Provided by: gdnsd_2.2.0-1ubuntu1_i386 bug


       gdnsd-plugin-geoip - gdnsd meta-plugin for GSLB + failover via
       MaxMind's GeoIP databases


       Minimal example gdnsd config file using this plugin:

         plugins => { geoip => {
           maps => {
             my_prod_map => {
               geoip2_db => GeoIP2-City.mmdb,
               datacenters => [dc-03, dc-02, dc-01, dc-fail],
               map => {
                   EU => {
                       DE => [dc-03, dc-01, dc-fail],
                       CH => [dc-01, dc-03, dc-fail]
                   NA => { MX => [dc-02, dc-fail] }
             my_auto_map => {
               geoip_db => GeoIPCityv6.dat,
               datacenters => [dc1, dc2],
               auto_dc_coords => {
                  dc1 => [ 38.9, -77 ],
                  dc2 => [ 50.1, 8.7 ],
           resources => {
             prod_www => {
               map => my_prod_map
               service_types => up
               dcmap => {
                 dc-01 =>,
                 dc-02 => { lb01 =>, lb02 => },
                 dc-03 => [,, ],
                 dc-fail =>
             corp_www => {
               map => my_auto_map
               dcmap => {
                 dc1 =>,
                 dc2 =>

       Example zonefile RRs:

         www      600 DYNA geoip!prod_www
         www-dc01 600 DYNA geoip!prod_www/dc-01
         www.corp 600 DYNA geoip!corp_www


       gdnsd-plugin-geoip uses MaxMind's GeoIP binary databases to map address
       and CNAME results based on geography and monitored service
       availability.  It fully supports both IPv6 and the emerging edns-
       client-subnet standard.  If a request contains the edns-client-subnet
       option with a source netmask greater than zero, the edns-client-subnet
       information will be used instead of the source IP of the request (the
       IP of the querying cache).

       It supports both the legacy GeoIP1 format databases which typically end
       in .dat and the newer GeoIP2 format database which typically end in
       .mmdb.  There are a few differences in the plugin's behavior depending
       on the database type in use, which are noted throughout this document.
       It is notable that what was called the singular "Region" in GeoIP1 is
       now multiple "Subdivisions" in GeoIP2.  Both occupy the hierarchical
       space between "Country" and "City" level information.  In the GeoIP2
       case there can be several layers of Subdivisions, which depend entirely
       on how a Country is broken down in ISO3166-2.  Assume the terms Region
       and Subdivision are interchangeable for the most part throughout this

       It can also be used with no GeoIP database at all, in which case the
       only network-mapping input comes from the "nets" config data or an
       external "nets" file, which explicitly map subnets to datacenter lists.

       This plugin can operate in an automatic distance-based mode (using
       City-level coordinate information rather than an external file and a
       Region-level db).  It can also operate coordinate-free and rely on the
       user to configure a hierarchical map of cascading default user-
       location-to-datacenter mappings, starting at the continent level.

       The two modes can also be effectively mixed at geographic boundaries.

       For each "map" you define (which maps geographic location codes to
       preference-ordered lists of your datacenter locations), this plugin
       merges all of the raw GeoIP subnets into the largest possible supernets
       which contain identical responses in your configuration.  These in turn
       are used to set larger edns-client-subnet scope masks than you'd see
       simply returning raw GeoIP results.


       The documentation for gdnsd-plugin-metafo(8) is required reading for
       understanding the geoip plugin documentation here.  The geoip plugin is
       an exact superset of the metafo plugin, and re-uses almost all of the
       metafo plugin's source code.  Metafo does failover along a single,
       global, ordered list of datacenters.  What plugin_geoip adds on top of
       the functionality of metafo is the ability to have the order of the
       datacenter failover list become dynamic per-request based on geographic
       hints derived from the client's network address.


       The configuration of this plugin can reference several external
       configuration and/or data files.  By default, all files referenced in
       this plugin's configuration are loaded from the geoip subdirectory of
       the daemon's configuration directory (default /etc/gdnsd).  You can
       load from other locations by specifying absolute file paths.


       The top level of the geoip plugin's configuration (i.e. "plugins => {
       geoip => { ... } }") supports only two special keys, both of which are
       required and expanded upon in detail in the next two sections: "maps",
       and "resources".  The "maps" section defines one or more named mappings
       of location information from GeoIP binary databases to ordered subsets
       of datacenter names.  The "resources" section defines one or more named
       resources, each of which references one of the named maps and resolves
       datacenter names to specific sets of addresses or CNAMEs.

