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NAME

       Tk::CmdLine - Process standard X11 command line options and set initial resources

SYNOPSIS

         Tk::CmdLine::SetArguments([@argument]);

         my $value = Tk::CmdLine::cget([$option]);

         Tk::CmdLine::SetResources((\@resource | $resource) [, $priority]);

         Tk::CmdLine::LoadResources(
             [ -symbol   => $symbol     ]
             [ -file     => $fileSpec   ]
             [ -priority => $priority   ]
             [ -echo     => $fileHandle ] );

DESCRIPTION

       Process standard X11 command line options and set initial resources.

       The X11R5 man page for X11 says: "Most X programs attempt to use the same names for
       command line options and arguments. All applications written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics
       automatically accept the following options: ...".  This module processes these command
       line options for perl/Tk applications using the "SetArguments"() function.

       This module can optionally be used to load initial resources explicitly via function
       "SetResources"(), or from specified files (default: the standard X11 application-specific
       resource files) via function "LoadResources"().

   Command Line Options
       -background Color | -bg Color
           Specifies the color to be used for the window background.

       -class Class
           Specifies the class under which resources for the application should be found.  This
           option is useful in shell aliases to distinguish between invocations of an
           application, without resorting to creating links to alter the executable file name.

       -display Display | -screen Display
           Specifies the name of the X server to be used.

       -font Font | -fn Font
           Specifies the font to be used for displaying text.

       -foreground Color | -fg Color
           Specifies the color to be used for text or graphics.

       -geometry Geometry
           Specifies the initial size and location of the first MainWindow.

       -iconic
           Indicates that the user would prefer that the application's windows initially not be
           visible as if the windows had been immediately iconified by the user.  Window managers
           may choose not to honor the application's request.

       -motif
           Specifies that the application should adhere as closely as possible to Motif look-and-
           feel standards. For example, active elements such as buttons and scrollbar sliders
           will not change color when the pointer passes over them.

       -name Name
           Specifies the name under which resources for the application should be found.  This
           option is useful in shell aliases to distinguish between invocations of an
           application, without resorting to creating links to alter the executable file name.

       -synchronous
           Indicates that requests to the X server should be sent synchronously, instead of
           asynchronously. Since Xlib normally buffers requests to the server, errors do do not
           necessarily get reported immediately after they occur. This option turns off the
           buffering so that the application can be debugged. It should never be used with a
           working program.

       -title TitleString
           This option specifies the title to be used for this window. This information is
           sometimes used by a window manager to provide some sort of header identifying the
           window.

       -xrm ResourceString
           Specifies a resource pattern and value to override any defaults. It is also very
           useful for setting resources that do not have explicit command line arguments.

           The ResourceString is of the form <pattern>:<value>, that is (the first) ':' is used
           to determine which part is pattern and which part is value. The (<pattern>, <value>)
           pair is entered into the options database with optionAdd (for each MainWindow
           configured), with interactive priority.

   Initial Resources
       There are several mechanism for initializing the resource database to be used by an X11
       application. Resources may be defined in a $"HOME"/.Xdefaults file, a system application
       defaults file (e.g.  /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/<CLASS>), or a user application defaults
       file (e.g. $"HOME"/<CLASS>).  The Tk::CmdLine functionality for setting initial resources
       concerns itself with the latter two.

       Resource files contain data lines of the form <pattern>:<value>.  They may also contain
       blank lines and comment lines (denoted by a ! character as the first non-blank character).
       Refer to option for a description of <pattern>:<value>.

       System Application Defaults Files
           System application defaults files may be specified via environment variable
           $"XFILESEARCHPATH" which, if set, contains a list of file patterns (joined using the
           OS-dependent path delimiter, e.g. colon on UNIX).

       User Application Defaults Files
           User application defaults files may be specified via environment variables
           $"XUSERFILESEARCHPATH", $"XAPPLRESDIR" or $"HOME".

METHODS

       SetArguments - Tk::CmdLine::SetArguments([@argument])
           Extract the X11 options contained in a specified array (@ARGV by default).

             Tk::CmdLine::SetArguments([@argument])

           The X11 options may be specified using a single dash - as per the X11 convention, or
           using two dashes -- as per the POSIX standard (e.g.  -geometry 100x100, -geometry
           100x100 or -geometry=100x100).  The options may be interspersed with other options or
           arguments.  A -- by itself terminates option processing.

