Provided by: netsniff-ng_0.6.0-1build2_i386 bug


       astraceroute - autonomous system trace route utility


       astraceroute [options]


       astraceroute  is  a  small  utility  to  retrieve path information in a
       traceroute  like  way,  but  with  additional   geographical   location
       information. It tracks the route of a packet from the local host to the
       remote host by successively increasing the  IP's  TTL  field,  starting
       from  1,  in  the  hope  that  each intermediate node will send an ICMP
       TIME_EXCEEDED notification back to the local host when the TTL value is
       decremented to 0.

       astraceroute  supports  IPv4  and IPv6 queries and will display country
       and city information, if available, the AS number the hop  belongs  to,
       and  its  ISP  name.  astraceroute also displays timing information and
       reverse DNS data.

       Due to astraceroute's configurability, it is also  possible  to  gather
       some  more  useful information about the hop regarding what it does and
       does not allow to pass through.  This  is  done  by  using  clear  text
       strings  for  probing  DPIs or ``great firewalls'' to determine if they
       will filter out blacklisted critical keywords. This  tool  might  be  a
       good start for further in-depth analysis of such systems.


   -H <host>, --host <host>
       Hostname  or IPv4 or IPv6 address of the remote host where the AS route
       should be traced to. In the case of an IPv6  address  or  host,  option
       ''-6'' must be used. IPv4 is the default.

   -p <port>, --port <port>
       TCP port for the remote host to use. If not specified, the default port
       used is 80.

   -i <device>, -d <device>, --dev <device>
       Networking device to start the trace route from, e.g. eth0, wlan0.

   -b <IP>, --bind <IP>
       IP address to bind to other than the network device's address. You must
       specify -6 for an IPv6 address.

   -f <ttl>, --init-ttl <ttl>
       Initial  TTL  value  to be used. This option might be useful if you are
       not interested in the first n hops, but only the  following  ones.  The
       default initial TTL value is 1.

   -m <ttl>, --max-ttl <ttl>
       Maximum  TTL  value to be used. If not otherwise specified, the maximum
       TTL value is 30. Thus, after this has been reached astraceroute exits.

   -q <num>, --num-probes <num>
       Specifies the number of queries to be done on  a  particular  hop.  The
       default is 2 query requests.

   -x <sec>, --timeout <sec>
       Tells  astraceroute  the  probe  response  timeout in seconds, in other
       words the maximum time astraceroute must wait for an ICMP response from
       the current hop. The default is 3 seconds.

   -X <string>, --payload <string>
       Places  an  ASCII  cleartext  string into the packet payload. Cleartext
       that contains whitespace must be put into quotes (e.g.: "censor me").

   -l <len>, --totlen <len>
       Specifies the total length of the packet. Payload that does not have  a
       cleartext string in it is padded with random garbage.

   -4, --ipv4
       Use IPv4 only requests. This is the default.

   -6, --ipv6
       Use  IPv6 only requests. This must be used when passing an IPv6 host as
       an argument.

   -n, --numeric
       Tells astraceroute to not perform reverse DNS lookup for  hop  replies.
       The reverse option is ''-N''.

   -u, --update
       The  built-in  geo-database  update  mechanism  will  be invoked to get
       Maxmind's latest version. To configure search locations for  databases,
       the file /etc/netsniff-ng/geoip.conf contains possible addresses. Thus,
       to save bandwidth or for mirroring Maxmind's databases (to bypass their
       traffic  limit  policy),  different hosts or IP addresses can be placed
       into geoip.conf, separated by a newline.

   -L, --latitude
       Also show latitude and longitude of hops.

   -N, --dns
       Tells astraceroute to perform reverse DNS lookup for hop  replies.  The
       reverse option is ''-n''.

   -S, --syn
       Use TCP's SYN flag for the request.

   -A, --ack
       Use TCP's ACK flag for the request.

   -F, --fin
       Use TCP's FIN flag for the request.

   -P, --psh
       Use TCP's PSH flag for the request.

   -U, --urg
       Use TCP's URG flag for the request.

   -R, --rst
       Use TCP's RST flag for the request.

   -E, --ecn-syn
       Use TCP's ECN flag for the request.

   -t <tos>, --tos <tos>
       Explicitly specify IP's TOS.

   -G, --nofrag
       Set IP's no fragmentation flag.

   -Z, --show-packet
       Show and dissect the returned packet.

   -v, --version
       Show version information and exit.

   -h, --help
       Show user help and exit.


   astraceroute -i eth0 -N -S -H
       This  sends  out  a TCP SYN probe via the ''eth0'' networking device to
       the remote IPv4 host This request is  most  likely  to
       pass.  Also,  tell astraceroute to perform reverse DNS lookups for each

   astraceroute -6 -i eth0 -S -E -N -H
       In this example, a TCP SYN/ECN probe for the IPv6 host is
       being  performed.  Also in this case, the ''eth0'' device is being used
       as well as a reverse DNS lookup for each hop.

   astraceroute -i eth0 -N -F -H
       Here, we send out a TCP FIN probe to the remote  host
       Again,  on  each hop a reverse DNS lookup is being done and the queries
       are transmitted from ''eth0''. IPv4 is used.

   astraceroute -i eth0 -N -FPU -H
       As in most other examples, we  perform  a  trace  route  to  IPv4  host and do a TCP Xmas probe this time.

   astraceroute -i eth0 -N -H -X censor-me -Z
       In  this  example,  we  have  a Null probe to the remote host netsniff-, port 80 (default) and this time, we append the cleartext string
       "censor-me"  into  the packet payload to test if a firewall or DPI will
       let this string pass. Such a trace could be done once without, and once
       with,  a  blacklisted  string  to  gather  possible  information  about


       If a TCP-based probe fails after a number of retries, astraceroute will
       automatically  fall back to ICMP-based probes to pass through firewalls
       and routers used in load balancing for example.

       To gather more information about astraceroute's displayed  AS  numbers,
       see e.g.:<number>.


       The  geographical  locations  are  estimated with the help of Maxmind's
       GeoIP database and can differ  from  the  real  physical  location.  To
       decrease  the  possible  errors,  update  the  database regularly using
       astraceroute's --update option.

       At some point in time, we  need  a  similar  approach  to  gather  more
       reliable path information such as in the paris-traceroute tool.

       Due  to the generic nature of astraceroute, it currently has a built-in
       mechanism to stop the trace after a fixed number  of  hops,  since  the
       configurable  TCP  flags  can have anything included. It is possible to
       decrease this number of course.  In the future, if a SYN probe is  sent
       out,  there  should  be  a listener so that we can stop the trace if we
       detect a handshake in progress.


       astraceroute is licensed under the GNU GPL version 2.0.


       astraceroute was originally written  for  the  netsniff-ng  toolkit  by
       Daniel   Borkmann.   It  is  currently  maintained  by  Tobias  Klauser
       <> and Daniel Borkmann <>.


       netsniff-ng(8),   trafgen(8),    mausezahn(8),    ifpps(8),    bpfc(8),
       flowtop(8), curvetun(8)


       Manpage was written by Daniel Borkmann.


       This  page  is  part  of  the  Linux  netsniff-ng  toolkit  project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at