       Any other keys present at this level will be inherited down inside of
       each per-resource hash inside the "resources" stanza, acting as per-
       resource defaults for anything not defined explicitly there.


       The "maps" stanza supports one special configuration key at the top

   "city_region_names = region_codes.csv"
       String, filename, optional.  GeoIP1 City databases use FIPS 10-4 codes
       for the names of Regions outside of the US and Canada, and two-letter
       national alpha codes within the US and Canada.  For example the Geneve
       region of Switzerland is identified as 07 in the database.  By default
       you would have to use these relatively confusing region codes in your
       hierarchical maps that make use of Region-level information (e.g. "EU
       => { CH => { 07 => { Geneva => [ ... ] } } } }".  If this option is
       specified, it points to a text file that maps these FIPS codes to
       canonical, memorable full names for clearer map configuration (e.g. "EU
       => { CH => { Geneve => { Geneva => [ ... ] } } } }".  Note that while
       older versions of this data did not map the US/Canadian two-letter
       alpha codes, newer versions do (e.g. TX -> Texas).

       This setting does not affect the GeoIP "Region" -format databases,
       which have no region codes outside of the US and Canada, and always
       need the two-letter alpha codes in the map.

       It also does not affect GeoIP2 databases, as they all use ISO3166-2
       codes for subdivision (aka region) data directly, which are at least
       usually more intuitive than FIPS.

       The file format is a simple subset of the CSV format with 3 fields: ISO
       3166-1 country code, FIPS 10-4 region code (or two-letter alpha in
       US/Canada), and the region name in double-quotes.  It is recommended
       you download this file directly from MaxMind's reference copy in this
       format.  As of this writing, it is available from them at the following
       URL: <>.


       All other "maps"-level configuration keys are the names of the maps you
       choose to define.  A map, conceptually, is a mapping between geography
       and/or network topology to varying ordered datacenter sub-sets.  The
       value of each named map must be a hash, and the following configuration
       keys apply within:

   "geoip2_db = GeoIP2-City.mmdb"
       String, filename, optional.  This is the filename of a MaxMind GeoIP2
       format database.  It should contain either the City or Country data
       model.  There is no distinction made here for the IP version, and it is
       normal for these databases to contain both IPv4 and IPv6 data together.
       If one or the other is missing, clients using that address family will
       be defaulted.  If this parameter is set, then the legacy "geoip_db" and
       "geoip_db_v4_overlay" are not allowed alongside it.

   "geoip_db = GeoIPv6.dat"
       String, filename, optional.  This is the filename of one of the
       supported MaxMind GeoIP1 database types.  It will be reloaded at
       runtime (without any significant query interruptions) if a change to
       the database file is detected.

   "geoip_db_v4_overlay = GeoIP.dat"
       String, pathname, optional.  This specifies an optional IPv4-level
       GeoIP1 database to overwrite the IPv4 sub-space of the IPv6 data loaded
       from "geoip_db".  It must be a V4-format database, and "geoip_db" must
       be defined as a V6-format database.  In all other respects, it is
       similar to "geoip_db".

       As of this writing, MaxMind doesn't sell a commercial GeoIP1v6
       database.  What they offer are free IPv6 GeoLite1 database downloads,
       which include the IPv4 subset in the less-accurate GeoLite1 form.  This
       option allows you to use these GeoLite1v6 databases for IPv6 coverage,
       and then overlay your paid commercial GeoIP1v4 data on top for more
       accurate IPv4 results.

   "datacenters = [ one, two, three, ... ]"
       Array of strings, required.  This is the total set of datacenter names
       used by this map.  You must define at least one datacenter name
       (although 2 or more would be infinitely more useful).  At this time,
       there is a maximum limit of 254 datacenter names per map, although this
       could be raised if anyone requires it.  The order specified here is the
       fallback default result ordering in various default cases (e.g. if no
       explicit top-level map default list is given).

   "city_no_region = true"
       Boolean, default "false".  If this key is set to "true" and the
       database is a City-level database, the Region/Subdivision-level
       information within it will be completely ignored for mapping purposes.
       Your hierarchical map structure will now be "continent => country =>
       city" rather than "continent => country => region/subdivision => city".

