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NAME

       Tk::Wm - Communicate with window manager

SYNOPSIS

           $toplevel->method(?args?)

DESCRIPTION

       The wm methods are used to interact with window managers in order to control such things
       as the title for a window, its geometry, or the increments in terms of which it may be
       resized.  The wm methods can take any of a number of different forms, depending on the
       particular method argument.  All of the forms expect $toplevel, which must be a top-level
       window object.

       The legal forms for the wm methods are:

       $toplevel->aspect(?minNumer minDenom maxNumer maxDenom?)
           If minNumer, minDenom, maxNumer, and maxDenom are all specified, then they will be
           passed to the window manager and the window manager should use them to enforce a range
           of acceptable aspect ratios for $toplevel.  The aspect ratio of $toplevel
           (width/length) will be constrained to lie between minNumer/minDenom and
           maxNumer/maxDenom.  If minNumer etc. are all specified as empty strings, then any
           existing aspect ratio restrictions are removed.  If minNumer etc. are specified, then
           the method returns an empty string.  Otherwise, it returns a array containing four
           elements, which are the current values of minNumer, minDenom, maxNumer, and maxDenom
           (if no aspect restrictions are in effect, then an empty string is returned).

       $widget->attributes( ?args? );
           This subcommand returns or  sets  platform  specific  attributes associated with a
           window.

           $widget->attributes;
               Returns a list of the  platform specific  flags  and  their  values.

           $widget->attributes( ?option? );
               Returns  the  value for the specific option.

           $widget->attributes( ?option value option value...? );
               Sets one or more of the values. The values are as follows:

               On Windows, -disabled gets or sets whether the window is in  a disabled state.
               -toolwindow gets or sets the style of the window to toolwindow (as defined in the
               MSDN). -topmost gets or sets whether this is a topmost window (displays above all
               other windows).

               On Macintosh, there are currently no special attribute values.

               On Unix, there are currently no special attribute values.

       $toplevel->client(?name?)
           If name is specified, this method stores name (which should be the name of the host on
           which the application is executing) in $toplevel's WM_CLIENT_MACHINE property for use
           by the window manager or session manager.  The method returns an empty string in this
           case.  If name isn't specified, the method returns the last name set in a client
           method for $toplevel.  If name is specified as an empty string, the method deletes the
           WM_CLIENT_MACHINE property from $toplevel.

       $toplevel->colormapwindows(?windowList?)
           This method is used to manipulate the WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property, which provides
           information to the window managers about windows that have private colormaps.  If
           windowList isn't specified, the method returns a list whose elements are the names of
           the windows in the WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property.  If windowList is specified, it
           consists of a list of widgets; the method overwrites the WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property
           with the given windows and returns an empty string.  The WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property
           should normally contain a list of the internal windows within $toplevel whose
           colormaps differ from their parents.  The order of the windows in the property
           indicates a priority order: the window manager will attempt to install as many
           colormaps as possible from the head of this list when $widget gets the colormap focus.
           If $widget is not included among the windows in windowList, Tk implicitly adds it at
           the end of the WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property, so that its colormap is lowest in
           priority.  If $widget->colormapwindows is not invoked, Tk will automatically set the
           property for each top-level window to all the internal windows whose colormaps differ
           from their parents, followed by the top-level itself;  the order of the internal
           windows is undefined.  See the ICCCM documentation for more information on the
           WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property.

       $toplevel->command(?value?)
           If value is specified, this method stores value in $toplevel's WM_COMMAND property for
           use by the window manager or session manager and returns an empty string.  Value must
           have proper list structure;  the elements should contain the words of the command used
           to invoke the application.  If value isn't specified then the method returns the last
           value set in a command method for $toplevel.  If value is specified as an empty
           string, the method deletes the WM_COMMAND property from $toplevel.

       $toplevel->deiconify
           Arrange for $toplevel to be displayed in normal (non-iconified) form.  This is done by
           mapping the window.  If the window has never been mapped then this method will not map
           the window, but it will ensure that when the window is first mapped it will be
           displayed in de-iconified form.  Returns an empty string.

