Provided by: debootstrap_1.0.78+nmu1ubuntu1_all bug


       debootstrap - Bootstrap a basic Debian system


       debootstrap [OPTION...]  SUITE TARGET [MIRROR [SCRIPT]]

       debootstrap [OPTION...]  --second-stage


       debootstrap  bootstraps a basic Debian system of SUITE into TARGET from
       MIRROR by running SCRIPT.  MIRROR can be an http:// or https:// URL,  a
       file:/// URL, or an ssh:/// URL.

       The  SUITE  may  be  a release code name (eg, sid, jessie, wheezy) or a
       symbolic name (eg, unstable, testing, stable, oldstable)

       Notice that file:/ URLs are translated to file:/// (correct  scheme  as
       described  in  RFC1738 for local filenames), and file:// will not work.
       ssh://USER@HOST/PATH URLs are retrieved using scp; use of ssh-agent  or
       similar is strongly recommended.

       Debootstrap  can be used to install Debian in a system without using an
       installation disk but can also be used to run a different Debian flavor
       in  a  chroot  environment.   This  way you can create a full (minimal)
       Debian installation which can be used for  testing  purposes  (see  the
       EXAMPLES  section).   If  you  are looking for a chroot system to build
       packages please take a look at pbuilder.


              Set the target architecture (use if dpkg isn't installed).   See
              also --foreign.

              Comma separated list of packages which will be added to download
              and extract lists.

              Comma separated list of packages  which  will  be  removed  from
              download  and extract lists.  WARNING: you can and probably will
              exclude essential packages, be careful using this option.

              Use packages from the listed components of the archive.

              By default, debootstrap will attempt  to  automatically  resolve
              any  missing  dependencies, warning if any are found.  Note that
              this is not a complete dependency resolve in the sense  of  dpkg
              or  apt,  and  that  it is far better to specify the entire base
              system than rely on this option.  With  this  option  set,  this
              behaviour is disabled.

              Name  of  the  bootstrap  script variant to use.  Currently, the
              variants supported are minbase, which  only  includes  essential
              packages  and  apt;  buildd,  which installs the build-essential
              packages  into  TARGET;  and  fakechroot,  which  installs   the
              packages  without  root  privileges.   Finally  there is variant
              scratchbox, which is for creating targets for scratchbox  usage.
              The  default,  with no --variant=X argument, is to create a base
              Debian installation in TARGET.

              Override  the  default  keyring  for  the   distribution   being
              bootstrapped,  and  use KEYRING to check signatures of retrieved
              Release files.

              Disables checking gpg signatures of retrieved Release files.

              Forces checking Release  file  signatures,  disabling  automatic
              fallback  to  HTTPS  in  case of a missing keyring. Incompatible
              with the previous option.

              Produce more info about downloading.

              Print the packages to be  installed,  and  exit.   Note  that  a
              TARGET  directory  must be specified so debootstrap can download
              Packages files to determine which packages should be  installed,
              and  to  resolve  dependencies.   The  TARGET  directory will be
              deleted unless --keep-debootstrap-dir is specified.

              Download packages, but don't perform installation.

              Do the initial unpack phase of bootstrapping only,  for  example
              if the target architecture does not match the host architecture.
              A copy of debootstrap sufficient for  completing  the  bootstrap
              process  will  be  installed  as /debootstrap/debootstrap in the
              target filesystem.  You  can  run  it  with  the  --second-stage
              option to complete the bootstrapping process.

              Complete   the   bootstrapping  process.   Other  arguments  are
              generally not needed.

              Run second stage in a subdirectory instead of root. (can be used
              to create a foreign chroot) (requires --second-stage)

              Don't  delete  the  /debootstrap  directory  in the target after
              completing the installation.

              Acquire .debs from tarball FILE instead of downloading via http.

              Instead of bootstrapping, make a tarball (written  to  FILE)  of
              the downloaded packages.  The resulting tarball may be passed to
              a later --unpack-tarball.

              Used for internal purposes by the debian-installer

              Override automatic .deb extractor selection to TYPE.   Supported
              extractors are: dpkg-deb and ar.

              Do not check certificate against certificate authorities

              Use the client certificate stored in file (PEM)

              Read the private key from file


       To setup a wheezy system:

            debootstrap                 wheezy                 ./wheezy-chroot

            debootstrap wheezy ./wheezy-chroot file:///LOCAL_MIRROR/debian

       Full process to create a complete Debian installation of sid (unstable)
       in a chroot:

            main          #          debootstrap          sid         sid-root
            [ ... watch it download the whole system ]
            main # echo "proc sid-root/proc proc defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
            main # mount proc sid-root/proc -t proc
            main # echo "sysfs sid-root/sys sysfs defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
            main # mount sysfs sid-root/sys -t sysfs
            main # cp /etc/hosts sid-root/etc/hosts
            main # chroot sid-root /bin/bash


       debootstrap  was  written  by  Anthony  Towns  <>.   This
       manpage was written by Matt Kraai <>.