   "nets = { ... }"
       Key-value hash, optional (see below for alternate form).  If specified,
       the contents should be key-value pairs of "network/netmask" mapped to a
       datacenter name (or an array of datacenter names).  Any network-to-
       datacenter mappings specified here will override mappings determined
       via GeoIP.  Note that it is illegal to specify networks in the
       IPv4-like subspaces of IPv6 other than v4compat, but it is legal to
       specify actual IPv4 networks (which are treated identically to
       v4compat).  See the section on IPv4 Compatible Addresses later in this
       document for more details.  The order of the networks is unimportant;
       they will always be sorted and inserted such that an entry which is a
       subnet of another entry is not obliterated by the parent supernet.

           nets => {
      => [ dc1, dc2 ],
      => dc3
               2001:DB8::/32 => [ dc4, dc5, dc6 ],

       In the case that one entry is a subnet of another with a different
       result dclist, the entries are merged correctly such that the supernet
       surrounds the subnet.  In the case of an exact duplicate entry (or an
       effective one, after merging smaller subnets) with a different dclist,
       it is arbitrary which one "wins" and the condition is warned about.  If
       you care about this case, you should sanitize your nets data beforehand
       with an external tool and/or parse for the warning message in log

   "nets = nets_file_name"
       String pathname, optional.  A variant of the above, but the contents of
       the key-value hash are loaded from the named external file.  This makes
       life easier for external tools and scripts generating large sets of
       nets entries (e.g. from BGP data).  The file will be monitored for
       changes and reloaded at runtime much like the GeoIP databases.

   "map = { ... }"
       Key-value hash, optional.  This is the heart of a named map which uses
       GeoIP: the map itself, which maps places to ordered lists of
       datacenters.  It requires that "geoip_db" or "geoip2_db" is also
       specified, and makes no sense without it.

       This is a nested key-value hash.  At each level, the keys are location
       codes (continent, country, region/subdivision, or city information
       depending on depth), and the values are either an ordered datacenter
       array (e.g. "[ dc03, dc01, dc04 ]"), or a sub-hash containing a deeper
       level of distinction.  At each layer, a special key named "default" is
       available, which sets the default for everything within the current
       scope.  The top-level default itself defaults to the ordered list from
       "datacenters" in the normal case.  If the entire "map" stanza is
       missing or empty, you just get the default behavior of "default".  A
       datacenter array can also be empty, which implies that this location is
       mapped to receive no response data (the server will still respond to
       the query, and will not issue an NXDOMAIN.  It will simply be a
       NODATA/NOERROR response like you'd get if there were no records of this
       type, but could be records of other types for the same name).

       The map has slightly different interpretations for GeoIP2 vs GeoIP1

           The meaningful location keys at the top level are continent codes,
           of which there are primarily seven in MaxMind's databases: "AF" for
           Africa, "AS" for Asia, "NA" for North America, "SA" for South
           America, "EU" for Europe, "OC" for Oceania, and "AN" for
           Antarctica.  There is also an eighth continent-level code which is,
           literally, "--".  This is a sort of fallback "no information
           available" continent code, and it contains the special country
           codes "A1", "A2", "O1", and "--", which represent Anonymous
           Proxies, Satellite Providers, Other, and Unknown, respsectively.

           The next layer (the sub-hash beneath any continent code) maps
           ISO-3166-1 2-letter country codes, which as with continents can map
           directly to datacenters, or to yet another recursive layer.

           The next two layers deep are for Region and City level information,
           only available from the Region and City type databases.  The Region
           database type only provides region information for the US and
           Canada, using the standard local 2-letter abbrevations (e.g. AB for
           Alberta, OK for Oklahama).  The City databases use those same
           region abbrevations for the US and Canada, but use either FIPS 10-4
           2-letter codes or full region names for the rest of the world's
           regions (as detailed earlier in, and controlled by, the
           "city_region_names" option).

           The actual City names at the final layer appear to be encoded using
           some form of ISO8859-1 and/or CP1252 character set in the databases
           themselves, and your map entries will have to match byte-for-byte
           in the case of non-ASCII characters.  May come up with a better
           solution for this down the road.

           As with GeoIP1, the top level of the hierarchy is comprised of
           MaxMind's seven continent codes: "AF" for Africa, "AS" for Asia,
           "NA" for North America, "SA" for South America, "EU" for Europe,
           "OC" for Oceania, and "AN" for Antarctica.  There is no special
           "--" continent for various types of unknowns; those database
           entries that lack some or all information at this level simply take
           the appropriate defaults for the level of detail they possess.

           The next level, again as in GeoIP1, is the ISO 3166-1 2-letter
           country code.

