Provided by: exim4-base_4.86.2-2ubuntu2_amd64 bug

NAME

       exim4 - a Mail Transfer Agent

SYNOPSIS

       exim4 [options] arguments ...
       mailq [options] arguments ...
       rsmtp [options] arguments ...
       rmail [options] arguments ...
       runq [options] arguments ...
       newaliases [options] arguments ...

DESCRIPTION


       Exim  is  a  mail  transfer agent (MTA) developed at the University of Cambridge.  It is a
       large program with very many facilities. For  a  full  specification,  see  the  reference
       manual. This man page contains only a description of the command line options. It has been
       automatically generated from the reference  manual  source,  hopefully  without  too  much
       mangling.

       Like  other  MTAs,  Exim  replaces  Sendmail, and is normally called by user agents (MUAs)
       using the path /usr/sbin/sendmail when they submit messages for delivery  (some  operating
       systems  use  /usr/lib/sendmail).  This  path is normally set up as a symbolic link to the
       Exim binary. It may also be used by boot scripts to start the Exim daemon. Many of  Exim's
       command  line  options  are  compatible  with  Sendmail  so  that  it can act as a drop-in
       replacement.

DEFAULT ACTION


       If no options are present that require a specific action (such as starting the daemon or a
       queue runner, testing an address, receiving a message in a specific format, or listing the
       queue), and there are no arguments on the command line, Exim outputs a brief message about
       itself and exits.

       However,  if  there  is at least one command line argument, -bm (accept a local message on
       the standard input, with the arguments specifying the recipients) is  assumed.  Thus,  for
       example,  if  Exim is installed in /usr/sbin, you can send a message from the command line
       like this:

         /usr/sbin/exim4 -i <recipient-address(es)>
         <message content, including all the header lines>
         CTRL-D

       The -i option prevents a line containing just a dot from terminating the message. Only  an
       end-of-file (generated by typing CTRL-D if the input is from a terminal) does so.

SETTING OPTIONS BY PROGRAM NAME


       If an Exim binary is called using one of the names listed in this section (typically via a
       symbolic link), certain options are assumed.

       mailq  Behave as if the option -bp were present before any other options.  The -bp  option
              requests a listing of the contents of the mail queue on the standard output.

       rsmtp  Behaves  as  if  the  option  -bS  were  present  before  any  other  options,  for
              compatibility with Smail. The -bS option  is  used  for  reading  in  a  number  of
              messages in batched SMTP format.

       rmail  Behave  as  if  the  -i and -oee options were present before any other options, for
              compatibility with Smail. The name rmail is used  as  an  interface  by  some  UUCP
              systems.  The -i option specifies that a dot on a line by itself does not terminate
              a non-SMTP message; -oee requests that errors  detected  in  non-SMTP  messages  be
              reported by emailing the sender.

       runq   Behave as if the option -q were present before any other options, for compatibility
              with Smail. The -q option causes a single queue runner process to  be  started.  It
              processes the queue once, then exits.

       newaliases
              Behave   as  if  the  option  -bi  were  present  before  any  other  options,  for
              compatibility with Sendmail. This option is used for  rebuilding  Sendmail's  alias
              file.  Exim does not have the concept of a single alias file, but can be configured
              to run a specified command if called with the -bi option.

OPTIONS


       --        This is a pseudo-option whose only purpose  is  to  terminate  the  options  and
                 therefore  to  cause  subsequent  command  line items to be treated as arguments
                 rather than options, even if they begin with hyphens.

       --help    This option causes Exim to output a few sentences stating what it is.  The  same
                 output  is  generated  if  the  Exim  binary  is  called  with no options and no
                 arguments.

       --version This option is an alias for -bV and causes version information to be displayed.

       -Ac       -Am These options are used by Sendmail for selecting configuration files and are
                 ignored by Exim.

       -B<type>  This  is  a  Sendmail  option for selecting 7 or 8 bit processing. Exim is 8-bit
                 clean; it ignores this option.

       -bd       This option runs Exim as a daemon, awaiting incoming SMTP  connections.  Usually
                 the  -bd option is combined with the -q<time> option, to specify that the daemon
                 should also initiate periodic queue runs.

                 The -bd option can be  used  only  by  an  admin  user.  If  either  of  the  -d
                 (debugging)  or  -v  (verifying) options are set, the daemon does not disconnect
                 from the controlling terminal. When running this  way,  it  can  be  stopped  by
                 pressing ctrl-C.

                 By  default,  Exim listens for incoming connections to the standard SMTP port on
                 all the host's running interfaces. However, it is possible to  listen  on  other
                 ports, on multiple ports, and only on specific interfaces.

                 When  a  listening  daemon  is  started without the use of -oX (that is, without
                 overriding the normal configuration), it writes its process id to a file  called
                 /var/run/exim4/exim.pid.   This   location   can   be   overridden   by  setting
                 PID_FILE_PATH in Local/Makefile. The file is written while Exim is still running
                 as root.

                 When -oX is used on the command line to start a listening daemon, the process id
                 is not written to the normal pid file path. However, -oP can be used to  specify
                 a path on the command line if a pid file is required.

                 The  SIGHUP  signal  can  be used to cause the daemon to re-execute itself. This
                 should be  done  whenever  Exim's  configuration  file,  or  any  file  that  is
                 incorporated  into  it  by  means of the .include facility, is changed, and also
                 whenever a new version of Exim is installed. It is not necessary to do this when
                 other  files  that  are  referenced  from  the configuration (for example, alias
                 files) are changed, because these are reread each time they are used.

       -bdf      This option has the same effect as -bd except that it never disconnects from the
                 controlling terminal, even when no debugging is specified.

       -be       Run Exim in expansion testing mode. Exim discards its root privilege, to prevent
                 ordinary users from using this mode to read otherwise inaccessible files. If  no
                 arguments  are  given,  Exim  runs  interactively,  prompting for lines of data.
                 Otherwise, it processes each argument in turn.

                 If Exim was built with USE_READLINE=yes in Local/Makefile, it tries to load  the
                 libreadline  library dynamically whenever the -be option is used without command
                 line arguments. If successful, it uses the readline() function,  which  provides
                 extensive  line-editing facilities, for reading the test data. A line history is
                 supported.

                 Long expansion expressions can be split over several lines  by  using  backslash
                 continuations.  As in Exim's run time configuration, white space at the start of
                 continuation lines is ignored. Each argument or data line is passed through  the
                 string  expansion  mechanism, and the result is output. Variable values from the
                 configuration  file  (for  example,  $qualify_domain)  are  available,  but   no
                 message-specific  values (such as $sender_domain) are set, because no message is
                 being processed (but see -bem and -Mset).

                 Note: If you use this mechanism to test lookups, and you change the  data  files
                 or  databases  you  are  using, you must exit and restart Exim before trying the
                 same lookup again. Otherwise, because each Exim process caches  the  results  of
                 lookups, you will just get the same result as before.

       -bem <filename>
                 This  option  operates like -be except that it must be followed by the name of a
                 file. For example:

                   exim4 -bem /tmp/testmessage

                 The file is read as a message (as  if  receiving  a  locally-submitted  non-SMTP
                 message)  before  any  of  the  test expansions are done. Thus, message-specific
                 variables such as $message_size and $header_from:  are  available.  However,  no
                 Received:  header  is  added to the message. If the -t option is set, recipients
                 are read from the headers in the normal way, and are shown  in  the  $recipients
                 variable.  Note  that  recipients  cannot  be given on the command line, because
                 further arguments are taken as strings to expand (just like -be).

       -bF <filename>
                 This option is the same as -bf except that it  assumes  that  the  filter  being
                 tested  is  a  system filter. The additional commands that are available only in
                 system filters are recognized.

       -bf <filename>
                 This option runs Exim in user filter testing mode; the file is the  filter  file
                 to  be  tested,  and  a  test message must be supplied on the standard input. If
                 there are no message-dependent tests  in  the  filter,  an  empty  file  can  be
                 supplied.

                 If  you  want  to test a system filter file, use -bF instead of -bf. You can use
                 both -bF and -bf on the same command, in order to test a  system  filter  and  a
                 user filter in the same run. For example:

                   exim4 -bF /system/filter -bf /user/filter </test/message

                 This  is  helpful  when  the  system  filter  adds  header  lines or sets filter
                 variables that are used by the user filter.

                 If the test filter file does not begin with one of the special lines

                   # Exim filter
                   # Sieve filter

                 it is taken to be a normal .forward file, and is tested for validity under  that
                 interpretation.

                 The result of an Exim command that uses -bf, provided no errors are detected, is
                 a list of the actions that Exim would try to take if presented with the  message
                 for  real.  More  details  of  filter testing are given in the separate document
                 entitled Exim's interfaces to mail filtering.

                 When testing a filter file, the envelope sender can be set by the -f option,  or
                 by  a  "From  "  line  at the start of the test message. Various parameters that
                 would normally be taken from the envelope recipient address of the  message  can
                 be set by means of additional command line options (see the next four options).