       $toplevel->focusmodel(?active|passive?)
           If active or passive is supplied as an optional argument to the method, then it
           specifies the focus model for $toplevel.  In this case the method returns an empty
           string.  If no additional argument is supplied, then the method returns the current
           focus model for $toplevel.  An active focus model means that $toplevel will claim the
           input focus for itself or its descendants, even at times when the focus is currently
           in some other application.  Passive means that $toplevel will never claim the focus
           for itself:  the window manager should give the focus to $toplevel at appropriate
           times.  However, once the focus has been given to $toplevel or one of its descendants,
           the application may re-assign the focus among $toplevel's descendants.  The focus
           model defaults to passive, and Tk's focus method assumes a passive model of focusing.

       $toplevel->frame
           If $widget has been reparented by the window manager into a decorative frame, the
           method returns the platform specific window identifier for the outermost frame that
           contains $toplevel (the window whose parent is the root or virtual root).  If
           $toplevel hasn't been reparented by the window manager then the method returns the
           platform specific window identifier for $toplevel.

       $toplevel->geometry(?newGeometry?)
           If newGeometry is specified, then the geometry of $toplevel is changed and an empty
           string is returned.  Otherwise the current geometry for $toplevel is returned (this is
           the most recent geometry specified either by manual resizing or in a geometry method).
           NewGeometry has the form =widthxheight+-x+-y, where any of =, widthxheight, or +-x+-y
           may be omitted.  Width and height are positive integers specifying the desired
           dimensions of $toplevel.  If $toplevel is gridded (see "GRIDDED GEOMETRY MANAGEMENT"
           below) then the dimensions are specified in grid units;  otherwise they are specified
           in pixel units.  X and y specify the desired location of $toplevel on the screen, in
           pixels.  If x is preceded by +, it specifies the number of pixels between the left
           edge of the screen and the left edge of $toplevel's border;  if preceded by - then x
           specifies the number of pixels between the right edge of the screen and the right edge
           of $toplevel's border.  If y is preceded by + then it specifies the number of pixels
           between the top of the screen and the top of $toplevel's border;  if y is preceded by
           - then it specifies the number of pixels between the bottom of $toplevel's border and
           the bottom of the screen.  If newGeometry is specified as an empty string then any
           existing user-specified geometry for $toplevel is cancelled, and the window will
           revert to the size requested internally by its widgets.

       $toplevel->wmGrid(?baseWidth,baseHeight,widthInc,heightInc?)
           This method indicates that $toplevel is to be managed as a gridded window.  It also
           specifies the relationship between grid units and pixel units.  BaseWidth and
           baseHeight specify the number of grid units corresponding to the pixel dimensions
           requested internally by $toplevel using Tk_GeometryRequest.  WidthInc and heightInc
           specify the number of pixels in each horizontal and vertical grid unit.  These four
           values determine a range of acceptable sizes for $toplevel, corresponding to grid-
           based widths and heights that are non-negative integers.  Tk will pass this
           information to the window manager;  during manual resizing, the window manager will
           restrict the window's size to one of these acceptable sizes.  Furthermore, during
           manual resizing the window manager will display the window's current size in terms of
           grid units rather than pixels.  If baseWidth etc. are all specified as empty strings,
           then $toplevel will no longer be managed as a gridded window.  If baseWidth etc. are
           specified then the return value is an empty string.  Otherwise the return value is a
           array containing four elements corresponding to the current baseWidth, baseHeight,
           widthInc, and heightInc;  if $toplevel is not currently gridded, then an empty string
           is returned.  Note: this command should not be needed very often, since the Tk_SetGrid
           library procedure and the -setgrid option provide easier access to the same
           functionality.

       $toplevel->group(?$widget?)
           If $widget is specified, it is the the leader of a group of related windows.  The
           window manager may use this information, for example, to unmap all of the windows in a
           group when the group's leader is iconified.  $widget may be specified as an empty
           string to remove $toplevel from any group association.  If $widget is specified then
           the method returns an empty string;  otherwise it returns the $toplevel's current
           group leader, or an empty string if $toplevel isn't part of any group.