           From here GeoIP2 has a number of Subdivision levels, the count of
           which varies for different network database entries.  In the US,
           for example, there is only one level of subdivision data for the US
           States.  In the Czech Republic there are two levels of subdivision:
           first into 14 regions, and then further into 91 districts.
           Subdivisions are all specified using their ISO 3166-2 codes

           After all subdivision levels, the final level is the City level.
           The City names are all in the UTF-8 character set.  Currently this
           plugin only uses the English city names from the database, even
           though other languages may be available depending on the database.

           As a pragmatic answer to the issues that can arise with multiple
           subdivision layers, in the GeoIP2 case the map automatically
           searches deeper in the database data when no map match is found at
           a given level of the map hierarchy beneath the Country level.  This
           means you can skip over any levels of Subdivision detail in your
           map that are irrelevant to you.  This mostly supplants the
           practical need for the "city_no_region" and "skip_level"
           functionality that was used with GeoIP1 maps, but those features
           remain functional as well.

           For example, this targets the New Zealand regional council
           subdivision of Otago without explicitly specifying the enclosing
           subdivision for the South Island:

             { OC => { NZ => { OTA => [...] } } }

           As another example, this works correctly for targeting the city of
           Paris without caring about what layers of subdivisions lie between
           it and FR:

             { EU => { FR => { Paris => [...] } } }

       There is also one other special key (aside from "default") available at
       all levels of the map hierarchy, a boolean named "skip_level", default
       "false".  If set within the hierarchical "map" at any layer, it causes
       the next layer of detail to be skipped for this portion of the map.
       For example, setting this at the very top layer would mean that the top
       layer would contain country-level codes directly, without an enclosing
       continent-level hierarchy.  Setting it within a country would mean that
       city names are used directly within that country, without an
       intervening layer of region names.  This option is not aware of the
       "city_no_region" option, so e.g. setting that option and specifying
       "skip_level" at the country-level would result in no further
       information being available within that country (as "skip_level" would
       skip the remaining layer of city data).


       "City-auto-mode" is a special mode of operation that automatically maps
       out the world to your datacenters based on coordinate math, so that you
       don't have to manually construct a complex hierarchical "map".  It can
       still be mixed with "map" of course, allowing you to use auto-mode for
       only select geographic areas if you wish (or disabling it for select
       areas by specifying manual lists).  The key parameter is
       "auto_dc_coords", which enables city-auto-mode.

       "auto_dc_coords = { ... }"
           Key-value hash, optional.  If this option is specified, the whole
           map's basic mode of operation changes to "city-auto-mode".  The
           contents of the hash are a key for each datacenter named in
           "datacenters", with their values set to an array of "[lat, lon]" in
           decimal degree units.  When city-auto-mode is enabled by this, the
           following configuration-validation changes occur from the default,
           static-mapping mode: the loaded GeoIP database(s) are required be
           City-level databases, and the special keyword "auto" becomes a
           legal "datacenter list" in the "map" stanza.

           With city-auto-mode enabled, the top-level map "default" defaults
           to "auto", but can be overridden with a manual list.  For any
           location that maps to "auto", the coordinates specified here in
           "auto_dc_coords" will be compared with the coordinates from the
           City-level database(s) to determine an automatic distance-sorted
           datacenter list.

           If you omit one or more defined datacenters from the coordinate
           list in "auto_dc_coords", those datacenters will not be used in
           automatic results, but will still be available for manual use via
           "map" and/or "nets" entries.

       "auto_dc_limit = N"
           Unsigned integer, optional, default 3.  When city-auto-mode is in
           effect, this is the upper length limit for auto-generated lists.  3
           is a reasonable default even if you have a considerably longer set
           of datacenters, as this provides a primary as well as two
           fallbacks.  Raising this to a large number in the presence of a
           long datacenter list will cause the set of unique result datacenter
           lists to increase rapidly, and thus reduce the optimization of the
           final result database for edns-client-subnet purposes.  It's really
           not worth raising this value in almost any case, unless you really
           need to handle more than 3 random datacenters going offline at the
           same time and still have clients fail elsewhere.  The value zero is
           treated as unlimited (highly un-recommended).

       Under city-auto-mode, when the top-level default is (explicitly or
       implicitly) "auto", there is still a fallback static ordering which is
       the whole ordered "datacenters" list, which is the normal static
       default "default" when not in city-auto-mode.  This fallback is used
       when no location information is available at all (e.g. IPv6 client vs
       IPv4 GeoIP DB, Anonymous Proxies, etc).