       -bfd <domain>
                 This sets the domain of the recipient address when a filter file is being tested
                 by means of the -bf option. The default is the value of $qualify_domain.

       -bfl <local part>
                 This sets the local part of the recipient address when a filter  file  is  being
                 tested  by  means  of the -bf option. The default is the username of the process
                 that calls Exim. A local part should be specified  with  any  prefix  or  suffix
                 stripped,  because  that  is  how  it  appears  to  the filter when a message is
                 actually being delivered.

       -bfp <prefix>
                 This sets the prefix of the local part of the recipient address  when  a  filter
                 file is being tested by means of the -bf option. The default is an empty prefix.

       -bfs <suffix>
                 This  sets  the  suffix of the local part of the recipient address when a filter
                 file is being tested by means of the -bf option. The default is an empty suffix.

       -bh <IP address>
                 This option runs a fake SMTP session as if from the given IP address, using  the
                 standard  input and output. The IP address may include a port number at the end,
                 after a full stop. For example:

                   exim4 -bh 10.9.8.7.1234
                   exim4 -bh fe80::a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678

                 When an IPv6 address is given, it is converted into canonical form. In the  case
                 of  the second example above, the value of $sender_host_address after conversion
                 to the canonical form is fe80:0000:0000:0a00:20ff:fe86:a061.5678.

                 Comments as to what is going on are written to the standard  error  file.  These
                 include  lines  beginning  with  "LOG" for anything that would have been logged.
                 This facility  is  provided  for  testing  configuration  options  for  incoming
                 messages,  to make sure they implement the required policy. For example, you can
                 test your relay controls using -bh.

                 Warning 1: You can test features of the configuration that rely  on  ident  (RFC
                 1413)  information  by  using  the  -oMt  option.  However, Exim cannot actually
                 perform an ident callout when testing using -bh because  there  is  no  incoming
                 SMTP connection.

                 Warning  2:  Address  verification  callouts are also skipped when testing using
                 -bh. If you want these callouts to occur, use -bhc instead.

                 Messages supplied during the testing  session  are  discarded,  and  nothing  is
                 written  to  any of the real log files. There may be pauses when DNS (and other)
                 lookups are taking place, and of course these may time out. The -oMi option  can
                 be  used  to  specify a specific IP interface and port if this is important, and
                 -oMaa and -oMai can be used to set  parameters  as  if  the  SMTP  session  were
                 authenticated.

                 The  exim_checkaccess  utility  is a "packaged" version of -bh whose output just
                 states whether a given recipient address from a given host is acceptable or not.

                 Features such as authentication and encryption, where the client  input  is  not
                 plain  text,  cannot  easily  be  tested  with  -bh.  Instead,  you should use a
                 specialized SMTP test program such as swaks.

       -bhc <IP address>
                 This option operates in the same way as -bh, except  that  address  verification
                 callouts  are  performed  if required. This includes consulting and updating the
                 callout cache database.

       -bi       Sendmail interprets the -bi option as a request to rebuild its alias file.  Exim
                 does  not  have  the concept of a single alias file, and so it cannot mimic this
                 behaviour. However, calls to /usr/lib/sendmail  with  the  -bi  option  tend  to
                 appear  in  various  scripts  such  as  NIS  make  files,  so the option must be
                 recognized.

                 If -bi is encountered, the command specified  by  the  bi_command  configuration
                 option is run, under the uid and gid of the caller of Exim. If the -oA option is
                 used, its value is passed to the command as an argument.   The  command  set  by
                 bi_command  may  not  contain  arguments.  The command can use the exim_dbmbuild
                 utility, or some other means, to rebuild alias files if this is required. If the
                 bi_command option is not set, calling Exim with -bi is a no-op.

       -bI:help  We   shall   provide  various  options  starting  -bI:  for  querying  Exim  for
                 information.  The  output  of  many  of  these  will  be  intended  for  machine
                 consumption.   This one is not.  The -bI:help option asks Exim for a synopsis of
                 supported options beginning -bI:.  Use of any of these options shall cause  Exim
                 to exit after producing the requested output.

       -bI:dscp  This  option causes Exim to emit an alphabetically sorted list of all recognised
                 DSCP names.

       -bI:sieve This option causes Exim to emit an alphabetically sorted list of  all  supported
                 Sieve  protocol  extensions  on stdout, one per line.  This is anticipated to be
                 useful for ManageSieve (RFC 5804) implementations, in providing that  protocol's
                 SIEVE   capability   response  line.   As  the  precise  list  may  depend  upon
                 compile-time build options, which this option will adapt to, this  is  the  only
                 way to guarantee a correct response.

       -bm       This   option   runs  an  Exim  receiving  process  that  accepts  an  incoming,
                 locally-generated message on the standard input. The recipients are given as the
                 command  arguments  (except  when -t is also present - see below). Each argument
                 can be a comma-separated list of RFC 2822 addresses. This is the default  option
                 for  selecting  the  overall  action  of an Exim call; it is assumed if no other
                 conflicting option is present.

                 If any addresses in the message are  unqualified  (have  no  domain),  they  are
                 qualified  by  the values of the qualify_domain or qualify_recipient options, as
                 appropriate. The -bnq option (see below) provides a way of suppressing this  for
                 special cases.

                 Policy  checks on the contents of local messages can be enforced by means of the
                 non-SMTP ACL.

                 The return code is zero if the message is successfully accepted. Otherwise,  the
                 action is controlled by the -oex option setting - see below.

                 The  format  of  the  message  must  be as defined in RFC 2822, except that, for
                 compatibility with Sendmail and Smail, a line in one of the forms

                   From sender Fri Jan  5 12:55 GMT 1997
                   From sender Fri, 5 Jan 97 12:55:01

                 (with the weekday optional, and possibly with additional text after the date) is
                 permitted  to  appear  at  the  start  of  the  message.  There appears to be no
                 authoritative specification of the format of this line. Exim  recognizes  it  by
                 matching against the regular expression defined by the uucp_from_pattern option,
                 which can be changed if necessary.

                 The specified sender is treated as if it were given as the argument  to  the  -f
                 option,  but  if a -f option is also present, its argument is used in preference
                 to the address taken from the message. The caller of Exim must be a trusted user
                 for the sender of a message to be set in this way.

       -bmalware <filename>
                 This  debugging  option  causes  Exim  to scan the given file, using the malware
                 scanning framework.  The option of av_scanner  influences  this  option,  so  if
                 av_scanner's value is dependent upon an expansion then the expansion should have
                 defaults which apply to this invocation.  ACLs are not invoked, so if av_scanner
                 references  an  ACL  variable  then  that  variable  will never be populated and
                 -bmalware will fail.

                 Exim will have changed working directory before resolving the filename, so using
                 fully  qualified  pathnames is advisable.  Exim will be running as the Exim user
                 when it tries to open the file, rather than as the invoking user.   This  option
                 requires admin privileges.

                 The -bmalware option will not be extended to be more generally useful, there are
                 better tools for file-scanning.   This  option  exists  to  help  administrators
                 verify their Exim and AV scanner configuration.

       -bnq      By  default,  Exim  automatically qualifies unqualified addresses (those without
                 domains) that appear in messages that are submitted locally (that is,  not  over
                 TCP/IP).  This  qualification  applies  both  to  addresses  in  envelopes,  and
                 addresses in header lines. Sender addresses are qualified using  qualify_domain,
                 and  recipient addresses using qualify_recipient (which defaults to the value of
                 qualify_domain).

                 Sometimes, qualification is not wanted. For example,  if  -bS  (batch  SMTP)  is
                 being  used  to  re-submit messages that originally came from remote hosts after
                 content scanning, you probably do not want to qualify unqualified  addresses  in
                 header  lines. (Such lines will be present only if you have not enabled a header
                 syntax check in the appropriate ACL.)

                 The -bnq  option  suppresses  all  qualification  of  unqualified  addresses  in
                 messages  that  originate  on  the  local  host.  When this is used, unqualified
                 addresses in  the  envelope  provoke  errors  (causing  message  rejection)  and
                 unqualified addresses in header lines are left alone.

       -bP       If  this  option  is given with no arguments, it causes the values of all Exim's
                 main configuration options to be written to the standard output. The  values  of
                 one  or  more  specific  options  can  be  requested  by  giving  their names as
                 arguments, for example:

                   exim4 -bP qualify_domain hold_domains

                 However, any option  setting  that  is  preceded  by  the  word  "hide"  in  the
                 configuration  file  is  not  shown  in full, except to an admin user. For other
                 users, the output is as in this example:

                   mysql_servers = <value not displayable>

                 If  configure_file  is  given  as  an  argument,  the  name  of  the  run   time
                 configuration  file  is  output.  If a list of configuration files was supplied,
                 the value that is output here is the name of the file that was actually used.

                 If the -n flag is given, then for most modes of -bP operation the name will  not
                 be output.

                 If  log_file_path or pid_file_path are given, the names of the directories where
                 log files and daemon pid files are written are output,  respectively.  If  these
                 values  are  unset,  log  files  are  written  in  a  sub-directory of the spool
                 directory called log, and the pid  file  is  written  directly  into  the  spool
                 directory.

