.

         printi "price: {pX}", p => $pi;   # price: 3.14 EUR
         printi "price: {pX}", p => $pi;   # price: 2.71 GBP

         printp "price: %{X}s", $pi;       # price: 3.14 EUR
         printp "price: %{X}s", $pi;       # price: 2.71 GBP

       This is very useful in the translation context, where the translator can specify abstract
       formatting rules.  As example, see the (GNU) gettext files, in the translation table for
       Dutch into English.  The translator tells us which currency to use in the display.

         msgid  "kostprijs: {pX}"
         msgstr "price: {pX}"

       Another example.  Now, we want to add timestamps.  In this case, we decide for modifier
       names in "\w", so we need a blank to separate the parameter from the modifer.

         use POSIX  qw/strftime/;
         use String::Print modifiers => [ qr/T|DT|D/ => \&_timestamp ];

         sub _timestamp($$$$)
           { my ($formatter, $modif, $value, $args) = @_;
             my $time_format
               = $modif eq 'T'  ? '%T'
               : $modif eq 'D'  ? '%F'
               : $modif eq 'DT' ? '%FT%TZ'
               :                  'ERROR';
             strftime $time_format, gmtime($value);

         printi "time: {t T}",  t => $now;  # time: 10:59:17
         printi "date: {t D }", t => $now;  # date: 2013-04-13
         printi "both: {t DT}", t => $now;  # both: 2013-04-13T10:59:17Z

         printp "time: %{T}s",  $now;       # time: 10:59:17
         printp "date: %{D}s",  $now;       # date: 2013-04-13
         printp "both: %{DT}s", $now;       # both: 2013-04-13T10:59:17Z

       Modifiers: stacking

       You can add more than one modifier.  The modifiers detect the extend of their own
       information (via a regular expression), and therefore the formatter understands where one
       ends and the next begins.

       The modifiers are called in order:

         printi "price: {pX%9s}\n", p => $p; # price: XXX123.45
         printi ">{t T%10s}<", t => $now;    # >XX12:59:17<

         printp "price: %9{X}s\n", $p;       # price: XXX123.45
         printp ">%10{T}s<", $now;           # >XX12:59:17<

   Compared to other modules on CPAN
       There are a quite a number of modules on CPAN which extend the functionality of
       "printf()".  To name a few: String::Format <>,
       String::Errf <http://>, String::Formatter
       <http://>, Text::Sprintf::Named
       <>, Acme::StringFormat
       <>, Text::sprintf
       <>, Log::Sprintf
       <>, and String::Sprintf
       <>.  They are all slightly different.

       When the "String::Print" module was created, none of the modules mentioned above handled
       unicode correctly.  Global configuration of serializers and modifiers is also usually not
       possible, sometimes provided per explicit function call.  Only "String::Print" cleanly
       separates the roles of serializers, modifiers, and conversions.

       "String::Print" is nicely integrated with Log::Report.


       This module is part of String-Print distribution version 0.15, built on March 14, 2014.


       Copyrights 2013-2014 by [Mark Overmeer]. For other contributors see ChangeLog.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.  See