       A binary program "gdnsd_geoip_test" is included.  This can be used
       directly from the commandline, parses the relevant bits of your gdnsd
       config file for geoip map info, and then provides datacenter list
       results for IP address + map combinations supplied by the user.  Useful
       for debugging your maps and testing the mapping of client IPs.  It has
       a separate manpage gdnsd_geoip_test(1).


       Resource-level configuration within the "resources" stanza is nearly
       identical to the resources configuration of the metafo plugin, with all
       of the same basic behaviors about synthesizing or directly referencing
       the configuration of other plugins per-datacenter.  The only real
       difference is that metafo's per-resource "datacenters" array is
       replaced with "map => mapname", which references one of the maps
       defined in the "maps" stanza, described in detail earlier.  The set of
       defined datacenters in the "dcmap" stanza must match the total set of
       datacenters defined by the referenced map.


       Both of the meta-plugins ("metafo" and "geoip") can reference their own
       as well as each others' resources by direct reference within a "dcmap",
       so long as a resource does not directly refer to itself.  This allows
       plugin-layering configurations such as geoip -> metafo -> weighted, or
       metafo -> geoip -> multifo, or even metafo -> metafo -> simplefo, etc.

       Bear in mind that once you begin using inter-meta-plugin references,
       you could create a reference loop.  gdnsd does not currently detect or
       prevent such loops, and they will cause complete runtime failure when
       queried, probably by running out of stack space during recursion.

       Additionally, "geoip" can synthesize configuration for "metafo"
       resources, but the reverse does not hold; "metafo" cannot synthesize
       configuration for "geoip" resources.

IPv4 Compatible Addresses

       This plugin knows of six different relatively-trivial ways to map IPv4
       addresses into the IPv6 address space.  These are shown below in as
       much detail matters to this plugin, with "NNNN:NNNN" in place of the
       copied IPv4 address bytes:

                ::0000:NNNN:NNNN/96   # RFC 4291 - v4compat (deprecated)
                ::ffff:NNNN:NNNN/96   # RFC 4291 - v4mapped
           ::ffff:0000:NNNN:NNNN/96   # RFC 2765 - SIIT (obsoleted)
              64:ff9b::NNNN:NNNN/96   # RFC 6052 - Well-Known Prefix
           2001:0000:X:NNNN:NNNN/32   # RFC 4380 - Teredo (IPv4 bits are flipped)
                  2002:NNNN:NNNN::/16 # RFC 3056 - 6to4

           (in the Teredo case above, "X" represents some variable non-zero bytes
            that occupy the center 64 bits of the address).

       All of this plugin's internal lookup databases are IPv6 databases, and
       any IPv4-like information is always stored in the v4compat space within
       these databases.  When doing runtime lookups all other v4-like
       addresses (raw IPv4 addresses, v4mapped, SIIT, WKP, Teredo, and 6to4)
       are converted to the canonical v4compat IPv6 representation before
       querying the internal databases.  The other representations (v4mapped,
       SIIT, WKP, Teredo, 6to4) are Undefined internally, and will never be
       referenced at lookup-time due to the v4compat conversion mentioned

       The "nets" stanza is not allowed to specify entries in the four
       undefined v4-like IPv6 spaces (those other than v4compat).  Specify
       those networks as normal IPv4 networks or v4compat networks instead.
       Legitimate IPv6 "nets" entries which happen to be a supernet of any
       v4-like spaces will *not* unduly affect v4-like lookups.  There is no
       functional difference between v4compat and native v4 forms in "nets",
       e.g. "" and "::C000:0200/120" are completely identical.

       GeoIP databases that are natively IPv4-only get all of their data
       loaded into the v4compat space only.  For IPv6 GeoIP databases, by
       default we load the v4compat space directly (which is where MaxMind
       stores IPv4 data in their IPv6 databases), but ignore the
       v4mapped/SIIT/Teredo/6to4 spaces (some of which are empty in MaxMind's
       databases, and some of which simply alias the v4compat space).  When
       using an IPv6 GeoIP database combined with an IPv4 GeoIP overlay
       (geoip_db_v4_overlay config), the v4compat space of the IPv6 database
       is also ignored on loading, and the direct IPv4 data from the IPv4
       databasee takes its place.