                 If -bP is followed by a name preceded by +, for example,

                   exim4 -bP +local_domains

                 it  searches  for  a  matching named list of any type (domain, host, address, or
                 local part) and outputs what it finds.

                 If one of the words router, transport, or authenticator is  given,  followed  by
                 the  name of an appropriate driver instance, the option settings for that driver
                 are output. For example:

                   exim4 -bP transport local_delivery

                 The generic driver options are output first, followed by  the  driver's  private
                 options.  A list of the names of drivers of a particular type can be obtained by
                 using one of the words router_list, transport_list, or authenticator_list, and a
                 complete list of all drivers with their option settings can be obtained by using
                 routers, transports, or authenticators.

                 If environment is given as an argument, the  set  of  environment  variables  is
                 output, line by line. Using the -n flag supresses the value of the variables.

                 If  invoked  by  an admin user, then macro, macro_list and macros are available,
                 similarly to the  drivers.   Because  macros  are  sometimes  used  for  storing
                 passwords, this option is restricted.  The output format is one item per line.

       -bp       This option requests a listing of the contents of the mail queue on the standard
                 output. If the -bp option is followed by a  list  of  message  ids,  just  those
                 messages  are listed. By default, this option can be used only by an admin user.
                 However, the queue_list_requires_admin option can be set false to allow any user
                 to see the queue.

                 Each message on the queue is displayed as in the following example:

                   25m  2.9K 0t5C6f-0000c8-00 <alice@wonderland.fict.example>
                             red.king@looking-glass.fict.example
                             <other addresses>

                 The first line contains the length of time the message has been on the queue (in
                 this case 25 minutes),  the  size  of  the  message  (2.9K),  the  unique  local
                 identifier  for  the  message,  and  the  message  sender,  as  contained in the
                 envelope. For bounce messages, the sender address is empty, and appears as "<>".
                 If  the  message  was  submitted  locally  by an untrusted user who overrode the
                 default sender address, the user's login name is shown in parentheses before the
                 sender address.

                 If  the  message  is frozen (attempts to deliver it are suspended) then the text
                 "*** frozen ***" is displayed at the end of this line.

                 The recipients of the message (taken from the envelope,  not  the  headers)  are
                 displayed  on subsequent lines. Those addresses to which the message has already
                 been delivered are marked with  the  letter  D.  If  an  original  address  gets
                 expanded  into  several  addresses via an alias or forward file, the original is
                 displayed with a D only when deliveries for  all  of  its  child  addresses  are
                 complete.

       -bpa      This option operates like -bp, but in addition it shows delivered addresses that
                 were generated from the original top level address(es) in each message by  alias
                 or  forwarding operations. These addresses are flagged with "+D" instead of just
                 "D".

       -bpc      This option counts the number of messages on the queue, and writes the total  to
                 the    standard    output.   It   is   restricted   to   admin   users,   unless
                 queue_list_requires_admin is set false.

       -bpr      This option operates like -bp, but the output is not sorted  into  chronological
                 order  of  message arrival. This can speed it up when there are lots of messages
                 on the queue,  and  is  particularly  useful  if  the  output  is  going  to  be
                 post-processed in a way that doesn't need the sorting.

       -bpra     This option is a combination of -bpr and -bpa.

       -bpru     This option is a combination of -bpr and -bpu.

       -bpu      This option operates like -bp but shows only undelivered top-level addresses for
                 each message displayed. Addresses generated by aliasing or  forwarding  are  not
                 shown,  unless  the  message  was deferred after processing by a router with the
                 one_time option set.

       -brt      This option is for testing retry rules, and it must be followed by up  to  three
                 arguments.  It  causes Exim to look for a retry rule that matches the values and
                 to write it to the standard output. For example:

                   exim4 -brt bach.comp.mus.example
                   Retry rule: *.comp.mus.example  F,2h,15m; F,4d,30m;

                  The first argument, which is required, can be a complete address  in  the  form
                 local_part@domain,  or  it  can  be  just  a domain name. If the second argument
                 contains a dot, it is interpreted as an optional second domain name; if no retry
                 rule  is  found  for  the first argument, the second is tried. This ties in with
                 Exim's behaviour when looking for retry rules for remote hosts - if no  rule  is
                 found  that  matches  the  host,  one  that  matches  the mail domain is sought.
                 Finally, an argument that is the name of a specific delivery error, as  used  in
                 setting up retry rules, can be given. For example:

                   exim4 -brt haydn.comp.mus.example quota_3d
                   Retry rule: *@haydn.comp.mus.example quota_3d  F,1h,15m

       -brw      This option is for testing address rewriting rules, and it must be followed by a
                 single argument, consisting of either a  local  part  without  a  domain,  or  a
                 complete  address  with  a fully qualified domain. Exim outputs how this address
                 would be rewritten for each possible place it might appear.

       -bS       This option is used for batched SMTP input, which is  an  alternative  interface
                 for  non-interactive  local  message  submission.  A  number  of messages can be
                 submitted in a single run. However, despite its name, this is  not  really  SMTP
                 input.  Exim  reads  each  message's envelope from SMTP commands on the standard
                 input,  but  generates  no   responses.   If   the   caller   is   trusted,   or
                 untrusted_set_sender is set, the senders in the SMTP MAIL commands are believed;
                 otherwise the sender is always the caller of Exim.

                 The message itself is read from the standard input, in SMTP format (leading dots
                 doubled),  terminated  by  a  line  containing  just  a  single dot. An error is
                 provoked if the terminating dot is missing. A further message may then follow.

                 As for other local message submissions, the  contents  of  incoming  batch  SMTP
                 messages  can  be  checked  using  the  non-SMTP ACL.  Unqualified addresses are
                 automatically  qualified  using   qualify_domain   and   qualify_recipient,   as
                 appropriate, unless the -bnq option is used.

                 Some other SMTP commands are recognized in the input. HELO and EHLO act as RSET;
                 VRFY, EXPN, ETRN, and HELP act as NOOP; QUIT quits, ignoring  the  rest  of  the
                 standard input.

                 If  any  error  is  encountered,  reports are written to the standard output and
                 error streams, and Exim gives up immediately. The return code is 0 if  no  error
                 was detected; it is 1 if one or more messages were accepted before the error was
                 detected; otherwise it is 2.

       -bs       This option causes Exim to accept one or more messages by reading SMTP  commands
                 on  the  standard input, and producing SMTP replies on the standard output. SMTP
                 policy controls, as defined in ACLs are applied.   Some  user  agents  use  this
                 interface as a way of passing locally-generated messages to the MTA.

                 In this usage, if the caller of Exim is trusted, or untrusted_set_sender is set,
                 the senders of messages are taken from the SMTP MAIL  commands.   Otherwise  the
                 content  of  these  commands  is ignored and the sender is set up as the calling
                 user. Unqualified addresses are automatically qualified using qualify_domain and
                 qualify_recipient, as appropriate, unless the -bnq option is used.

                 The -bs option is also used to run Exim from inetd, as an alternative to using a
                 listening daemon. Exim can distinguish the two cases  by  checking  whether  the
                 standard input is a TCP/IP socket. When Exim is called from inetd, the source of
                 the mail is assumed to be remote, and the comments above concerning senders  and
                 qualification  do not apply. In this situation, Exim behaves in exactly the same
                 way as it does when receiving a message via the listening daemon.

       -bt       This option runs Exim in address testing mode, in which each argument  is  taken
                 as  a recipient address to be tested for deliverability. The results are written
                 to the standard output. If a test fails, and the caller is not an admin user, no
                 details  of  the  failure  are  output,  because  these  might contain sensitive
                 information such as usernames and passwords for database lookups.

                 If no arguments are given, Exim runs in an interactive manner, prompting with  a
                 right angle bracket for addresses to be tested.

                 Unlike  the  -be  test option, you cannot arrange for Exim to use the readline()
                 function, because it is running as root and there are security issues.

                 Each address is handled as if  it  were  the  recipient  address  of  a  message
                 (compare  the -bv option). It is passed to the routers and the result is written
                 to the standard output. However, any router  that  has  no_address_test  set  is
                 bypassed.  This  can  make  -bt  easier to use for genuine routing tests if your
                 first router passes everything to a scanner program.

                 The return code is 2 if any address failed outright;  it  is  1  if  no  address
                 failed  outright  but at least one could not be resolved for some reason. Return
                 code 0 is given only when all addresses succeed.

                 Note: When actually delivering  a  message,  Exim  removes  duplicate  recipient
                 addresses  after  routing  is  complete,  so that only one delivery takes place.
                 This does not happen when testing with -bt; the  full  results  of  routing  are
                 always shown.

                 Warning: -bt can only do relatively simple testing. If any of the routers in the
                 configuration makes any tests on the sender address of a message,  you  can  use
                 the  -f  option to set an appropriate sender when running -bt tests. Without it,
                 the sender is assumed to be the calling user at the default  qualifying  domain.
                 However, if you have set up (for example) routers whose behaviour depends on the
                 contents of an incoming message, you cannot test those conditions using -bt. The
                 -N option provides a possible way of doing such tests.