       $toplevel->iconbitmap(?bitmap?)
           If bitmap is specified, then it names a bitmap in the standard forms accepted by Tk
           (see the Tk_GetBitmap documentation for details).  This black and white bitmap is
           passed to the window manager to be displayed in $toplevel's icon, and the method
           returns an empty string.  If an empty string is specified for bitmap, then any current
           icon bitmap or image is cancelled for $toplevel.  If bitmap is specified then the
           method returns an empty string.  Otherwise it returns the name of the current icon
           bitmap associated with $toplevel, or an empty string if $toplevel has no icon bitmap.

       $toplevel->iconify
           Arrange for $toplevel to be iconified.  It $toplevel hasn't yet been mapped for the
           first time, this method will arrange for it to appear in the iconified state when it
           is eventually mapped.

       $toplevel->iconimage(?image?)
           If image is specified, then it names a normal Tk image.  This image is rendered into a
           private coloured bitmap which is passed to the window manager to be displayed in
           $toplevel's icon, and the method returns an empty string. If an empty string is
           specified for image, then any current icon bitmap or image is cancelled for $toplevel.
           If image is specified then the method returns an empty string.  Otherwise it returns
           the name of the current icon image associated with $toplevel, or an empty string if
           $toplevel has no icon image.  The private pixmap is not pre-cleared so images which
           are partly "transparent" display rubbish in their transparent parts.

           The sizes of images that can be used as icons in this manner are platform dependent.
           On Win32 this sets the "large" icon, which should be 32x32, it will automatically be
           scaled down to 16x16 for use as a small icon.

       $toplevel->iconmask(?bitmap?)
           If bitmap is specified, then it names a bitmap in the standard forms accepted by Tk
           (see the Tk_GetBitmap documentation for details).  This bitmap is passed to the window
           manager to be used as a mask in conjunction with the iconbitmap option:  where the
           mask has zeroes no icon will be displayed;  where it has ones, the bits from the icon
           bitmap will be displayed.  If an empty string is specified for bitmap then any current
           icon mask is cancelled for $toplevel (this is equivalent to specifying a bitmap of all
           ones).  If bitmap is specified then the method returns an empty string.  Otherwise it
           returns the name of the current icon mask associated with $toplevel, or an empty
           string if no mask is in effect.

       $toplevel->iconname(?newName?)
           If newName is specified, then it is passed to the window manager;  the window manager
           should display newName inside the icon associated with $toplevel.  In this case an
           empty string is returned as result.  If newName isn't specified then the method
           returns the current icon name for $toplevel, or an empty string if no icon name has
           been specified (in this case the window manager will normally display the window's
           title, as specified with the title method).

       $toplevel->iconphoto(?-default? image1 ?image2 ...?)
           Sets the titlebar icon for  window  based  on  the  named  photo images.  If -default
           is specified, this is applied to all future created toplevels as well.  The data in
           the images is taken as a snapshot  at  the  time  of invocation.  If the images are
           later changed, this is not reflected to the titlebar icons.   Multiple images  are
           accepted to allow different images sizes (eg, 16x16 and 32x32) to be provided.  The
           window manager  may  scale  pro- vided icons to an appropriate size.

           On Windows, the images are packed into a Windows icon structure.  This will override
           an ico specified to wm iconbitmap,  and  vice versa. [NOTE: This is not implemented
           yet!]

           On  X, the images are arranged into the _NET_WM_ICON X property, which most modern
           window managers support.  A wm iconbitmap  may exist  simultaneously.  It is
           recommended to use not more than 2 icons, placing the larger icon first.

           On Macintosh, this is currently does nothing.

       $toplevel->iconposition(?x y?)
           If x and y are specified, they are passed to the window manager as a hint about where
           to position the icon for $toplevel.  In this case an empty string is returned.  If x
           and y are specified as empty strings then any existing icon position hint is
           cancelled.  If neither x nor y is specified, then the method returns a array
           containing two values, which are the current icon position hints (if no hints are in
           effect then an empty string is returned).