           By default, command line options are extracted from @ARGV the first time a MainWindow
           is created. The Tk::MainWindow constructor indirectly invokes "SetArguments"() to do
           this.

       GetArguments - Tk::CmdLine::GetArguments()
           Get a list of the X11 options that have been processed by "SetArguments"().
           ("GetArguments"() first invokes "SetArguments"() if it has not already been invoked.)

       cget - Tk::CmdLine::cget([$option])
           Get the value of a configuration option specified via "SetArguments"().  ("cget"()
           first invokes "SetArguments"() if it has not already been invoked.)

             Tk::CmdLine::cget([$option])

           The valid options are: -class, -name, -screen and -title.  If no option is specified,
           -class is implied.

           A typical use of "cget"() might be to obtain the application class in order to define
           the name of a resource file to be loaded in via "LoadResources"().

             my $class = Tk::CmdLine::cget(); # process command line and return class

       SetResources - Tk::CmdLine::SetResources((\@resource | $resource) [, $priority])
           Set the initial resources.

             Tk::CmdLine::SetResources((\@resource | $resource) [, $priority])

           A single resource may be specified using a string of the form '<pattern>:<value>'.
           Multiple resources may be specified by passing an array reference whose elements are
           either strings of the above form, and/or anonymous arrays of the form [ <pattern>,
           <value> ]. The optional second argument specifies the priority, as defined in option,
           to be associated with the resources (default: userDefault).

           Note that "SetResources"() first invokes "SetArguments"() if it has not already been
           invoked.

       LoadResources - Tk::CmdLine::LoadResources([%options])
           Load initial resources from one or more files.

             Tk::CmdLine::LoadResources(
                 [ -symbol   => $symbol     ]
                 [ -file     => $fileSpec   ]
                 [ -priority => $priority   ]
                 [ -echo     => $fileHandle ] );

           [ -symbol => $symbol ] specifies the name of an environment variable that, if set,
           defines a list of one or more directories and/or file patterns (joined using the OS-
           dependent path delimiter, e.g. colon on UNIX).  $"XUSERFILESEARCHPATH" is a special
           case.  If $"XUSERFILESEARCHPATH" is not set, $"XAPPLRESDIR" is checked instead.  If
           $"XAPPLRESDIR" is not set, $"HOME" is checked instead.

           An item is identified as a file pattern if it contains one or more /%[A-Za-z]/
           patterns. Only patterns %L, %T and %N are currently recognized. All others are
           replaced with the null string. Pattern %L is translated into $"LANG". Pattern %T is
           translated into app-defaults. Pattern %N is translated into the application class
           name.

           Each file pattern, after substitutions are applied, is assumed to define a FileSpec to
           be examined.

           When a directory is specified, FileSpecs <DIRECTORY>/<LANG>/<CLASS> and
           <DIRECTORY>/<CLASS> are defined, in that order.

           [ -file => $fileSpec ] specifies a resource file to be loaded in.  The file is
           silently skipped if if does not exist, or if it is not readable.

           [ -priority => $priority ] specifies the priority, as defined in option, to be
           associated with the resources (default: userDefault).

           [ -echo => $fileHandle ] may be used to specify that a line should be printed to the
           corresponding FileHandle (default: \*STDOUT) everytime a file is examined / loaded.

           If no -symbol or -file options are specified, "LoadResources"() processes symbol
           $"XFILESEARCHPATH" with priority startupFile and $"XUSERFILESEARCHPATH" with priority
           userDefault.  (Note that $"XFILESEARCHPATH" and $"XUSERFILESEARCHPATH" are supposed to
           contain only patterns. $"XAPPLRESDIR" and $"HOME" are supposed to be a single
           directory. "LoadResources"() does not check/care whether this is the case.)

           For each set of FileSpecs, "LoadResources"() examines each FileSpec to determine if
           the file exists and is readable. The first file that meets this criteria is read in
           and "SetResources"() is invoked.

           Note that "LoadResources"() first invokes "SetArguments"() if it has not already been
           invoked.

NOTES

       This module is an object-oriented module whose methods can be invoked as object methods,
       class methods or regular functions. This is accomplished via an internally-maintained
       object reference which is created as necessary, and which always points to the last object
       used. "SetArguments"(), "SetResources"() and "LoadResources"() return the object
       reference.