       -bV       This option causes Exim to write the current version number, compilation number,
                 and compilation date of the exim4 binary to the standard output.  It also  lists
                 the  DBM  library  that  is  being  used, the optional modules (such as specific
                 lookup types), the drivers that are included in the binary, and the name of  the
                 run time configuration file that is in use.

                 As  part  of  its  operation,  -bV  causes  Exim  to  read  and syntax check its
                 configuration file. However, this is a static check only. It cannot check values
                 that  are to be expanded. For example, although a misspelt ACL verb is detected,
                 an error in the verb's arguments is  not.  You  cannot  rely  on  -bV  alone  to
                 discover  (for  example)  all  the  typos  in  the configuration; some realistic
                 testing is  needed.  The  -bh  and  -N  options  provide  more  dynamic  testing
                 facilities.

       -bv       This  option  runs  Exim in address verification mode, in which each argument is
                 taken as a recipient address to be verified  by  the  routers.  (This  does  not
                 involve  any  verification  callouts).  During  normal  operation,  verification
                 happens mostly as a consequence processing a verify condition in an ACL. If  you
                 want  to  test  an entire ACL, possibly including callouts, see the -bh and -bhc
                 options.

                 If verification fails, and the caller is not an admin user, no  details  of  the
                 failure  are  output,  because these might contain sensitive information such as
                 usernames and passwords for database lookups.

                 If no arguments are given, Exim runs in an interactive manner, prompting with  a
                 right angle bracket for addresses to be verified.

                 Unlike  the  -be  test option, you cannot arrange for Exim to use the readline()
                 function, because it is running as exim4 and there are security issues.

                 Verification differs from address testing (the -bt option) in that routers  that
                 have  no_verify set are skipped, and if the address is accepted by a router that
                 has fail_verify set, verification fails. The address is verified as a  recipient
                 if -bv is used; to test verification for a sender address, -bvs should be used.

                 If  the  -v  option  is  not  set, the output consists of a single line for each
                 address, stating whether it was verified or not, and  giving  a  reason  in  the
                 latter  case. Without -v, generating more than one address by redirection causes
                 verification to end successfully, without considering the  generated  addresses.
                 However,  if  just  one  address  is  generated,  processing  continues, and the
                 generated address must verify  successfully  for  the  overall  verification  to
                 succeed.

                 When  -v is set, more details are given of how the address has been handled, and
                 in the case of  address  redirection,  all  the  generated  addresses  are  also
                 considered. Verification may succeed for some and fail for others.

                 The  return  code  is  2  if  any address failed outright; it is 1 if no address
                 failed outright but at least one could not be resolved for some  reason.  Return
                 code 0 is given only when all addresses succeed.

                 If any of the routers in the configuration makes any tests on the sender address
                 of a message, you should use the -f option to set  an  appropriate  sender  when
                 running  -bv  tests. Without it, the sender is assumed to be the calling user at
                 the default qualifying domain.

       -bvs      This option acts like -bv, but verifies the address as a sender  rather  than  a
                 recipient  address.  This  affects  any  rewriting  and qualification that might
                 happen.

       -bw       This option runs Exim as a daemon, awaiting incoming SMTP connections, similarly
                 to  the  -bd  option.   All  port  specifications on the command-line and in the
                 configuration file are ignored.  Queue-running may not be specified.

                 In this mode, Exim expects to be passed a  socket  as  fd  0  (stdin)  which  is
                 listening  for  connections.  This permits the system to start up and have inetd
                 (or equivalent) listen on the SMTP ports, starting an Exim daemon for each  port
                 only when the first connection is received.

                 If  the option is given as -bw<time> then the time is a timeout, after which the
                 daemon will exit, which should cause inetd to listen once more.

       -C <filelist>
                 This option causes Exim to find the run time configuration file from  the  given
                 list  instead  of  from  the  list  specified by the CONFIGURE_FILE compile-time
                 setting. Usually, the list will consist of just a single file name, but  it  can
                 be  a colon-separated list of names. In this case, the first file that exists is
                 used. Failure to open an existing file stops Exim from  proceeding  any  further
                 along the list, and an error is generated.

                 The file names need to be absolute names.

                 When  this option is used by a caller other than root, and the list is different
                 from the compiled-in list, Exim gives up its  root  privilege  immediately,  and
                 runs  with  the  real  and  effective  uid  and  gid set to those of the caller.
                 However, if a TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST file is defined in Local/Makefile,  that  file
                 contains  a  list of full pathnames, one per line, for configuration files which
                 are trusted. Root privilege is retained for any configuration file so listed, as
                 long   as   the  caller  is  the  Exim  user  (or  the  user  specified  in  the
                 CONFIGURE_OWNER option, if any), and as long as the configuration  file  is  not
                 writeable by inappropriate users or groups.

                 Leaving  TRUSTED_CONFIG_LIST  unset  precludes  the  possibility  of  testing  a
                 configuration using -C right through message reception and delivery, even if the
                 caller  is  root.  The reception works, but by that time, Exim is running as the
                 Exim user, so when it re-executes to regain privilege for the delivery, the  use
                 of -C causes privilege to be lost. However, root can test reception and delivery
                 using two separate commands (one to put a message on the queue, using -odq,  and
                 another to do the delivery, using -M).

                 If  ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX is defined in Local/Makefile, it specifies a prefix string
                 with which any file named in a -C command line option must start.  In  addition,
                 the  file name must not contain the sequence /../.  However, if the value of the
                 -C option is identical to the value of CONFIGURE_FILE  in  Local/Makefile,  Exim
                 ignores   -C   and   proceeds   as  usual.  There  is  no  default  setting  for
                 ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX; when it is unset, any file name can be used with -C.

                 ALT_CONFIG_PREFIX can be used to confine alternative configuration  files  to  a
                 directory  to  which  only root has access. This prevents someone who has broken
                 into the  Exim  account  from  running  a  privileged  Exim  with  an  arbitrary
                 configuration file.

                 The   -C   facility   is  useful  for  ensuring  that  configuration  files  are
                 syntactically correct, but cannot be used for test deliveries, unless the caller
                 is  privileged,  or  unless  it is an exotic configuration that does not require
                 privilege. No check is made on the owner or group of the files specified by this
                 option.

       -D<macro>=<value>
                 This option can be used to override macro definitions in the configuration file.
                 However, like -C, if it is used by an unprivileged caller,  it  causes  Exim  to
                 give  up  its root privilege.  If DISABLE_D_OPTION is defined in Local/Makefile,
                 the use of -D is completely disabled, and its  use  causes  an  immediate  error
                 exit.

                 If  WHITELIST_D_MACROS  is  defined  in  Local/Makefile  then  it  should  be  a
                 colon-separated list of macros  which  are  considered  safe  and,  if  -D  only
                 supplies  macros  from  this list, and the values are acceptable, then Exim will
                 not give up root privilege if the caller is root, the Exim run-time user, or the
                 CONFIGURE_OWNER,  if  set.  This is a transition mechanism and is expected to be
                 removed in the future.  Acceptable values for the  macros  satisfy  the  regexp:
                 ^[A-Za-z0-9_/.-]*$

                 The  entire  option  (including  equals  sign if present) must all be within one
                 command line item. -D can be used to set the value  of  a  macro  to  the  empty
                 string,  in  which  case  the  equals  sign  is optional. These two commands are
                 synonymous:

                   exim4 -DABC  ...
                   exim4 -DABC= ...

                 To include spaces in a macro definition item, quotes must be used.  If  you  use
                 quotes,  spaces  are  permitted  around  the macro name and the equals sign. For
                 example:

                   exim4 '-D ABC = something' ...

                 -D may be repeated up to 10 times on a command line.

       -d<debug options>
                 This option causes debugging information to be written  to  the  standard  error
                 stream.  It  is  restricted  to  admin  users  because debugging output may show
                 database queries that contain password information. Also, the details of  users'
                 filter  files  should  be protected. If a non-admin user uses -d, Exim writes an
                 error message to the standard error stream and  exits  with  a  non-zero  return
                 code.

                 When  -d  is  used,  -v is assumed. If -d is given on its own, a lot of standard
                 debugging data is output. This can be reduced, or increased to include some more
                 rarely  needed  information,  by  directly following -d with a string made up of
                 names preceded by plus  or  minus  characters.  These  add  or  remove  sets  of
                 debugging  data,  respectively.  For  example,  -d+filter adds filter debugging,
                 whereas -d-all+filter selects only filter debugging. Note  that  no  spaces  are
                 allowed in the debug setting. The available debugging categories are:

                   acl             ACL interpretation
                   auth            authenticators
                   deliver         general delivery logic
                   dns             DNS lookups (see also resolver)
                   dnsbl           DNS black list (aka RBL) code
                   exec            arguments for execv() calls
                   expand          detailed debugging for string expansions
                   filter          filter handling
                   hints_lookup    hints data lookups
                   host_lookup     all types of name-to-IP address handling
                   ident           ident lookup
                   interface       lists of local interfaces
                   lists           matching things in lists
                   load            system load checks
                   local_scan      can be used by local_scan()
                   lookup          general lookup code and all lookups
                   memory          memory handling
                   pid             add pid to debug output lines
                   process_info    setting info for the process log
                   queue_run       queue runs
                   receive         general message reception logic
                   resolver        turn on the DNS resolver's debugging output
                   retry           retry handling
                   rewrite         address rewriting
                   route           address routing
                   timestamp       add timestamp to debug output lines
                   tls             TLS logic
                   transport       transports
                   uid             changes of uid/gid and looking up uid/gid
                   verify          address verification logic
                   all             almost all of the above (see below), and also -v

                 The  all option excludes memory when used as +all, but includes it for -all. The
                 reason for this is  that  +all  is  something  that  people  tend  to  use  when
                 generating  debug  output for Exim maintainers. If +memory is included, an awful
                 lot of output that is very rarely of interest is generated, so it now has to  be
                 explicitly requested. However, -all does turn everything off.