       $toplevel->iconwindow(?$widget?)
           If $widget is specified, it is a window to use as icon for $toplevel: when $toplevel
           is iconified then $widget will be mapped to serve as icon, and when $toplevel is de-
           iconified then $widget will be unmapped again.  If $widget is specified as an empty
           string then any existing icon window association for $toplevel will be cancelled.  If
           the $widget argument is specified then an empty string is returned.  Otherwise the
           method returns the current icon window for $toplevel, or an empty string if there is
           no icon window currently specified for $toplevel.  Button press events are disabled
           for $toplevel as long as it is an icon window;  this is needed in order to allow
           window managers to ``own'' those events.  Note: not all window managers support the
           notion of an icon window.

       $toplevel->maxsize(?width,height?)
           If width and height are specified, they give the maximum permissible dimensions for
           $toplevel.  For gridded windows the dimensions are specified in grid units;  otherwise
           they are specified in pixel units.  The window manager will restrict the window's
           dimensions to be less than or equal to width and height.  If width and height are
           specified, then the method returns an empty string.  Otherwise it returns a array with
           two elements, which are the maximum width and height currently in effect.  The maximum
           size defaults to the size of the screen.  If resizing has been disabled with the
           resizable method, then this method has no effect.  See the sections on geometry
           management below for more information.

       $toplevel->minsize(?width,height?)
           If width and height are specified, they give the minimum permissible dimensions for
           $toplevel.  For gridded windows the dimensions are specified in grid units;  otherwise
           they are specified in pixel units.  The window manager will restrict the window's
           dimensions to be greater than or equal to width and height.  If width and height are
           specified, then the method returns an empty string.  Otherwise it returns a array with
           two elements, which are the minimum width and height currently in effect.  The minimum
           size defaults to one pixel in each dimension.  If resizing has been disabled with the
           resizable method, then this method has no effect.  See the sections on geometry
           management below for more information.

       $toplevel->overrideredirect(?boolean?)
           If boolean is specified, it must have a proper boolean form and the override-redirect
           flag for $toplevel is set to that value.  If boolean is not specified then 1 or 0 is
           returned to indicate whether or not the override-redirect flag is currently set for
           $toplevel.  Setting the override-redirect flag for a window causes it to be ignored by
           the window manager;  among other things, this means that the window will not be
           reparented from the root window into a decorative frame and the user will not be able
           to manipulate the window using the normal window manager mechanisms.

       $toplevel->positionfrom(?who?)
           If who is specified, it must be either program or user, or an abbreviation of one of
           these two.  It indicates whether $toplevel's current position was requested by the
           program or by the user.  Many window managers ignore program-requested initial
           positions and ask the user to manually position the window;  if user is specified then
           the window manager should position the window at the given place without asking the
           user for assistance.  If who is specified as an empty string, then the current
           position source is cancelled.  If who is specified, then the method returns an empty
           string.  Otherwise it returns user or $widget to indicate the source of the window's
           current position, or an empty string if no source has been specified yet.  Most window
           managers interpret ``no source'' as equivalent to program.  Tk will automatically set
           the position source to user when a geometry method is invoked, unless the source has
           been set explicitly to program.

       $toplevel->protocol(?name?,?callback?)
           This method is used to manage window manager protocols such as WM_DELETE_WINDOW.  Name
           is the name of an atom corresponding to a window manager protocol, such as
           WM_DELETE_WINDOW or WM_SAVE_YOURSELF or WM_TAKE_FOCUS.  If both name and callback are
           specified, then callback is associated with the protocol specified by name.  Name will
           be added to $toplevel's WM_PROTOCOLS property to tell the window manager that the
           application has a protocol handler for name, and callback will be invoked in the
           future whenever the window manager sends a message to the client for that protocol.
           In this case the method returns an empty string.  If name is specified but callback
           isn't, then the current callback for name is returned, or an empty string if there is
           no handler defined for name.  If callback is specified as an empty string then the
           current handler for name is deleted and it is removed from the WM_PROTOCOLS property
           on $toplevel;  an empty string is returned.  Lastly, if neither name nor callback is
           specified, the method returns a list of all the protocols for which handlers are
           currently defined for $toplevel.

