Provided by: gdisk_1.0.1-1build1_i386 bug

NAME

       cgdisk - Curses-based GUID partition table (GPT) manipulator

SYNOPSIS

       cgdisk [ -a ] device

DESCRIPTION

       GPT   fdisk  is  a  text-mode  family  of  programs  for  creation  and
       manipulation of partition tables. The  cgdisk  member  of  this  family
       employs a curses-based user interface for interaction using a text-mode
       menuing system. It will automatically convert an old-style Master  Boot
       Record  (MBR)  partition  table  or BSD disklabel stored without an MBR
       carrier partition  to  the  newer  Globally  Unique  Identifier  (GUID)
       Partition  Table  (GPT)  format,  or  will load a GUID partition table.
       Other members of this program family are gdisk (the  most  feature-rich
       program   of  the  group,  with  a  non-curses-based  interactive  user
       interface) and sgdisk (which is driven via command-line options for use
       by  experts or in scripts).  FixParts is a related program for fixing a
       limited set of problems with MBR disks.

       For information on  MBR  vs.  GPT,  as  well  as  GPT  terminology  and
       structure,    see    the    extended   GPT   fdisk   documentation   at
       http://www.rodsbooks.com/gdisk/ or consult Wikipedia.

       The cgdisk program employs a user interface similar to that of  Linux's
       cfdisk,  but cgdisk modifies GPT partitions. It also has the capability
       of transforming MBR partitions or BSD disklabels into  GPT  partitions.
       Like   the  original  cfdisk  program,  cgdisk  does  not  modify  disk
       structures until you explicitly write them to disk, so if  you  make  a
       mistake,  you  can  exit from the program with the Quit option to leave
       your partitions unmodified.

       Ordinarily, cgdisk operates on disk device files, such as  /dev/sda  or
       /dev/hda  under  Linux,  /dev/disk0  under  Mac  OS  X,  or /dev/ad0 or
       /dev/da0 under FreeBSD. The program can  also  operate  on  disk  image
       files,  which  can  be  either copies of whole disks (made with dd, for
       instance) or raw disk images used by emulators such as QEMU or  VMWare.
       Note  that  only  raw  disk images are supported; cgdisk cannot work on
       compressed or other advanced disk image formats.

       Upon start, cgdisk attempts to identify the partition type  in  use  on
       the  disk.  If  it  finds valid GPT data, cgdisk will use it. If cgdisk
       finds a valid MBR or BSD disklabel but no GPT data, it will attempt  to
       convert  the MBR or disklabel into GPT form. (BSD disklabels are likely
       to have unusable first and/or final  partitions  because  they  overlap
       with  the  GPT  data  structures,  though.)  Upon  exiting with the 'w'
       option, cgdisk replaces the MBR or disklabel with a GPT. This action is
       potentially dangerous! Your system may become unbootable, and partition
       type codes may become corrupted if  the  disk  uses  unrecognized  type
       codes.   Boot  problems are particularly likely if you're multi-booting
       with any GPT-unaware OS. If you mistakenly  launch  cgdisk  on  an  MBR
       disk,  you  can  safely  exit the program without making any changes by
       using the Quit option.

       When creating a fresh partition table, certain considerations may be in
       order:

       *      For data (non-boot) disks, and for boot disks used on BIOS-based
              computers with GRUB  as  the  boot  loader,  partitions  may  be
              created in whatever order and in whatever sizes are desired.

       *      Boot disks for EFI-based systems require an EFI System Partition
              (GPT fdisk internal  code  0xEF00)  formatted  as  FAT-32.   The
              recommended  size  of this partition is between 100 and 300 MiB.
              Boot-related files  are  stored  here.  (Note  that  GNU  Parted
              identifies such partitions as having the "boot flag" set.)

       *      The  GRUB  2  boot  loader for BIOS-based systems makes use of a
              BIOS Boot Partition (GPT fdisk internal code 0xEF02),  in  which
              the  secondary  boot  loader is stored, without the benefit of a
              filesystem. This partition can typically be quite small (roughly
              32  KiB  to  1  MiB),  but  you  should consult your boot loader
              documentation for details.

       *      If Windows is to boot from a  GPT  disk,  a  partition  of  type
              Microsoft   Reserved   (GPT   fdisk  internal  code  0x0C01)  is
              recommended. This partition should be about 128 MiB in size.  It
              ordinarily  follows  the  EFI  System  Partition and immediately
              precedes the Windows data partitions. (Note that old versions of
              GNU  Parted  create  all  FAT  partitions  as  this  type, which
              actually makes the partition unusable for normal file storage in
              both Windows and Mac OS X.)

       *      Some  OSes' GPT utilities create some blank space (typically 128
              MiB) after each partition. The intent is to enable  future  disk
              utilities  to use this space. Such free space is not required of
              GPT disks, but creating it may help in future disk  maintenance.
              You  can  use  GPT fdisk's relative partition positioning option
              (specifying the starting sector as  '+128M',  for  instance)  to
              simplify creating such gaps.

