Provided by: iproute2_4.3.0-1ubuntu3_i386 bug


       arpd - userspace arp daemon.


       Usage:  arpd  [ -lkh? ] [ -a N ] [ -b dbase ] [ -B number ] [ -f file ]
       [-p interval ] [ -n time ] [ -R rate ] [ <INTERFACES> ]


       The arpd daemon collects gratuitous ARP information, saving it on local
       disk  and  feeding  it  to  the  kernel  on  demand  to avoid redundant
       broadcasting due to limited size of the kernel ARP cache.


       -h -?  Print help

       -l     Dump the arpd database to stdout and exit. The  output  consists
              of  three  columns:  the  interface index, the IP address of the
              interface, and  the  MAC  address  of  the  interface.  Negative
              entries  for  dead  hosts  are  also shown, in this case the MAC
              address is replaced by the word FAILED followed by a  colon  and
              the  most  recent  time  when the fact that the host is dead was

       -f <FILE>
              Read and load an arpd  database  from  FILE  in  a  text  format
              similar  to  that dumped by option -l. Exit after load, possibly
              listing resulting database, if option -l is also given. If  FILE
              is -, stdin is read to get the ARP table.

       -b <DATABASE>
              the  location  of  the  database  file.  The default location is

       -a <NUMBER>
              With this option,  arpd  not  only  passively  listens  for  ARP
              packets  on  the  interface,  but  also  sends broadcast queries
              itself. NUMBER is the number of such queries to  make  before  a
              destination  is  considered dead. When arpd is started as kernel
              helper (i.e. with app_solicit enabled in  sysctl  or  even  with
              option  -k)  without  this option and still did not learn enough
              information, you can observe  1  second  gaps  in  service.  Not
              fatal, but not good.

       -k     Suppress  sending  broadcast  queries by the kernel. This option
              only makes sense together with option -a.

       -n <TIME>
              Specifies the timeout of the  negative  cache.  When  resolution
              fails,  arpd  suppresses  further  attempts  to resolve for this
              period. This option only makes sense together with option  '-k'.
              This timeout should not be too much longer than the boot time of
              a typical host not supporting gratuitous ARP. Default  value  is
              60 seconds.

       -p <TIME>
              The  time  to  wait  in  seconds between polling attempts to the
              kernel ARP table. TIME may  be  a  floating  point  number.  The
              default value is 30.

       -R <RATE>
              Maximal  steady  rate  of broadcasts sent by arpd in packets per
              second. Default value is 1.

       -B <NUMBER>
              The number of broadcasts sent by  arpd  back  to  back.  Default
              value  is  3.  Together  with the -R option, this option ensures
              that the number of ARP  queries  that  are  broadcast  does  not
              exceed B+R*T over any interval of time T.

       <INTERFACES>  is  a list of names of networking interfaces to watch. If
       no interfaces are given, arpd monitors all the interfaces. In this case
       arpd  does  not  adjust  sysctl parameters, it is assumed that the user
       does this himself after arpd is started.


       When arpd receives a SIGINT or SIGTERM  signal,  it  exits  gracefully,
       syncing  the  database  and  restoring adjusted sysctl parameters. On a
       SIGHUP it syncs the database  to  disk.  With  SIGUSR1  it  sends  some
       statistics  to syslog. The effect of any other signals is undefined. In
       particular,  they  may  corrupt  the  database  and  leave  the  sysctl
       parameters in an unpredictable state.


       In  order for arpd to be able to serve as ARP resolver, the kernel must
       be compiled with the option CONFIG_ARPD and, in the case when interface
       list  in  not given on command line, variable app_solicit on interfaces
       of interest should be in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/neigh/*.  If  this  is  not
       made arpd still collects gratuitous ARP information in its database.


       arpd -b /var/tmp/arpd.db
              Start  arpd  to  collect  gratuitous  ARP,  but not messing with
              kernel functionality.

       killall arpd ; arpd -l -b /var/tmp/arpd.db
              Look at result after some time.

       arpd -b /var/tmp/arpd.db -a 1 eth0 eth1
              Enable kernel helper, leaving leading role to kernel.

       arpd -b /var/tmp/arpd.db -a 3 -k eth0 eth1
              Completely replace kernel  resolution  on  interfaces  eth0  and
              eth1.  In  this  case  the  kernel still does unicast probing to
              validate entries, but all the broadcast activity  is  suppressed
              and made under authority of arpd.

       This  is the mode in which arpd normally is supposed to work. It is not
       the default to prevent occasional enabling of too aggressive a mode.

                                 28 June, 2007                         ARPD(8)