Provided by: dirmngr_2.1.11-6ubuntu2_amd64 bug


       dirmngr - CRL and OCSP daemon


       dirmngr [options] command [args]


       Since  version  2.1  of GnuPG, dirmngr takes care of accessing the OpenPGP keyservers.  As
       with previous versions  it  is  also  used  as  a  server  for  managing  and  downloading
       certificate   revocation   lists   (CRLs)   for   X.509  certificates,  downloading  X.509
       certificates, and providing access to OCSP providers.  Dirmngr is  invoked  internally  by
       gpg, gpgsm, or via the gpg-connect-agent tool.

       For  historical reasons it is also possible to start dirmngr in a system daemon mode which
       uses a different directory layout.  However, this mode is deprecated and may eventually be


       Commands  are  not distinguished from options except for the fact that only one command is

              Print the  program  version  and  licensing  information.   Note  that  you  cannot
              abbreviate this command.

       --help, -h
              Print  a  usage message summarizing the most useful command-line options.  Not that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

              Print a list  of  all  available  options  and  commands.   Note  that  you  cannot
              abbreviate this command.

              Run  in  server  mode  and  wait for commands on the stdin.  The default mode is to
              create a socket and listen for commands there.  This is only used for testing.

              Run in background daemon mode and listen for commands on a socket.  Note that  this
              also  changes  the  default  home  directory  and  enables the internal certificate
              validation code.  This mode is deprecated.

              List the contents of the CRL cache on stdout. This  is  probably  only  useful  for
              debugging purposes.

       --load-crl file
              This  command  requires a filename as additional argument, and it will make Dirmngr
              try to import the CRL in file into it's cache.  Note, that this is only possible if
              Dirmngr  is  able  to  retrieve the CA's certificate directly by its own means.  In
              general it is better to use gpgsm's --call-dirmngr loadcrl filename command so that
              gpgsm can help dirmngr.

       --fetch-crl url
              This  command  requires an URL as additional argument, and it will make dirmngr try
              to retrieve an import the CRL from that url into it's cache.  This is mainly useful
              for debugging purposes.  The dirmngr-client provides the same feature for a running

              This commands shuts  down  an  running  instance  of  Dirmngr.   This  command  has
              currently no effect.

              This  command  removes  all  CRLs  from Dirmngr's cache.  Client requests will thus
              trigger reading of fresh CRLs.


       --options file
              Reads configuration from file instead of from the  default  per-user  configuration
              file.   The  default configuration file is named ‘dirmngr.conf’ and expected in the
              home directory.

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir.  This option is only effective when used
              on the command line.  The default depends on the running mode:

              With --daemon given on the commandline
                     the  directory  named  ‘/etc/gnupg2’  is  used  for  configuration files and
                     ‘/var/cache/gnupg2’ for cached CRLs.

              Without --daemon given on the commandline
                     the directory named ‘.gnupg’ directly below the home directory of  the  user
                     unless  the  environment  variable  GNUPGHOME has been set in which case its
                     value will be used.  All kind of data is stored below this directory.


              Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase  the  verbosity  by
              giving several verbose commands to dirmngr, such as -vv.

       --log-file file
              Append  all  logging output to file.  This is very helpful in seeing what the agent
              actually does.

       --debug-level level
              Select the debug level for investigating problems.  level may be a numeric value or
              by a keyword:

              none   No  debugging  at  all.   A  value of less than 1 may be used instead of the

              basic  Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be used  instead  of
                     the keyword.

                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              guru   All  of  the  debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8 may be used
                     instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash tracing files is only  enabled
                     if the keyword is used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to  the actual debugging flags is not specified and may
       change with newer releases of this program. They are however carefully  selected  to  best
       aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              This  option  is only useful for debugging and the behaviour may change at any time
              without notice.  FLAGS are bit encoded and may be given in usual C-Syntax.

              Same as --debug=0xffffffff

       --gnutls-debug level
              Enable debugging of GNUTLS at level.

       --debug-wait n
              When running in server mode, wait n seconds before entering the  actual  processing
              loop and print the pid.  This gives time to attach a debugger.




       --csh  Format  the  info  output  in  daemon  mode  for use with the standard Bourne shell
              respective the C-shell . The default ist to  guess  it  based  on  the  environment
              variable SHELL which is in almost all cases sufficient.

              Enabling  this  option  forces  loading  of  expired  CRLs; this is only useful for

              This option switches Dirmngr and thus GnuPG into ``Tor mode'' to route all  network
              access via Tor (an anonymity network).  WARNING: As of now this still leaks the DNS
              queries; e.g. to lookup the hosts in a keyserver pool.  Certain other features  are
              disabled if this mode is active.

       --keyserver name
              Use  name  as  your  keyserver.   This  is the server that gpg communicates with to
              receive keys, send keys, and search for keys.  The format of the  name  is  a  URI:
              `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]'  The  scheme  is the type of keyserver: "hkp" for
              the HTTP (or compatible) keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP  keyservers,  or  "mailto"
              for  the Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular installation of GnuPG may
              have  other  keyserver  types  available  as  well.  Keyserver  schemes  are  case-
              insensitive. After the keyserver name, optional keyserver configuration options may
              be provided.  These are the same as the --keyserver-options of gpg, but apply  only
              to this particular keyserver.