                 The  resolver  option produces output only if the DNS resolver was compiled with
                 DEBUG  enabled.  This  is  not  the  case  in  some  operating  systems.   Also,
                 unfortunately,  debugging  output  from  the  DNS  resolver is written to stdout
                 rather than stderr.

                 The default (-d with no argument) omits expand, filter, interface, load, memory,
                 pid,  resolver,  and  timestamp.   However,  the  pid  selector  is  forced when
                 debugging is turned on for a daemon, which then passes it on to any  re-executed
                 Exims.  Exim  also automatically adds the pid to debug lines when several remote
                 deliveries are run in parallel.

                 The timestamp selector causes the current time to be inserted at  the  start  of
                 all  debug  output lines. This can be useful when trying to track down delays in
                 processing.

                 If the debug_print option is set in any driver, it produces output whenever  any
                 debugging is selected, or if -v is used.

       -dd<debug options>
                 This  option behaves exactly like -d except when used on a command that starts a
                 daemon process. In that case, debugging is turned off for the subprocesses  that
                 the  daemon  creates.  Thus,  it  is  useful for monitoring the behaviour of the
                 daemon without creating as much output as full debugging does.

       -dropcr   This is an obsolete option that is now a no-op. It used to affect the  way  Exim
                 handled CR and LF characters in incoming messages.

       -E        This  option  specifies that an incoming message is a locally-generated delivery
                 failure report. It is used internally by Exim when  handling  delivery  failures
                 and is not intended for external use. Its only effect is to stop Exim generating
                 certain messages to the postmaster, as otherwise message cascades could occur in
                 some  situations.  As  part  of  the  same  option,  a message id may follow the
                 characters -E. If it does, the log entry for the  receipt  of  the  new  message
                 contains the id, following "R=", as a cross-reference.

       -ex       There are a number of Sendmail options starting with -oe which seem to be called
                 by various programs without the leading  o  in  the  option.  For  example,  the
                 vacation program uses -eq. Exim treats all options of the form -ex as synonymous
                 with the corresponding -oex options.

       -F <string>
                 This option sets the sender's full name for use when a locally-generated message
                 is  being  accepted.  In the absence of this option, the user's gecos entry from
                 the password data is used. As users are generally permitted to alter their gecos
                 entries, no security considerations are involved. White space between -F and the
                 <string> is optional.

       -f <address>
                 This option sets the address of  the  envelope  sender  of  a  locally-generated
                 message (also known as the return path). The option can normally be used only by
                 a trusted user, but untrusted_set_sender can be set to allow untrusted users  to
                 use it.

                 Processes  running  as  root  or the Exim user are always trusted. Other trusted
                 users are defined by the trusted_users or trusted_groups options. In the absence
                 of  -f, or if the caller is not trusted, the sender of a local message is set to
                 the caller's login name at the default qualify domain.

                 There is one exception to the restriction on the use of -f: an empty sender  can
                 be  specified  by  any  user, trusted or not, to create a message that can never
                 provoke a bounce. An empty sender can be specified either as an empty string, or
                 as  a  pair of angle brackets with nothing between them, as in these examples of
                 shell commands:

                   exim4 -f '<>' user@domain
                   exim4 -f "" user@domain

                 In addition, the use of -f is not restricted when testing a filter file with -bf
                 or when testing or verifying addresses using the -bt or -bv options.

                 Allowing untrusted users to change the sender address does not of itself make it
                 possible to send anonymous mail. Exim still checks that the From: header  refers
                 to the local user, and if it does not, it adds a Sender: header, though this can
                 be overridden by setting no_local_from_check.

                 White space between -f and the <address> is optional (that is, they can be given
                 as  two  arguments  or one combined argument). The sender of a locally-generated
                 message can also be set (when permitted) by an  initial  "From  "  line  in  the
                 message  -  see  the  description  of  -bm above - but if -f is also present, it
                 overrides "From ".

       -G        This option is equivalent to an ACL applying:

                   control = suppress_local_fixups

                 for every message received.  Note that Sendmail will  complain  about  such  bad
                 formatting,  where  Exim  silently  just does not fix it up.  This may change in
                 future.

                 As this affects audit information, the caller must be a trusted user to use this
                 option.

       -h <number>
                 This  option is accepted for compatibility with Sendmail, but has no effect. (In
                 Sendmail it overrides the "hop count" obtained by counting Received: headers.)

       -i        This option, which has the same effect as -oi, specifies that a dot on a line by
                 itself  should  not  terminate  an  incoming,  non-SMTP  message.  I can find no
                 documentation for this option in Solaris 2.4 Sendmail, but the mailx command  in
                 Solaris 2.4 uses it. See also -ti.

       -L <tag>  This  option  is equivalent to setting syslog_processname in the config file and
                 setting log_file_path to syslog.  Its use is restricted to administrators.   The
                 configuration file has to be read and parsed, to determine access rights, before
                 this is set and takes effect, so early configuration file errors will not honour
                 this flag.

                 The tag should not be longer than 32 characters.

       -M <message id> <message id> ...
                 This  option requests Exim to run a delivery attempt on each message in turn. If
                 any of the messages  are  frozen,  they  are  automatically  thawed  before  the
                 delivery   attempt.  The  settings  of  queue_domains,  queue_smtp_domains,  and
                 hold_domains are ignored.

                 Retry hints for any of the addresses are overridden - Exim tries to deliver even
                 if  the  normal  retry  time  has not yet been reached. This option requires the
                 caller  to  be  an  admin   user.   However,   there   is   an   option   called
                 prod_requires_admin  which  can be set false to relax this restriction (and also
                 the same requirement for the -q, -R, and -S options).

                 The deliveries happen synchronously, that is, the original Exim process does not
                 terminate  until  all the delivery attempts have finished. No output is produced
                 unless there is a serious error. If you want to see what is happening,  use  the
                 -v option as well, or inspect Exim's main log.

       -Mar <message id> <address> <address> ...
                 This  option requests Exim to add the addresses to the list of recipients of the
                 message ("ar" for "add recipients"). The first argument must be  a  message  id,
                 and  the  remaining  ones  must  be  email addresses. However, if the message is
                 active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), it is not altered. This option can
                 be used only by an admin user.

       -MC <transport> <hostname> <sequence number> <message id>
                 This  option  is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
                 by Exim to invoke another instance of itself to deliver a waiting message  using
                 an existing SMTP connection, which is passed as the standard input. This must be
                 the final option, and the caller must be root or the Exim user in order  to  use
                 it.

       -MCA      This  option  is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
                 by Exim in conjunction with the -MC option. It signifies that the connection  to
                 the remote host has been authenticated.

       -MCD      This  option  is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
                 by Exim in conjunction with the -MC option. It signifies that  the  remote  host
                 supports the ESMTP DSN extension.

       -MCP      This  option  is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
                 by Exim in conjunction with the -MC option. It  signifies  that  the  server  to
                 which Exim is connected supports pipelining.

       -MCQ <process id> <pipe fd>
                 This  option  is not intended for use by external callers. It is used internally
                 by Exim in conjunction with the  -MC  option  when  the  original  delivery  was
                 started  by  a  queue  runner.  It passes on the process id of the queue runner,
                 together with the file descriptor number of an open pipe. Closure  of  the  pipe
                 signals  the  final  completion  of  the  sequence of processes that are passing
                 messages through the same SMTP connection.

       -MCS      This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is  used  internally
                 by Exim in conjunction with the -MC option, and passes on the fact that the SMTP
                 SIZE option should be used on messages delivered down the existing connection.

       -MCT      This option is not intended for use by external callers. It is  used  internally
                 by Exim in conjunction with the -MC option, and passes on the fact that the host
                 to which Exim is connected supports TLS encryption.

       -Mc <message id> <message id> ...
                 This option requests Exim to run a delivery attempt on each message in turn, but
                 unlike  the  -M option, it does check for retry hints, and respects any that are
                 found. This option is not very useful to external callers. It is provided mainly
                 for  internal  use  by Exim when it needs to re-invoke itself in order to regain
                 root privilege for a delivery.  However, -Mc can  be  useful  when  testing,  in
                 order  to  run  a  delivery  that respects retry times and other options such as
                 hold_domains that are overridden when -M is used. Such a delivery does not count
                 as  a  queue  run.  If you want to run a specific delivery as if in a queue run,
                 you should use -q with a message id argument. A distinction  between  queue  run
                 deliveries and other deliveries is made in one or two places.