OPTIONS

       Only  one  command-line  option  is  accepted,  aside  from  the device
       filename: -a. This option alters the  highlighting  of  partitions  and
       blocks  of free space: Instead of using ncurses, when -a is used cgdisk
       uses a ">" symbol to the left of the selected partition or free  space.
       This  option  is  intended  for  use on limited display devices such as
       teletypes and screen readers.

       Interactions with cgdisk occur with its  interactive  text-mode  menus.
       The display is broken into two interactive parts:

       *      The partition display area, in which partitions and gaps between
              them (marked as "free space") are summarized.

       *      The option selection area, in which buttons for the main options
              appear.

       In  addition,  the  top  of  the  display  shows the program's name and
       version number, the device filename associated with the disk,  and  the
       disk's size in both sectors and IEEE-1541 units (GiB, TiB, and so on).

       You can use the following keys to move among the various options and to
       select among them:

       up arrow
              This key moves the partition selection up by one partition.

       down arrow
              This key moves the partition selection down by one partition.

       Page Up
              This key moves the partition selection up by one screen.

       Page Down
              This key moves the partition selection down by one screen.

       right arrow
              This key moves the option selection to the right by one item.

       left arrow
              This key moves the option selection to the left by one item.

       Enter  This key activates the currently selected option. You  can  also
              activate  an  option  by  typing  the  capitalized letter in the
              option's name on the keyboard, such as a to activate  the  Align
              option.

       If  more  partitions exist than can be displayed in one screen, you can
       scroll between screens using the partition selection keys, much as in a
       text editor.

       Available  options are as described below. (Note that cgdisk provides a
       much more limited set of options than its sibling gdisk. If you need to
       perform  partition  table  recovery,  hybrid  MBR modifcation, or other
       advanced operations, you should consult the gdisk documentation.)

       Align  Change the sector  alignment  value.  Disks  with  more  logical
              sectors  than  physical  sectors (such as modern Advanced Format
              drives), some RAID configurations, and  many  SSD  devices,  can
              suffer  performance  problems  if  partitions  are  not  aligned
              properly for their internal data structures. On new  disks,  GPT
              fdisk   attempts   to   align   partitions  on  1MiB  boundaries
              (2048-sectors on disks with 512-byte sectors) by default,  which
              optimizes   performance   for   all  of  these  disk  types.  On
              pre-partitioned  disks,  GPT  fdisk  attempts  to  identify  the
              alignment  value  used  on  that  disk,  but  will  set 8-sector
              alignment on disks larger than 300 GB even if  lesser  alignment
              values  are detected. In either case, it can be changed by using
              this option.

       Backup Save partition data to a backup  file.  You  can  back  up  your
              current  in-memory  partition  table  to  a disk file using this
              option. The resulting file is a binary file  consisting  of  the
              protective  MBR, the main GPT header, the backup GPT header, and
              one copy of the partition table, in that order.  Note  that  the
              backup  is  of  the current in-memory data structures, so if you
              launch the program, make changes, and then use this option,  the
              backup will reflect your changes.

       Delete Delete  a  partition.  This  action  deletes  the entry from the
              partition table but does not disturb the data within the sectors
              originally  allocated  to  the  partition  on  the  disk.  If  a
              corresponding hybrid MBR partition exists, gdisk deletes it,  as
              well,  and  expands  any  adjacent 0xEE (EFI GPT) MBR protective
              partition to fill the new free space.

       Help   Print brief descriptions of all the options.

       Info   Show detailed partition  information.  The  summary  information
              shown  in  the  partition  display  area  necessarily omits many
              details,  such  as  the  partitions'  unique   GUIDs   and   the
              partitions'  sector-exact  start and end points. The Info option
              displays this information for a single partition.

       Load   Load partition data from a  backup  file.  This  option  is  the
              reverse of the Backup option. Note that restoring partition data
              from anything but the original disk is not recommended.

       naMe   Change the GPT name of a partition. This name is  encoded  as  a
              UTF-16  string,  but proper entry and display of anything beyond
              basic ASCII values requires suitable locale  and  font  support.
              For  the most part, Linux ignores the partition name, but it may
              be important in some OSes. GPT fdisk sets a default  name  based
              on  the partition type code. Note that the GPT partition name is
              different from the filesystem name,  which  is  encoded  in  the
              filesystem's  data  structures.  Note also that to activate this
              item by typing its alphabetic equivalent, you must  use  M,  not
              the  more  obvious  N,  because  the  latter is used by the next
              option....

       New    Create a new partition. You enter a starting sector, a  size,  a
              type  code,  and  a  name.  The start sector can be specified in
              absolute terms as a sector number or as a position  measured  in
              kibibytes  (K),  mebibytes (M), gibibytes (G), tebibytes (T), or
              pebibytes (P); for instance, 40M specifies a position 40MiB from
              the start of the disk. You can specify locations relative to the
              start or end of the specified default  range  by  preceding  the
              number  by a '+' symbol, as in +2G to specify a point 2GiB after
              the default start sector. The size value can use the K, M, G, T,
              and  P  suffixes,  too.  Pressing  the  Enter  key with no input
              specifies the default value, which is the start of  the  largest
              available block for the start sector and the full available size
              for the size.