              Most  keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is generally no need to send
              keys to more than one server. The keyserver hkp:// uses  round  robin
              DNS to give a different keyserver each time you use it.

              If  exactly  two  keyservers  are  configured  and only one is a Tor hidden service
              (.onion), Dirmngr selects the keyserver to use depending on whether Tor is  locally
              running or not.  The check for a running Tor is done for each new connection.

       --nameserver ipaddr
              In  ``Tor  mode''  Dirmngr uses a public resolver via Tor to resolve DNS names.  If
              the default public resolver, which is, shall not be used  a  different  one
              can  be  given  using  this option.  Note that a numerical IP address must be given
              (IPv6 or IPv4) and that no error checking is done for ipaddr.  DNS queries  in  Tor
              mode do only work if GnuPG as been build with ADNS support.

              Entirely disables the use of LDAP.

              Entirely disables the use of HTTP.

              When  looking  for  the  location  of  a  CRL, the to be tested certificate usually
              contains so called CRL Distribution Point (DP) entries which  are  URLs  describing
              the way to access the CRL.  The first found DP entry is used.  With this option all
              entries using the HTTP scheme are ignored when looking for a suitable DP.

              This is similar to --ignore-http-dp but ignores  entries  using  the  LDAP  scheme.
              Both options may be combined resulting in ignoring DPs entirely.

              Ignore  all OCSP URLs contained in the certificate.  The effect is to force the use
              of the default responder.

              If the environment variable ‘http_proxy’ has been set, use its value to access HTTP

       --http-proxy host[:port]
              Use  host  and  port  to access HTTP servers.  The use of this option overrides the
              environment variable ‘http_proxy’ regardless whether  --honor-http-proxy  has  been

       --ldap-proxy host[:port]
              Use  host  and  port  to  connect  to  LDAP servers.  If port is ommitted, port 389
              (standard LDAP port) is used.  This overrides any specified host and port part in a
              LDAP URL and will also be used if host and port have been ommitted from the URL.

              Never  use  anything  else  but  the  LDAP "proxy" as configured with --ldap-proxy.
              Usually dirmngr tries to use other configured LDAP server if the  connection  using
              the "proxy" failed.

       --ldapserverlist-file file
              Read  the  list  of  LDAP  servers  to  consult for CRLs and certificates from file
              instead of the default per-user ldap server list file. The default value  for  file
              is ‘dirmngr_ldapservers.conf’ or ‘ldapservers.conf’ when running in --daemon mode.

              This server list file contains one LDAP server per line in the format


              Lines starting with a  '#' are comments.

              Note that as usual all strings entered are expected to be UTF-8 encoded.  Obviously
              this will lead to problems if the password has orginally been encoded  as  Latin-1.
              There  is no other solution here than to put such a password in the binary encoding
              into the file (i.e. non-ascii characters won't show  up  readable).  ([The  gpgconf
              tool  might  be  helpful for frontends as it allows to edit this configuration file
              using percent escaped strings.])

       --ldaptimeout secs
              Specify the number of seconds to wait for an LDAP  query  before  timing  out.  The
              default is currently 100 seconds.  0 will never timeout.

              This   options   makes  dirmngr  add  any  servers  it  discovers  when  validating
              certificates  against  CRLs  to  the  internal  list  of  servers  to  consult  for
              certificates and CRLs.

              This  options  is  useful  when  trying  to  validate  a certificate that has a CRL
              distribution point that points to a server  that  is  not  already  listed  in  the
              ldapserverlist.  Dirmngr will always go to this server and try to download the CRL,
              but chances are high that the certificate used to sign the CRL is  located  on  the
              same  server.  So if dirmngr doesn't add that new server to list, it will often not
              be able to verify the signature of the CRL unless the --add-servers option is used.

              Note: The current version of dirmngr has this option disabled by default.

              This option enables OCSP support if requested by the client.

              OCSP requests are rejected by default because they may violate the privacy  of  the
              user; for example it is possible to track the time when a user is reading a mail.

       --ocsp-responder url
              Use  url  as  the  default  OCSP  Responder  if  the  certificate  does not contain
              information about an assigned responder.  Note, that --ocsp-signer must also be set
              to a valid certificate.

       --ocsp-signer fpr|file
              Use  the certificate with the fingerprint fpr to check the responses of the default
              OCSP Responder.  Alternativly a filename can be given in which case the respinse is
              expected  to  be  signed  by  one  of the certificates described in that file.  Any
              argument which contains a slash, dot or tilde  is  considered  a  filename.   Usual
              filename  expansion  takes  place:  A  tilde  at  the  start followed by a slash is
              replaced by the content of ‘HOME’, no slash at start describes a relative  filename
              which  will  be  searched  at  the  home  directory.  To make sure that the file is
              searched in the home directory, either prepend the name with "./"  or  use  a  name
              which contains a dot.