       -Mes <message id> <address>
                 This  option  requests  Exim  to change the sender address in the message to the
                 given address, which must be a fully qualified address or "<>" ("es"  for  "edit
                 sender").  There  must  be  exactly  two arguments. The first argument must be a
                 message id, and the second one an email address.  However,  if  the  message  is
                 active  (in  the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is not altered.  This
                 option can be used only by an admin user.

       -Mf <message id> <message id> ...
                 This option requests Exim to mark each listed message as "frozen". This prevents
                 any  delivery  attempts  taking  place  until  the  message  is "thawed", either
                 manually or as a result of the auto_thaw configuration option.  However, if  any
                 of  the  messages are active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), their status
                 is not altered. This option can be used only by an admin user.

       -Mg <message id> <message id> ...
                 This option requests Exim to give up trying  to  deliver  the  listed  messages,
                 including any that are frozen. However, if any of the messages are active, their
                 status is not altered. For non-bounce messages, a delivery error message is sent
                 to  the  sender,  containing  the  text  "cancelled  by  administrator".  Bounce
                 messages are just discarded. This option can be used only by an admin user.

       -Mmad <message id> <message id> ...
                 This option requests Exim to mark all the recipient addresses in the messages as
                 already  delivered  ("mad" for "mark all delivered"). However, if any message is
                 active (in the middle of a delivery attempt), its status is  not  altered.  This
                 option can be used only by an admin user.

       -Mmd <message id> <address> <address> ...
                 This option requests Exim to mark the given addresses as already delivered ("md"
                 for "mark delivered"). The  first  argument  must  be  a  message  id,  and  the
                 remaining ones must be email addresses. These are matched to recipient addresses
                 in the message in a case-sensitive manner. If the  message  is  active  (in  the
                 middle  of  a  delivery  attempt), its status is not altered. This option can be
                 used only by an admin user.

       -Mrm <message id> <message id> ...
                 This option requests Exim to remove the given messages from the queue. No bounce
                 messages  are  sent;  each  message  is simply forgotten. However, if any of the
                 messages are active, their status is not altered. This option can be  used  only
                 by  an  admin user or by the user who originally caused the message to be placed
                 on the queue.

       -Mset <message id>
                 This option is useful only in conjunction with -be (that is, when testing string
                 expansions).  Exim  loads the given message from its spool before doing the test
                 expansions, thus setting message-specific variables such  as  $message_size  and
                 the  header  variables. The $recipients variable is made available. This feature
                 is provided to make it  easier  to  test  expansions  that  make  use  of  these
                 variables.  However,  this  option  can  be used only by an admin user. See also
                 -bem.

       -Mt <message id> <message id> ...
                 This option requests Exim  to  "thaw"  any  of  the  listed  messages  that  are
                 "frozen",  so that delivery attempts can resume. However, if any of the messages
                 are active, their status is not altered. This option can  be  used  only  by  an
                 admin user.

       -Mvb <message id>
                 This  option  causes  the  contents  of  the  message body (-D) spool file to be
                 written to the standard output. This option can be used only by an admin user.

       -Mvc <message id>
                 This option causes a copy of the complete message (header lines plus body) to be
                 written  to the standard output in RFC 2822 format. This option can be used only
                 by an admin user.

       -Mvh <message id>
                 This option causes the contents of the message headers (-H)  spool  file  to  be
                 written to the standard output. This option can be used only by an admin user.

       -Mvl <message id>
                 This  option  causes the contents of the message log spool file to be written to
                 the standard output. This option can be used only by an admin user.

       -m        This is apparently a synonym for -om that  is  accepted  by  Sendmail,  so  Exim
                 treats it that way too.

       -N        This  is a debugging option that inhibits delivery of a message at the transport
                 level. It implies -v. Exim goes through many of the motions  of  delivery  -  it
                 just  doesn't  actually  transport the message, but instead behaves as if it had
                 successfully done so. However, it  does  not  make  any  updates  to  the  retry
                 database,  and  the log entries for deliveries are flagged with "*>" rather than
                 "=>".

                 Because -N discards any message to which it applies, only root or the Exim  user
                 are  allowed  to use it with -bd, -q, -R or -M. In other words, an ordinary user
                 can use it only when supplying an incoming  message  to  which  it  will  apply.
                 Although  transportation  never fails when -N is set, an address may be deferred
                 because of a configuration problem on a transport, or a routing problem. Once -N
                 has  been  used for a delivery attempt, it sticks to the message, and applies to
                 any subsequent delivery attempts that may happen for that message.

       -n        This option is interpreted by Sendmail to mean "no aliasing".  For normal  modes
                 of  operation,  it is ignored by Exim.  When combined with -bP it suppresses the
                 name of an option from being output.

       -O <data> This option is interpreted by Sendmail to mean set  option.  It  is  ignored  by
                 Exim.

       -oA <file name>
                 This  option  is  used  by  Sendmail  in  conjunction  with  -bi  to  specify an
                 alternative alias file name. Exim handles -bi differently; see  the  description
                 above.

       -oB <n>   This  is a debugging option which limits the maximum number of messages that can
                 be delivered down one SMTP connection, overriding the  value  set  in  any  smtp
                 transport. If <n> is omitted, the limit is set to 1.

       -odb      This  option  applies  to  all  modes  in  which Exim accepts incoming messages,
                 including the listening  daemon.  It  requests  "background"  delivery  of  such
                 messages, which means that the accepting process automatically starts a delivery
                 process for each message received, but does not wait for the delivery  processes
                 to finish.

                 When  all  the messages have been received, the reception process exits, leaving
                 the delivery processes to finish in their own  time.  The  standard  output  and
                 error  streams  are  closed  at the start of each delivery process.  This is the
                 default action if none of the -od options are present.

                 If one of  the  queueing  options  in  the  configuration  file  (queue_only  or
                 queue_only_file,   for   example)   is   in   effect,   -odb   overrides  it  if
                 queue_only_override  is  set  true,   which   is   the   default   setting.   If
                 queue_only_override is set false, -odb has no effect.

       -odf      This  option requests "foreground" (synchronous) delivery when Exim has accepted
                 a locally-generated message. (For the daemon it is exactly the same as -odb.)  A
                 delivery process is automatically started to deliver the message, and Exim waits
                 for it to complete before proceeding.

                 The original Exim reception process does not finish until the  delivery  process
                 for  the  final message has ended. The standard error stream is left open during
                 deliveries.

                 However, like -odb, this option has no effect if  queue_only_override  is  false
                 and one of the queueing options in the configuration file is in effect.

                 If  there  is a temporary delivery error during foreground delivery, the message
                 is left on the queue for later delivery,  and  the  original  reception  process
                 exits.

       -odi      This  option  is  synonymous  with  -odf.  It is provided for compatibility with
                 Sendmail.

       -odq      This option applies to all  modes  in  which  Exim  accepts  incoming  messages,
                 including  the  listening daemon. It specifies that the accepting process should
                 not automatically start a delivery process for each message  received.  Messages
                 are  placed  on  the  queue,  and  remain  there until a subsequent queue runner
                 process encounters them.  There  are  several  configuration  options  (such  as
                 queue_only)   that  can  be  used  to  queue  incoming  messages  under  certain
                 conditions. This option overrides all of them and also -odqs. It  always  forces
                 queueing.

       -odqs     This  option  is  a  hybrid  between -odb/-odi and -odq.  However, like -odb and
                 -odi, this option has no effect if queue_only_override is false and one  of  the
                 queueing options in the configuration file is in effect.

                 When  -odqs  does  operate,  a  delivery  process  is  started for each incoming
                 message, in the background by default, but in the foreground  if  -odi  is  also
                 present.  The  recipient  addresses are routed, and local deliveries are done in
                 the normal way. However, if any SMTP deliveries are required, they are not  done
                 at  this  time,  so  the  message  remains on the queue until a subsequent queue
                 runner process encounters  it.  Because  routing  was  done,  Exim  knows  which
                 messages  are  waiting for which hosts, and so a number of messages for the same
                 host  can  be  sent  in  a  single  SMTP  connection.   The   queue_smtp_domains
                 configuration  option has the same effect for specific domains. See also the -qq
                 option.

       -oee      If an error is detected while a non-SMTP message is being received (for example,
                 a malformed address), the error is reported to the sender in a mail message.

                 Provided  this  error  message  is successfully sent, the Exim receiving process
                 exits with a return code of zero. If not, the return code is 2 if the problem is
                 that  the original message has no recipients, or 1 for any other error.  This is
                 the default -oex option if Exim is called as rmail.

       -oem      This is the same as -oee, except that Exim always exits with a  non-zero  return
                 code,  whether  or  not  the  error  message was successfully sent.  This is the
                 default -oex option, unless Exim is called as rmail.