       A relatively-maximal example config, showing the interaction of valid
       "maps" and "resources" sections:

         service_types => {
           xmpp_svc => { plugin => "tcp_connect", ... }
           www_svc => { plugin => "http_status", ... }
         plugins => {
           geoip => {
             maps => {
               city_region_names => fips_include,
               my_prod_map => {
                 geoip_db => GeoIPCityv6.dat,
                 geoip_db_v4_overlay => GeoIPCity.dat,
                 city_no_region => false, # default
                 datacenters => [us-01, de-01, sg-01],
                 map => {
                     # Hierarchy is Continent -> Country -> Region -> City
                     NA => {
                       US => {
                         skip_level => 1, # skip past region level
                         Dallas => [sg-01],
                     SA => [us-01, sg-01, de-01],
                     EU => {
                       default => [eu-01, us-01, sg-01],
                       CH => {
                         Geneve => {
                           Geneva => [sg-01],
                     AF => [eu-01, us-01, sg-01],
                     AS => [sg-01, eu-01, us-01],
                     OC => [sg-01, us-01, eu-01],
                 nets => {
            => [ eu-01 ],
                     2001:DB8::/32 => [ us-01 ],
               my_auto_map => {
                 geoip_db => GeoIPCityv6.dat,
                 geoip_db_v4_overlay => GeoIPCity.dat,
                 datacenters => [us-01, de-01, sg-01],
                 auto_dc_coords => {
                    us-01 => [ 38.9, -77 ],
                    de-01 => [ 50.1, 8.7 ],
                    sg-01 => [ 1.3, 103.9 ],
             resources => {
               prod_app => {
                 map => my_auto_map
                 # these two are inherited multifo config keys
                 #  for all of the dcmap below:
                 service_types => [www_svc, xmpp_svc],
                 up_thresh => 0.4,
                 dcmap => {
                   us-01 => {
                     lb01 =>,
                     lb02 =>,
                     lb03 =>,
                     lb01.v6 => 2001:DB8::1,
                     lb02.v6 => 2001:DB8::2,
                     lb03.v6 => 2001:DB8::3,
                   sg-01 => {
                     lb01 =>,
                     lb02 =>,
                     lb03 =>,
                     lb01.v6 => 2001:DB8::4,
                     lb02.v6 => 2001:DB8::5,
                     lb03.v6 => 2001:DB8::6,
                   de-01 => {
                     lb01 =>,
                     lb02 =>,
                     lb03 =>,
                     lb01.v6 => 2001:DB8::7,
                     lb02.v6 => 2001:DB8::8,
                     lb03.v6 => 2001:DB8::9,
               prod_cdn => {
                 map => my_prod_map,
                 dcmap => {
                   us-01 =>
                   sg-01 =>
                   de-01 =>

       Example zonefile RRs:

         app     600 DYNA geoip!prod_app  600 DYNA geoip!prod_app/us-01  600 DYNA geoip!prod_app/sg-01  600 DYNA geoip!prod_app/de-01
         content 600 DYNC geoip!prod_cdn


         plugins => {
           geoip => {
             maps => {
               auto_map => {
                 geoip_db => GeoIPCityv6.dat,
                 datacenters => [dc1, dc2, dc3, dc4],
                 auto_dc_coords => {
                    dc1 => [ 38.9, -77 ],
                    dc2 => [ 50.1, 8.7 ],
                    dc3 => [ 20.2, 88.9 ],
                    dc4 => [ 39.0, -20 ],
                 # only fail through the nearest 2 before giving up:
                 auto_dc_limit => 2,
             resources => {
               www_real => {
                 map => my_auto_map,
                 service_types => [ http, xmpp ],
                 dcmap => {
                   dc1 =>,
                   dc2 =>,
                   dc3 =>,
                   dc4 =>
           metafo => {
             resources => {
               www => {
                 datacenters => [ real, backup ],
                 dcmap => {
                   real => %geoip!www_real,
                   backup =>

         And in the zonefile:

         ; This tries through the closest 2/4 datacenters to
         ;   the client from the geoip map, and if both of
         ;   those are down it returns a CNAME to
         ;   for a downtime message or something:
         www DYNC metafo!www


       gdnsd-plugin-metafo(8), gdnsd_geoip_test(1), gdnsd.config(5),
       gdnsd.zonefile(5), gdnsd(8)

       The gdnsd manual.


       Copyright (c) 2012 Brandon L Black <>

       This file is part of gdnsd.

       gdnsd is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
       the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
       Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your
       option) any later version.

       gdnsd is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
       ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
       FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
       for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with gdnsd.  If not, see <>.