       Quit   Quit from the program without saving  your  changes.   Use  this
              option  if  you just wanted to view information or if you make a
              mistake and want to back out of all your changes.

       Type   Change a single partition's type code. You enter the  type  code
              using  a  two-byte hexadecimal number. You may also enter a GUID
              directly, if you have one and cgdisk doesn't  know  it.  If  you
              don't  know  the type code for your partition, you can type L to
              see a list of known type codes.

       Verify Verify disk. This option checks for a variety of problems,  such
              as  incorrect  CRCs  and  mismatched  main and backup data. This
              option does not automatically correct most problems, though; for
              that, you must use gdisk. If no problems are found, this command
              displays a summary of unallocated disk space.

       Write  Write data. Use this command to save your changes.

BUGS

       Known bugs and limitations include:

       *      The program compiles correctly only on Linux, FreeBSD,  and  Mac
              OS  X. In theory, it should compile under Windows if the Ncurses
              library for Windows is installed, but I  have  not  tested  this
              capability.  Linux  versions  for x86-64 (64-bit), x86 (32-bit),
              and PowerPC (32-bit) have been tested, with the  x86-64  version
              having  seen  the  most testing. Under FreeBSD, 32-bit (x86) and
              64-bit (x86-64) versions have been tested. Only 32-bit  versions
              for Mac OS X has been tested by the author.

       *      The  FreeBSD  version  of the program can't write changes to the
              partition table to a disk when existing partitions on that  disk
              are  mounted.  (The  same problem exists with many other FreeBSD
              utilities, such as gpt, fdisk, and dd.) This limitation  can  be
              overcome  by  typing  sysctl  kern.geom.debugflags=16 at a shell
              prompt.

       *      The program can load  only  up  to  128  partitions  (4  primary
              partitions  and 124 logical partitions) when converting from MBR
              format. This  limit  can  be  raised  by  changing  the  #define
              MAX_MBR_PARTS  line  in  the  basicmbr.h  source  code  file and
              recompiling;  however,  such  a  change  will  require  using  a
              larger-than-normal partition table. (The limit of 128 partitions
              was  chosen  because  that  number  equals  the  128  partitions
              supported by the most common partition table size.)

       *      Converting   from   MBR   format   sometimes  fails  because  of
              insufficient space at the start or (more commonly)  the  end  of
              the  disk. Resizing the partition table (using the 's' option in
              the experts' menu in gdisk) can sometimes overcome this problem;
              however,  in  extreme  cases  it  may  be  necessary to resize a
              partition using GNU Parted or a similar tool prior to conversion
              with GPT fdisk.

       *      MBR  conversions work only if the disk has correct LBA partition
              descriptors. These descriptors should be  present  on  any  disk
              over  8 GiB in size or on smaller disks partitioned with any but
              very ancient software.

       *      BSD disklabel support can create first  and/or  last  partitions
              that overlap with the GPT data structures. This can sometimes be
              compensated by  adjusting  the  partition  table  size,  but  in
              extreme cases the affected partition(s) may need to be deleted.

       *      Because   of   the  highly  variable  nature  of  BSD  disklabel
              structures, conversions from this  form  may  be  unreliable  --
              partitions  may  be  dropped,  converted  in  a way that creates
              overlaps with other  partitions,  or  converted  with  incorrect
              start or end values. Use this feature with caution!

       *      Booting  after converting an MBR or BSD disklabel disk is likely
              to be disrupted. Sometimes re-installing a boot loader will  fix
              the  problem,  but  other  times  you  may  need  to switch boot
              loaders. Except on EFI-based platforms, Windows through at least
              Windows  7  doesn't  support  booting from GPT disks. Creating a
              hybrid  MBR  (using  the  'h'   option   on   the   recovery   &
              transformation  menu in gdisk) or abandoning GPT in favor of MBR
              may be your only options in this case.

       *      The cgdisk  Verify  function  and  the  partition  type  listing
              obtainable  by typing L in the Type function (or when specifying
              a partition type while creating a new partition) both  currently
              exit  ncurses  mode. This limitation is a minor cosmetic blemish
              that does not affect functionality.

AUTHORS

       Primary author: Roderick W. Smith (rodsmith@rodsbooks.com)

       Contributors:

       * Yves Blusseau (1otnwmz02@sneakemail.com)

       * David Hubbard (david.c.hubbard@gmail.com)

       * Justin Maggard (justin.maggard@netgear.com)

       * Dwight Schauer (dschauer@gmail.com)

       * Florian Zumbiehl (florz@florz.de)

SEE ALSO

       cfdisk (8), fdisk (8), gdisk (8), mkfs  (8),  parted  (8),  sfdisk  (8)
       sgdisk (8) fixparts (8)

       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table

       http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn2006/tn2166.html

       http://www.rodsbooks.com/gdisk/

AVAILABILITY

       The  cgdisk  command  is part of the GPT fdisk package and is available
       from Rod Smith.