              If  a  response has been signed by a certificate described by these fingerprints no
              further check upon the validity of this certificate is done.

              The format of the FILE is a list of SHA-1 fingerprint, one per line  with  optional
              colons  between  the  bytes.   Empty  lines  and  lines prefix with a hash mark are

       --ocsp-max-clock-skew n
              The number of seconds a skew between the OCSP responder and  them  local  clock  is
              accepted.  Default is 600 (20 minutes).

       --ocsp-max-period n
              Seconds  a  response  is  at  maximum  considered valid after the time given in the
              thisUpdate field.  Default is 7776000 (90 days).

       --ocsp-current-period n
              The number of seconds an OCSP response is considered valid after the time given  in
              the NEXT_UPDATE datum.  Default is 10800 (3 hours).

       --max-replies n
              Do not return more that n items in one query.  The default is 10.

       --ignore-cert-extension oid
              Add  oid  to the list of ignored certificate extensions.  The oid is expected to be
              in dotted decimal form, like  This option may be  used  more  than  once.
              Critical  flagged  certificate  extensions matching one of the OIDs in the list are
              treated as if they are actually handled and thus the certificate won't be  rejected
              due to an unknown critical extension.  Use this option with care because extensions
              are usually flagged as critical for a reason.

       --hkp-cacert file
              Use the root certificates in file for verification of  the  TLS  certificates  used
              with  hkps  (keyserver  access over TLS).  If the file is in PEM format a suffix of
              .pem is expected for file.  This option may be given multiple  times  to  add  more
              root certificates.  Tilde expansion is supported.


       Here is an example on how to show dirmngr's internal table of OpenPGP keyserver addresses.
       The output is intended for debugging purposes and not part of a defined API.

           gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'keyserver --hosttable' /bye

       To inhibit the use of a particular host you have noticed in one of  the  keyserver  pools,
       you may use

          gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'keyserver --dead' /bye

       The description of the keyserver command can be printed using

          gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'help keyserver' /bye


       Dirmngr makes use of several directories when running in daemon mode:


              The  first  is  the  standard  home  directory for all configuration files.  In the
              deprecated system daemon mode the second directory is used instead.

              This directory should be filled with certificates of Root CAs you are  trusting  in
              checking the CRLs and signing OCSP Reponses.

              Usually these are the same certificates you use with the applications making use of
              dirmngr.  It is expected that each of these certificate files contain  exactly  one
              DER  encoded certificate in a file with the suffix ‘.crt’ or ‘.der’.  dirmngr reads
              those certificates on startup and when given a SIGHUP.  Certificates which are  not
              readable or do not make up a proper X.509 certificate are ignored; see the log file
              for details.

              Applications using dirmngr (e.g. gpgsm) can request these certificates to  complete
              a trust chain in the same way as with the extra-certs directory (see below).

              Note  that  for  OCSP  responses the certificate specified using the option --ocsp-
              signer is always considered valid to sign OCSP requests.

              This directory may contain extra certificates which are preloaded into the  interal
              cache  on  startup.  Applications  using  dirmngr  (e.g.  gpgsm) can request cached
              certificates to complete a trust chain.  This is convenient in  cases  you  have  a
              couple  intermediate  CA  certificates  or  certificates ususally used to sign OCSP
              reponses.  These certificates are first tried before going out to the net  to  look
              for  them.  These certificates must also be DER encoded and suffixed with ‘.crt’ or

              This directory is only used in the deprecated system daemon  mode.   It  keeps  the
              socket  file  for  accessing dirmngr services.  The name of the socket file will be
              ‘S.dirmngr’.  Make sure that this directory  has  the  proper  permissions  to  let
              dirmngr  create  the socket file and that eligible users may read and write to that


              The first directory is used to store  cached  CRLs.   The  ‘crls.d’  part  will  be
              created  by  dirmngr if it does not exists but you need to make sure that the upper
              directory exists.  The second directory is used instead in the  deprecated  systems
              daemon mode.


       A  running  dirmngr  may  be  controlled by signals, i.e. using the kill command to send a
       signal to the process.

       Here is a list of supported signals:

       SIGHUP This signals flushes all internally cached CRLs as well as any cached certificates.
              Then  the  certificate  cache  is reinitialized as on startup.  Options are re-read
              from the configuration file.  Instead of sending this signal it is better to use
         gpgconf --reload dirmngr

              Shuts down the process but waits until all current requests are fulfilled.  If  the
              process  has received 3 of these signals and requests are still pending, a shutdown
              is forced.  You may also use
         gpgconf --kill dirmngr
       instead of this signal

       SIGINT Shuts down the process immediately.

              This prints some caching statistics to the log file.


       gpgsm(1), dirmngr-client(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If GnuPG and  the
       info program are properly installed at your site, the command

         info gnupg

       should give you access to the complete manual including a menu structure and an index.