                   Tk always defines a protocol handler for WM_DELETE_WINDOW, even if you haven't
                   asked for one with protocol.  If a WM_DELETE_WINDOW message arrives when you
                   haven't defined a handler, then Tk handles the message by destroying the
                   window for which it was received.

       $toplevel->resizable(?width,height?)
           This method controls whether or not the user may interactively resize a top-level
           window.  If width and height are specified, they are boolean values that determine
           whether the width and height of $toplevel may be modified by the user.  In this case
           the method returns an empty string.  If width and height are omitted then the method
           returns a list with two 0/1 elements that indicate whether the width and height of
           $toplevel are currently resizable.  By default, windows are resizable in both
           dimensions.  If resizing is disabled, then the window's size will be the size from the
           most recent interactive resize or geometry method.  If there has been no such
           operation then the window's natural size will be used.

       $toplevel->sizefrom(?who?)
           If who is specified, it must be either program or user, or an abbreviation of one of
           these two.  It indicates whether $toplevel's current size was requested by the program
           or by the user.  Some window managers ignore program-requested sizes and ask the user
           to manually size the window;  if user is specified then the window manager should give
           the window its specified size without asking the user for assistance.  If who is
           specified as an empty string, then the current size source is cancelled.  If who is
           specified, then the method returns an empty string.  Otherwise it returns user or
           $widget to indicate the source of the window's current size, or an empty string if no
           source has been specified yet.  Most window managers interpret ``no source'' as
           equivalent to program.

       $toplevel->stackorder( ?isabove|isbelow $toplevel? );
           The stackorder command returns a list  of  toplevel  windows  in stacking  order,
           from lowest to highest. When a single toplevel window is passed, the returned list
           recursively includes all  of the  window's  children that are toplevels. Only those
           toplevels that are currently mapped  to  the  screen  are  returned.   The stackorder
           command can also be used to determine if one toplevel is positioned above or below a
           second toplevel.  When two window arguments  separated  by either isabove or isbelow
           are passed, a boolean result indicates whether or not the first window is currently
           above or below the second window in the stacking order.

       $toplevel->state(?newstate?)
           If newstate is specified, the window will be set to the new state, otherwise it
           returns the current state of $toplevel: either normal, iconic, withdrawn, icon, or
           (Windows only) zoomed. The difference between iconic and icon is that iconic refers to
           a window that has been iconified (e.g., with the iconify method) while icon refers to
           a window whose only purpose is to serve as the icon for some other window (via the
           iconwindow method). The icon state cannot be set.

       $toplevel->title(?string?)
           If string is specified, then it will be passed to the window manager for use as the
           title for $toplevel (the window manager should display this string in $toplevel's
           title bar).  In this case the method returns an empty string.  If string isn't
           specified then the method returns the current title for the $toplevel.  The title for
           a window defaults to its name.

       $toplevel->transient(?master?)
           If master is specified, then the window manager is informed that $toplevel is a
           transient window (e.g. pull-down menu) working on behalf of master (where master is a
           top-level window).  Some window managers will use this information to manage $toplevel
           specially.  If master is specified as an empty string then $toplevel is marked as not
           being a transient window any more.  If master is specified, then the method returns an
           empty string.  Otherwise the method returns the path name of $toplevel's current
           master, or an empty string if $toplevel isn't currently a transient window.

       $toplevel->withdraw
           Arranges for $toplevel to be withdrawn from the screen.  This causes the window to be
           unmapped and forgotten about by the window manager.  If the window has never been
           mapped, then this method causes the window to be mapped in the withdrawn state.  Not
           all window managers appear to know how to handle windows that are mapped in the
           withdrawn state.  Note: it sometimes seems to be necessary to withdraw a window and
           then re-map it (e.g. with deiconify) to get some window managers to pay attention to
           changes in window attributes such as group.