       -oep      If an error is detected while a non-SMTP message is being received, the error is
                 reported  by  writing a message to the standard error file (stderr).  The return
                 code is 1 for all errors.

       -oeq      This option is supported for compatibility  with  Sendmail,  but  has  the  same
                 effect as -oep.

       -oew      This  option  is  supported  for  compatibility  with Sendmail, but has the same
                 effect as -oem.

       -oi       This option, which has the same effect as -i, specifies that a dot on a line  by
                 itself  should  not terminate an incoming, non-SMTP message. Otherwise, a single
                 dot does terminate, though Exim does no special processing for other lines  that
                 start  with a dot. This option is set by default if Exim is called as rmail. See
                 also -ti.

       -oitrue   This option is treated as synonymous with -oi.

       -oMa <host address>
                 A number of options starting with -oM can be used to set values associated  with
                 remote  hosts on locally-submitted messages (that is, messages not received over
                 TCP/IP). These options can be used by any caller in conjunction  with  the  -bh,
                 -be,  -bf,  -bF,  -bt,  or -bv testing options. In other circumstances, they are
                 ignored unless the caller is trusted.

                 The -oMa option sets the sender host address. This may include a port number  at
                 the end, after a full stop (period). For example:

                   exim4 -bs -oMa 10.9.8.7.1234

                 An  alternative syntax is to enclose the IP address in square brackets, followed
                 by a colon and the port number:

                   exim4 -bs -oMa [10.9.8.7]:1234

                 The IP address is placed in the $sender_host_address variable, and the port,  if
                 present,  in  $sender_host_port. If both -oMa and -bh are present on the command
                 line, the sender host IP address is taken from whichever one is last.

       -oMaa <name>
                 See -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The -oMaa option  sets
                 the  value  of $sender_host_authenticated (the authenticator name).  This option
                 can be used with -bh and -bs to set up an  authenticated  SMTP  session  without
                 actually using the SMTP AUTH command.

       -oMai <string>
                 See  -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The -oMai option sets
                 the value of $authenticated_id (the id that was authenticated).  This  overrides
                 the  default  value  (the  caller's login id, except with -bh, where there is no
                 default) for messages from local sources.

       -oMas <address>
                 See -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The -oMas option  sets
                 the authenticated sender value in $authenticated_sender. It overrides the sender
                 address that is created from the caller's  login  id  for  messages  from  local
                 sources,  except  when  -bh  is used, when there is no default. For both -bh and
                 -bs, an authenticated sender that is specified on a MAIL command overrides  this
                 value.

       -oMi <interface address>
                 See  -oMa  above for general remarks about the -oM options. The -oMi option sets
                 the IP interface address value. A port number may be included,  using  the  same
                 syntax  as for -oMa. The interface address is placed in $received_ip_address and
                 the port number, if present, in $received_port.

       -oMm <message reference>
                 See -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The -oMm  option  sets
                 the  message  reference, e.g. message-id, and is logged during delivery. This is
                 useful when some kind of audit trail is required to tie messages  together.  The
                 format  of  the  message  reference  is  checked and will abort if the format is
                 invalid. The option will only be accepted if exim is running  in  trusted  mode,
                 not as any regular user.

                 The  best  example  of  a message reference is when Exim sends a bounce message.
                 The message reference is the message-id of the original message for  which  Exim
                 is sending the bounce.

       -oMr <protocol name>
                 See  -oMa  above for general remarks about the -oM options. The -oMr option sets
                 the received protocol value that is stored in  $received_protocol.  However,  it
                 does  not  apply (and is ignored) when -bh or -bs is used. For -bh, the protocol
                 is forced to one of the standard SMTP protocol names. For -bs, the  protocol  is
                 always  "local-"  followed  by  one  of those same names. For -bS (batched SMTP)
                 however, the protocol can be set by -oMr.

       -oMs <host name>
                 See -oMa above for general remarks about the -oM options. The -oMs  option  sets
                 the  sender  host  name  in $sender_host_name. When this option is present, Exim
                 does not attempt to look up a host name from an IP address; it uses the name  it
                 is given.

       -oMt <ident string>
                 See  -oMa  above for general remarks about the -oM options. The -oMt option sets
                 the sender ident value in $sender_ident. The default setting for  local  callers
                 is  the  login id of the calling process, except when -bh is used, when there is
                 no default.

       -om       In Sendmail, this option means "me too", indicating that the sender of a message
                 should  receive  a  copy  of  the  message  if  the  sender  appears in an alias
                 expansion. Exim always does this, so the option does nothing.

       -oo       This option is ignored. In Sendmail it specifies "old style  headers",  whatever
                 that means.

       -oP <path>
                 This  option is useful only in conjunction with -bd or -q with a time value. The
                 option specifies the file to which the process id of the daemon is written. When
                 -oX  is  used  with -bd, or when -q with a time is used without -bd, this is the
                 only way of causing Exim to write a pid file, because in those cases, the normal
                 pid file is not used.

       -or <time>
                 This  option  sets  a timeout value for incoming non-SMTP messages. If it is not
                 set, Exim will wait forever for the standard input. The value can also be set by
                 the receive_timeout option.

       -os <time>
                 This option sets a timeout value for incoming SMTP messages. The timeout applies
                 to each SMTP command and block of data.  The  value  can  also  be  set  by  the
                 smtp_receive_timeout option; it defaults to 5 minutes.

       -ov       This option has exactly the same effect as -v.

       -oX <number or string>
                 This  option  is  relevant  only when the -bd (start listening daemon) option is
                 also given. It controls which ports and interfaces the daemon uses. When -oX  is
                 used  to  start  a  daemon, no pid file is written unless -oP is also present to
                 specify a pid file name.

       -pd       This option applies when an embedded Perl interpreter is linked  with  Exim.  It
                 overrides  the  setting of the perl_at_start option, forcing the starting of the
                 interpreter to be delayed until it is needed.

       -ps       This option applies when an embedded Perl interpreter is linked  with  Exim.  It
                 overrides  the  setting of the perl_at_start option, forcing the starting of the
                 interpreter to occur as soon as Exim is started.

       -p<rval>:<sval>
                 For compatibility with Sendmail, this option is equivalent to

                   -oMr <rval> -oMs <sval>

                 It sets the incoming protocol and host name (for trusted callers). The host name
                 and its colon can be omitted when only the protocol is to be set.  Note the Exim
                 already has two private options, -pd and -ps, that refer to embedded Perl. It is
                 therefore  impossible  to  set a protocol value of d or s using this option (but
                 that does not seem a real limitation).

       -q        This option  is  normally  restricted  to  admin  users.  However,  there  is  a
                 configuration  option called prod_requires_admin which can be set false to relax
                 this restriction (and also the same requirement for the -M, -R, and -S options).

                 The -q option starts one queue runner process. This scans the queue  of  waiting
                 messages,  and  runs  a delivery process for each one in turn. It waits for each
                 delivery process to finish before starting the next one. A delivery process  may
                 not  actually  do  any  deliveries if the retry times for the addresses have not
                 been reached. Use -qf (see below) if you want to override this.

                 If the delivery process spawns other processes to deliver  other  messages  down
                 passed  SMTP  connections,  the  queue  runner  waits for these to finish before
                 proceeding.

                 When all the queued messages have been considered,  the  original  queue  runner
                 process terminates. In other words, a single pass is made over the waiting mail,
                 one message at a time. Use -q with a time (see below) if you  want  this  to  be
                 repeated periodically.

                 Exim  processes  the  waiting  messages in an unpredictable order. It isn't very
                 random, but it is likely to be different each time, which is all  that  matters.
                 If one particular message screws up a remote MTA, other messages to the same MTA
                 have a chance of getting through if they get tried first.

                 It is possible to cause the messages to  be  processed  in  lexical  message  id
                 order,  which  is  essentially  the  order in which they arrived, by setting the
                 queue_run_in_order option, but this is not recommended for normal use.

       -q<qflags>
                 The -q option may be followed by one  or  more  flag  letters  that  change  its
                 behaviour.  They  are  all  optional, but if more than one is present, they must
                 appear in the correct order. Each flag is described in a separate item below.

       -qq...    An option starting with -qq requests a two-stage queue run. In the first  stage,
                 the  queue  is scanned as if the queue_smtp_domains option matched every domain.
                 Addresses are routed, local deliveries happen, but no remote transports are run.

                 The hints database that remembers which messages are waiting for specific  hosts
                 is  updated,  as  if  delivery  to  those hosts had been deferred. After this is
                 complete, a second, normal queue scan happens, with routing and delivery  taking
                 place  as  normal.  Messages  that  are routed to the same host should mostly be
                 delivered down a single SMTP connection because of the hints that  were  set  up
                 during  the  first  queue  scan.   This  option may be useful for hosts that are
                 connected to the Internet intermittently.

       -q[q]i... If the i flag is present, the queue runner  runs  delivery  processes  only  for
                 those  messages  that  haven't  previously  been  tried.  (i stands for "initial
                 delivery".) This can be helpful if you are putting messages on the  queue  using
                 -odq and want a queue runner just to process the new messages.