EXAMPLES

       1.  @ARGV is processed by Tk::CmdLine at MainWindow creation.

             use Tk;

             # <Process @ARGV - ignoring all X11-specific options>

             my $mw = MainWindow->new();

             MainLoop();

       2.  @ARGV is processed by Tk::CmdLine before MainWindow creation.  An @ARGV of
           (--geometry=100x100 -opt1 a b c -bg red) is equal to (-opt1 a b c) after
           "SetArguments"() is invoked.

             use Tk;

             Tk::CmdLine::SetArguments(); # Tk::CmdLine->SetArguments() works too

             # <Process @ARGV - not worrying about X11-specific options>

             my $mw = MainWindow->new();

             MainLoop();

       3.  Just like 2) except that default arguments are loaded first.

             use Tk;

             Tk::CmdLine::SetArguments(qw(-name test -iconic));
             Tk::CmdLine::SetArguments();

             # <Process @ARGV - not worrying about X11-specific options>

             my $mw = MainWindow->new();

             MainLoop();

       4.  @ARGV is processed by Tk::CmdLine before MainWindow creation.  Standard resource files
           are loaded in before MainWindow creation.

             use Tk;

             Tk::CmdLine::SetArguments();

             # <Process @ARGV - not worrying about X11-specific options>

             Tk::CmdLine::LoadResources();

             my $mw = MainWindow->new();

             MainLoop();

       5.  @ARGV is processed by Tk::CmdLine before MainWindow creation.  Standard resource files
           are loaded in before MainWindow creation using non-default priorities.

             use Tk;

             Tk::CmdLine::SetArguments();

             # <Process @ARGV - not worrying about X11-specific options>

             Tk::CmdLine::LoadResources(-echo => \*STDOUT,
                 -priority => 65, -symbol => 'XFILESEARCHPATH' );
             Tk::CmdLine::LoadResources(-echo => \*STDOUT,
                 -priority => 75, -symbol => 'XUSERFILESEARCHPATH' );

             my $mw = MainWindow->new();

             MainLoop();

       6.  @ARGV is processed by Tk::CmdLine before MainWindow creation.  Standard resource files
           are loaded in before MainWindow creation.  Individual resources are also loaded in
           before MainWindow creation.

             use Tk;

             Tk::CmdLine::SetArguments();

             # <Process @ARGV - not worrying about X11-specific options>

             Tk::CmdLine::LoadResources();

             Tk::CmdLine::SetResources( # set a single resource
                 '*Button*background: red',
                 'widgetDefault' );

             Tk::CmdLine::SetResources( # set multiple resources
                 [ '*Button*background: red', '*Button*foreground: blue' ],
                 'widgetDefault' );

             my $mw = MainWindow->new();

             MainLoop();

ENVIRONMENT

       HOME (optional)
           Home directory which may contain user application defaults files as
           $"HOME"/$"LANG"/<CLASS> or $"HOME"/<CLASS>.

       LANG (optional)
           The current language (default: C).

       XFILESEARCHPATH (optional)
           List of FileSpec patterns (joined using the OS-dependent path delimiter, e.g. colon on
           UNIX) used in defining system application defaults files.

       XUSERFILESEARCHPATH (optional)
           List of FileSpec patterns (joined using the OS-dependent path delimiter, e.g. colon on
           UNIX) used in defining user application defaults files.

       XAPPLRESDIR (optional)
           Directory containing user application defaults files as $"XAPPLRESDIR"/$"LANG"/<CLASS>
           or $"XAPPLRESDIR"/<CLASS>.

SEE ALSO

       MainWindow option

HISTORY

       ·   1999.03.04 Ben Pavon <ben.pavon@hsc.hac.com>

           Rewritten as an object-oriented module.

           Allow one to process command line options in a specified array (@ARGV by default).
           Eliminate restrictions on the format and location of the options within the array
           (previously the X11 options could not be specified in POSIX format and had to be at
           the beginning of the array).

           Added the "SetResources"() and "LoadResources"() functions to allow the definition of
           resources prior to MainWindow creation.

       ·   2000.08.31 Ben Pavon <ben.pavon@hsc.hac.com>

           Added the "GetArguments"() method which returns the list of arguments that have been
           processed by "SetArguments"().

           Modified "LoadResources"() to split the symbols using the OS-dependent path delimiter
           defined in the Config module.

           Modified "LoadResources"() to eliminate a warning message when processing patterns %l,
           %C, %S.