       $toplevel->wrapper
           Returns a list of two elements: the window id of the wrapper window in which Tk has
           placed $toplevel, and the height of the menu bar. The id is the one by which window
           manager will know $toplevel, and so is appropriate place to add X properties. The menu
           height is only returned on X. On Windows, this value is always zero.

ICON SIZES

       The sizes of bitmaps/images that can be used as icons in this manner are platform and
       window manager dependent. Unix window managers are typically more tolerant than Win32. It
       is possible that coloured "iconimage" icons may cause problems on some X window managers.

       ·   Win32

           "iconimage" and "iconbitmap" set the "large" icon, which should be 32x32, it will
           automatically be scaled down to 16x16 for use as a small icon.  Win32 ignores
           "iconwin" requests.

       ·   KDE's "kwm"

           Accepts coloured "iconimage" and black and white "iconbitmap" but will scale either to
           a small (14x14?) icon. Kwm ignores "iconwin".

       ·   Sun's "olwm" or "olvwm"

           Honours "iconwin" which will override "iconimage" or "iconbitmap".  Coloured images
           work.

       ·   Sun's CDE window manager

           Coloured images work. ...

GEOMETRY MANAGEMENT

       By default a top-level window appears on the screen in its natural size, which is the one
       determined internally by its widgets and geometry managers.  If the natural size of a top-
       level window changes, then the window's size changes to match.  A top-level window can be
       given a size other than its natural size in two ways.  First, the user can resize the
       window manually using the facilities of the window manager, such as resize handles.
       Second, the application can request a particular size for a top-level window using the
       geometry method.  These two cases are handled identically by Tk;  in either case, the
       requested size overrides the natural size.  You can return the window to its natural by
       invoking geometry with an empty geometry string.

       Normally a top-level window can have any size from one pixel in each dimension up to the
       size of its screen.  However, you can use the minsize and maxsize methods to limit the
       range of allowable sizes.  The range set by minsize and maxsize applies to all forms of
       resizing, including the window's natural size as well as manual resizes and the geometry
       method.  You can also use the method resizable to completely disable interactive resizing
       in one or both dimensions.

GRIDDED GEOMETRY MANAGEMENT

       Gridded geometry management occurs when one of the widgets of an application supports a
       range of useful sizes.  This occurs, for example, in a text editor where the scrollbars,
       menus, and other adornments are fixed in size but the edit widget can support any number
       of lines of text or characters per line.  In this case, it is usually desirable to let the
       user specify the number of lines or characters-per-line, either with the geometry method
       or by interactively resizing the window.  In the case of text, and in other interesting
       cases also, only discrete sizes of the window make sense, such as integral numbers of
       lines and characters-per-line;  arbitrary pixel sizes are not useful.

       Gridded geometry management provides support for this kind of application.  Tk (and the
       window manager) assume that there is a grid of some sort within the application and that
       the application should be resized in terms of grid units rather than pixels.  Gridded
       geometry management is typically invoked by turning on the setGrid option for a widget;
       it can also be invoked with the wmGrid method or by calling Tk_SetGrid.  In each of these
       approaches the particular widget (or sometimes code in the application as a whole)
       specifies the relationship between integral grid sizes for the window and pixel sizes.  To
       return to non-gridded geometry management, invoke grid with empty argument strings.

       When gridded geometry management is enabled then all the dimensions specified in minsize,
       maxsize, and geometry methods are treated as grid units rather than pixel units.
       Interactive resizing is also carried out in even numbers of grid units rather than pixels.

BUGS

       Most existing window managers appear to have bugs that affect the operation of the wm
       methods.  For example, some changes won't take effect if the window is already active:
       the window will have to be withdrawn and de-iconified in order to make the change happen.

SEE ALSO

       Tk::Widget Tk::tixWm Tk::Mwm

KEYWORDS

       aspect ratio, deiconify, focus model, geometry, grid, group, icon, iconify, increments,
       position, size, title, top-level window, units, window manager