Provided by: bind9utils_9.10.3.dfsg.P4-8_amd64 bug

NAME

       dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool

SYNOPSIS

       dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c class] [-d directory] [-D] [-E engine] [-e end-time]
                       [-f output-file] [-g] [-h] [-K directory] [-k key] [-L serial] [-l domain]
                       [-M domain] [-i interval] [-I input-format] [-j jitter]
                       [-N soa-serial-format] [-o origin] [-O output-format] [-P] [-p] [-R]
                       [-r randomdev] [-S] [-s start-time] [-T ttl] [-t] [-u] [-v level] [-V]
                       [-X extended end-time] [-x] [-z] [-3 salt] [-H iterations] [-A] {zonefile}
                       [key...]

DESCRIPTION

       dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It generates NSEC and RRSIG records and produces a signed
       version of the zone. The security status of delegations from the signed zone (that is,
       whether the child zones are secure or not) is determined by the presence or absence of a
       keyset file for each child zone.

OPTIONS

       -a
           Verify all generated signatures.

       -c class
           Specifies the DNS class of the zone.

       -C
           Compatibility mode: Generate a keyset-zonename file in addition to dsset-zonename when
           signing a zone, for use by older versions of dnssec-signzone.

       -d directory
           Look for dsset- or keyset- files in directory.

       -D
           Output only those record types automatically managed by dnssec-signzone, i.e. RRSIG,
           NSEC, NSEC3 and NSEC3PARAM records. If smart signing (-S) is used, DNSKEY records are
           also included. The resulting file can be included in the original zone file with
           $INCLUDE. This option cannot be combined with -O raw, -O map, or serial number
           updating.

       -E engine
           When applicable, specifies the hardware to use for cryptographic operations, such as a
           secure key store used for signing.

           When BIND is built with OpenSSL PKCS#11 support, this defaults to the string "pkcs11",
           which identifies an OpenSSL engine that can drive a cryptographic accelerator or
           hardware service module. When BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography
           (--enable-native-pkcs11), it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11 provider library
           specified via "--with-pkcs11".

       -g
           Generate DS records for child zones from dsset- or keyset- file. Existing DS records
           will be removed.

       -K directory
           Key repository: Specify a directory to search for DNSSEC keys. If not specified,
           defaults to the current directory.

       -k key
           Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any key flags. This option may be
           specified multiple times.

       -l domain
           Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets. The domain is appended
           to the name of the records.

       -M maxttl
           Sets the maximum TTL for the signed zone. Any TTL higher than maxttl in the input zone
           will be reduced to maxttl in the output. This provides certainty as to the largest
           possible TTL in the signed zone, which is useful to know when rolling keys because it
           is the longest possible time before signatures that have been retrieved by resolvers
           will expire from resolver caches. Zones that are signed with this option should be
           configured to use a matching max-zone-ttl in named.conf. (Note: This option is
           incompatible with -D, because it modifies non-DNSSEC data in the output zone.)

       -s start-time
           Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records become valid. This can be
           either an absolute or relative time. An absolute start time is indicated by a number
           in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation; 20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A
           relative start time is indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current time. If
           no start-time is specified, the current time minus 1 hour (to allow for clock skew) is
           used.

       -e end-time
           Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records expire. As with start-time,
           an absolute time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation. A time relative to the start
           time is indicated with +N, which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to
           the current time is indicated with now+N. If no end-time is specified, 30 days from
           the start time is used as a default.  end-time must be later than start-time.

       -X extended end-time
           Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records for the DNSKEY RRset will
           expire. This is to be used in cases when the DNSKEY signatures need to persist longer
           than signatures on other records; e.g., when the private component of the KSK is kept
           offline and the KSK signature is to be refreshed manually.

           As with start-time, an absolute time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation. A time
           relative to the start time is indicated with +N, which is N seconds from the start
           time. A time relative to the current time is indicated with now+N. If no extended
           end-time is specified, the value of end-time is used as the default. (end-time, in
           turn, defaults to 30 days from the start time.)  extended end-time must be later than
           start-time.