       -q[q][i]f...
                 If  one  f  flag  is  present,  a delivery attempt is forced for each non-frozen
                 message, whereas without f only those  non-frozen  addresses  that  have  passed
                 their retry times are tried.

       -q[q][i]ff...
                 If ff is present, a delivery attempt is forced for every message, whether frozen
                 or not.

       -q[q][i][f[f]]l
                 The l (the letter "ell") flag specifies that only local  deliveries  are  to  be
                 done.  If  a message requires any remote deliveries, it remains on the queue for
                 later delivery.

       -q<qflags> <start id> <end id>
                 When scanning the queue, Exim can be made to skip over messages  whose  ids  are
                 lexically  less  than  a  given value by following the -q option with a starting
                 message id. For example:

                   exim4 -q 0t5C6f-0000c8-00

                 Messages that arrived earlier than 0t5C6f-0000c8-00  are  not  inspected.  If  a
                 second message id is given, messages whose ids are lexically greater than it are
                 also skipped. If the same id is given twice, for example,

                   exim4 -q 0t5C6f-0000c8-00 0t5C6f-0000c8-00

                 just one delivery process is started, for that message. This differs from -M  in
                 that  retry data is respected, and it also differs from -Mc in that it counts as
                 a delivery from a queue run. Note that the selection mechanism does  not  affect
                 the  order  in  which  the  messages  are  scanned. There are also other ways of
                 selecting specific sets of messages for delivery in a queue run - see -R and -S.

       -q<qflags><time>
                 When a time value is present, the -q option causes Exim  to  run  as  a  daemon,
                 starting  a queue runner process at intervals specified by the given time value.
                 This form of the -q option is commonly combined with the -bd  option,  in  which
                 case a single daemon process handles both functions. A common way of starting up
                 a combined daemon at system boot time is to use a command such as

                   /usr/sbin/exim4 -bd -q30m

                 Such a daemon listens for incoming SMTP calls, and also starts  a  queue  runner
                 process every 30 minutes.

                 When  a  daemon is started by -q with a time value, but without -bd, no pid file
                 is written unless one is explicitly requested by the -oP option.

       -qR<rsflags> <string>
                 This option is synonymous with -R. It is provided for Sendmail compatibility.

       -qS<rsflags> <string>
                 This option is synonymous with -S.

       -R<rsflags> <string>
                 The <rsflags> may be empty, in which case the white space before the  string  is
                 optional,  unless  the  string  is  f, ff, r, rf, or rff, which are the possible
                 values for <rsflags>. White space is required if <rsflags> is not empty.

                 This option is similar to -q with no time value, that  is,  it  causes  Exim  to
                 perform  a  single  queue  run,  except  that, when scanning the messages on the
                 queue, Exim processes only those that have at least  one  undelivered  recipient
                 address containing the given string, which is checked in a case-independent way.
                 If the <rsflags> start with r, <string> is interpreted as a regular  expression;
                 otherwise it is a literal string.

                 If you want to do periodic queue runs for messages with specific recipients, you
                 can combine -R with -q and a time value. For example:

                   exim4 -q25m -R @special.domain.example

                 This example does a queue run for messages with recipients in the  given  domain
                 every 25 minutes. Any additional flags that are specified with -q are applied to
                 each queue run.

                 Once a message is selected for delivery by this mechanism, all its addresses are
                 processed.  For the first selected message, Exim overrides any retry information
                 and forces a delivery attempt for each undelivered address. This means  that  if
                 delivery  of  any address in the first message is successful, any existing retry
                 information  is  deleted,  and  so  delivery  attempts  for  that   address   in
                 subsequently  selected  messages (which are processed without forcing) will run.
                 However, if delivery of any address does not succeed, the retry  information  is
                 updated,  and  in  subsequently  selected  messages, the failing address will be
                 skipped.

                 If the <rsflags> contain f or ff, the delivery forcing applies to  all  selected
                 messages, not just the first; frozen messages are included when ff is present.

                 The -R option makes it straightforward to initiate delivery of all messages to a
                 given domain after a host has been down for some time.  When  the  SMTP  command
                 ETRN  is  accepted  by  its  ACL,  its default effect is to run Exim with the -R
                 option, but it can be configured to run an arbitrary command instead.

       -r        This is a documented (for Sendmail) obsolete alternative name for -f.

       -S<rsflags> <string>
                 This option acts like -R except that it checks the string against each message's
                 sender  instead  of  against  the recipients. If -R is also set, both conditions
                 must be met for a message to be selected. If either of the options has f  or  ff
                 in its flags, the associated action is taken.

       -Tqt <times>
                 This  is  an option that is exclusively for use by the Exim testing suite. It is
                 not recognized when Exim is run normally.  It  allows  for  the  setting  up  of
                 explicit "queue times" so that various warning/retry features can be tested.

       -t        When  Exim  is  receiving  a locally-generated, non-SMTP message on its standard
                 input, the -t option causes the recipients of the message to  be  obtained  from
                 the  To:,  Cc:, and Bcc: header lines in the message instead of from the command
                 arguments. The addresses are extracted before any rewriting takes place and  the
                 Bcc: header line, if present, is then removed.

                 If the command has any arguments, they specify addresses to which the message is
                 not to be delivered. That is,  the  argument  addresses  are  removed  from  the
                 recipients  list  obtained from the headers. This is compatible with Smail 3 and
                 in accordance with the documented behaviour of several versions of Sendmail,  as
                 described  in  man pages on a number of operating systems (e.g.  Solaris 8, IRIX
                 6.5, HP-UX 11). However, some versions of Sendmail  add  argument  addresses  to
                 those  obtained  from  the  headers, and the O'Reilly Sendmail book documents it
                 that way. Exim can be made to add argument addresses instead of subtracting them
                 by setting the option extract_addresses_remove_arguments false.

                 If  there  are any Resent- header lines in the message, Exim extracts recipients
                 from all Resent-To:, Resent-Cc:, and Resent-Bcc: header lines  instead  of  from
                 To:,  Cc:,  and  Bcc:.  This  is for compatibility with Sendmail and other MTAs.
                 (Prior to release 4.20, Exim gave an error if -t was used  in  conjunction  with
                 Resent- header lines.)

                 RFC  2822 talks about different sets of Resent- header lines (for when a message
                 is resent several times). The RFC also specifies that they should  be  added  at
                 the  front  of  the  message, and separated by Received: lines. It is not at all
                 clear how -t should operate in the present of multiple sets, nor indeed  exactly
                 what  constitutes  a  "set".   In practice, it seems that MUAs do not follow the
                 RFC. The Resent- lines are often added at the  end  of  the  header,  and  if  a
                 message  is  resent more than once, it is common for the original set of Resent-
                 headers to be renamed as X-Resent- when a new set is  added.  This  removes  any
                 possible ambiguity.

       -ti       This  option  is  exactly  equivalent to -t -i. It is provided for compatibility
                 with Sendmail.

       -tls-on-connect
                 This option is available when Exim is compiled with TLS support. It  forces  all
                 incoming  SMTP  connections  to  behave as if the incoming port is listed in the
                 tls_on_connect_ports option.

       -U        Sendmail  uses  this  option  for  "initial   message   submission",   and   its
                 documentation   states   that   in   future  releases,  it  may  complain  about
                 syntactically invalid messages rather than fixing them when  this  flag  is  not
                 set. Exim ignores this option.

       -v        This  option  causes  Exim  to  write  information to the standard error stream,
                 describing what it is doing. In particular, it shows the log lines for receiving
                 and  delivering  a message, and if an SMTP connection is made, the SMTP dialogue
                 is shown. Some of the log lines shown may not actually be written to the log  if
                 the setting of log_selector discards them. Any relevant selectors are shown with
                 each log line. If none are shown, the logging is unconditional.

       -x        AIX uses -x for a private purpose ("mail from a local mail program has  National
                 Language Support extended characters in the body of the mail item").  It sets -x
                 when calling the MTA from its mail command. Exim ignores this option.

       -X <logfile>
                 This option is interpreted by Sendmail to cause debug information to be sent  to
                 the named file.  It is ignored by Exim.

       -z <log-line>
                 This  option  writes  its  argument  to  Exim's  logfile.   Use is restricted to
                 administrators; the intent is for operational notes.  Quotes should be  used  to
                 maintain a multi-word item as a single argument, under most shells.

SEE ALSO

       exicyclog(8),    exigrep(8),    exim_checkaccess(8),    exim_convert4r4(8),    exim_db(8),
       exim_dbmbuild(8),   exim_lock(8),   eximon(8),   exinext(8),   exiqgrep(8),   exiqsumm(8),
       exiwhat(8),   update-exim4.conf(8),  update-exim4defaults(8),  /usr/share/doc/exim4-base/,
       /usr/share/doc/exim4-base/README.Debian.[gz|html].

       The full Exim specification, the Exim book, and the Exim wiki.

AUTHOR

       This manual page was provided with the upstream Exim source package.  It was enhanced  for
       the Debian GNU/Linux system.

                                                                                         EXIM4(8)