       -f output-file
           The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The default is to append
           .signed to the input filename. If output-file is set to "-", then the signed zone is
           written to the standard output, with a default output format of "full".

       -h
           Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to dnssec-signzone.

       -V
           Prints version information.

       -i interval
           When a previously-signed zone is passed as input, records may be resigned. The
           interval option specifies the cycle interval as an offset from the current time (in
           seconds). If a RRSIG record expires after the cycle interval, it is retained.
           Otherwise, it is considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.

           The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference between the signature end
           and start times. So if neither end-time or start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone
           generates signatures that are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of 7.5 days.
           Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are due to expire in less than 7.5 days, they
           would be replaced.

       -I input-format
           The format of the input zone file. Possible formats are "text" (default), "raw", and
           "map". This option is primarily intended to be used for dynamic signed zones so that
           the dumped zone file in a non-text format containing updates can be signed directly.
           The use of this option does not make much sense for non-dynamic zones.

       -j jitter
           When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all RRSIG records issued at the
           time of signing expires simultaneously. If the zone is incrementally signed, i.e. a
           previously-signed zone is passed as input to the signer, all expired signatures have
           to be regenerated at about the same time. The jitter option specifies a jitter window
           that will be used to randomize the signature expire time, thus spreading incremental
           signature regeneration over time.

           Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits validators and servers by
           spreading out cache expiration, i.e. if large numbers of RRSIGs don't expire at the
           same time from all caches there will be less congestion than if all validators need to
           refetch at mostly the same time.

       -L serial
           When writing a signed zone to "raw" or "map" format, set the "source serial" value in
           the header to the specified serial number. (This is expected to be used primarily for
           testing purposes.)

       -n ncpus
           Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one thread is started for each
           detected CPU.

       -N soa-serial-format
           The SOA serial number format of the signed zone. Possible formats are "keep"
           (default), "increment" and "unixtime".

               "keep"
                   Do not modify the SOA serial number.

               "increment"
                   Increment the SOA serial number using RFC 1982 arithmetics.

               "unixtime"
                   Set the SOA serial number to the number of seconds since epoch.

       -o origin
           The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file is assumed to be the
           origin.

       -O output-format
           The format of the output file containing the signed zone. Possible formats are "text"
           (default), which is the standard textual representation of the zone; "full", which is
           text output in a format suitable for processing by external scripts; and "map", "raw",
           and "raw=N", which store the zone in binary formats for rapid loading by named.
           "raw=N" specifies the format version of the raw zone file: if N is 0, the raw file can
           be read by any version of named; if N is 1, the file can be read by release 9.9.0 or
           higher; the default is 1.

       -p
           Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster, but less secure, than
           using real random data. This option may be useful when signing large zones or when the
           entropy source is limited.

       -P
           Disable post sign verification tests.

           The post sign verification test ensures that for each algorithm in use there is at
           least one non revoked self signed KSK key, that all revoked KSK keys are self signed,
           and that all records in the zone are signed by the algorithm. This option skips these
           tests.

       -Q
           Remove signatures from keys that are no longer active.

           Normally, when a previously-signed zone is passed as input to the signer, and a DNSKEY
           record has been removed and replaced with a new one, signatures from the old key that
           are still within their validity period are retained. This allows the zone to continue
           to validate with cached copies of the old DNSKEY RRset. The -Q forces dnssec-signzone
           to remove signatures from keys that are no longer active. This enables ZSK rollover
           using the procedure described in RFC 4641, section 4.2.1.1 ("Pre-Publish Key
           Rollover").

       -R
           Remove signatures from keys that are no longer published.

           This option is similar to -Q, except it forces dnssec-signzone to signatures from keys
           that are no longer published. This enables ZSK rollover using the procedure described
           in RFC 4641, section 4.2.1.2 ("Double Signature Zone Signing Key Rollover").

       -r randomdev
           Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does not provide a
           /dev/random or equivalent device, the default source of randomness is keyboard input.
           randomdev specifies the name of a character device or file containing random data to
           be used instead of the default. The special value keyboard indicates that keyboard
           input should be used.

       -S
           Smart signing: Instructs dnssec-signzone to search the key repository for keys that
           match the zone being signed, and to include them in the zone if appropriate.

           When a key is found, its timing metadata is examined to determine how it should be
           used, according to the following rules. Each successive rule takes priority over the
           prior ones:

                   If no timing metadata has been set for the key, the key is published in the
                   zone and used to sign the zone.

                   If the key's publication date is set and is in the past, the key is published
                   in the zone.

                   If the key's activation date is set and in the past, the key is published
                   (regardless of publication date) and used to sign the zone.

                   If the key's revocation date is set and in the past, and the key is published,
                   then the key is revoked, and the revoked key is used to sign the zone.

                   If either of the key's unpublication or deletion dates are set and in the
                   past, the key is NOT published or used to sign the zone, regardless of any
                   other metadata.

       -T ttl
           Specifies a TTL to be used for new DNSKEY records imported into the zone from the key
           repository. If not specified, the default is the TTL value from the zone's SOA record.
           This option is ignored when signing without -S, since DNSKEY records are not imported
           from the key repository in that case. It is also ignored if there are any pre-existing
           DNSKEY records at the zone apex, in which case new records' TTL values will be set to
           match them, or if any of the imported DNSKEY records had a default TTL value. In the
           event of a a conflict between TTL values in imported keys, the shortest one is used.

       -t
           Print statistics at completion.

       -u
           Update NSEC/NSEC3 chain when re-signing a previously signed zone. With this option, a
           zone signed with NSEC can be switched to NSEC3, or a zone signed with NSEC3 can be
           switch to NSEC or to NSEC3 with different parameters. Without this option,
           dnssec-signzone will retain the existing chain when re-signing.

       -v level
           Sets the debugging level.

       -x
           Only sign the DNSKEY RRset with key-signing keys, and omit signatures from
           zone-signing keys. (This is similar to the dnssec-dnskey-kskonly yes; zone option in
           named.)

       -z
           Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign. This causes KSK-flagged keys to
           sign all records, not just the DNSKEY RRset. (This is similar to the update-check-ksk
           no; zone option in named.)

       -3 salt
           Generate an NSEC3 chain with the given hex encoded salt. A dash (salt) can be used to
           indicate that no salt is to be used when generating the NSEC3 chain.

       -H iterations
           When generating an NSEC3 chain, use this many iterations. The default is 10.

       -A
           When generating an NSEC3 chain set the OPTOUT flag on all NSEC3 records and do not
           generate NSEC3 records for insecure delegations.

           Using this option twice (i.e., -AA) turns the OPTOUT flag off for all records. This is
           useful when using the -u option to modify an NSEC3 chain which previously had OPTOUT
           set.

       zonefile
           The file containing the zone to be signed.

       key
           Specify which keys should be used to sign the zone. If no keys are specified, then the
           zone will be examined for DNSKEY records at the zone apex. If these are found and
           there are matching private keys, in the current directory, then these will be used for
           signing.

EXAMPLE

       The following command signs the example.com zone with the DSA key generated by
       dnssec-keygen (Kexample.com.+003+17247). Because the -S option is not being used, the
       zone's keys must be in the master file (db.example.com). This invocation looks for dsset
       files, in the current directory, so that DS records can be imported from them (-g).

           % dnssec-signzone -g -o example.com db.example.com \
           Kexample.com.+003+17247
           db.example.com.signed
           %

       In the above example, dnssec-signzone creates the file db.example.com.signed. This file
       should be referenced in a zone statement in a named.conf file.

       This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters. The private keys
       are assumed to be in the current directory.

           % cp db.example.com.signed db.example.com
           % dnssec-signzone -o example.com db.example.com
           db.example.com.signed
           %

SEE ALSO

       dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 4033, RFC 4641.

AUTHOR

       Internet Systems Consortium

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright © 2004-2009, 2011-2014 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
       Copyright © 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.