Provided by: ipset_6.29-1_i386 bug

NAME

       ipset — administration tool for IP sets

SYNOPSIS

       ipset [ OPTIONS ] COMMAND [ COMMAND-OPTIONS ]

       COMMANDS  :=  {  create  |  add  | del | test | destroy | list | save |
       restore | flush | rename | swap | help | version | - }

       OPTIONS := { -exist | -output { plain  |  save  |  xml  }  |  -quiet  |
       -resolve | -sorted | -name | -terse | -file filename }

       ipset create SETNAME TYPENAME [ CREATE-OPTIONS ]

       ipset add SETNAME ADD-ENTRY [ ADD-OPTIONS ]

       ipset del SETNAME DEL-ENTRY [ DEL-OPTIONS ]

       ipset test SETNAME TEST-ENTRY [ TEST-OPTIONS ]

       ipset destroy [ SETNAME ]

       ipset list [ SETNAME ]

       ipset save [ SETNAME ]

       ipset restore

       ipset flush [ SETNAME ]

       ipset rename SETNAME-FROM SETNAME-TO

       ipset swap SETNAME-FROM SETNAME-TO

       ipset help [ TYPENAME ]

       ipset version

       ipset -

DESCRIPTION

       ipset  is used to set up, maintain and inspect so called IP sets in the
       Linux kernel. Depending on the type of the set, an  IP  set  may  store
       IP(v4/v6)  addresses, (TCP/UDP) port numbers, IP and MAC address pairs,
       IP address and port number pairs, etc. See  the  set  type  definitions
       below.

       Iptables matches and targets referring to sets create references, which
       protect the given sets in the kernel. A set cannot be  destroyed  while
       there is a single reference pointing to it.

OPTIONS

       The  options  that  are recognized by ipset can be divided into several
       different groups.

   COMMANDS
       These options specify the desired action to perform.  Only one of  them
       can  be specified on the command line unless otherwise specified below.
       For all the long versions of the command names, you need  to  use  only
       enough letters to ensure that ipset can differentiate it from all other
       commands. The ipset parser follows the order here when looking for  the
       shortest match in the long command names.

       n, create SETNAME TYPENAME [ CREATE-OPTIONS ]
              Create  a  set  identified  with setname and specified type. The
              type may require type specific options. If the -exist option  is
              specified,  ipset  ignores  the  error otherwise raised when the
              same set (setname and create parameters are  identical)  already
              exists.

       add SETNAME ADD-ENTRY [ ADD-OPTIONS ]
              Add a given entry to the set. If the -exist option is specified,
              ipset ignores if the entry already added to the set.

       del SETNAME DEL-ENTRY [ DEL-OPTIONS ]
              Delete an entry from a set. If the -exist  option  is  specified
              and  the  entry  is not in the set (maybe already expired), then
              the command is ignored.

       test SETNAME TEST-ENTRY [ TEST-OPTIONS ]
              Test whether an entry is in a set or not. Exit status number  is
              zero  if  the  tested  entry  is in the set and nonzero if it is
              missing from the set.

       x, destroy [ SETNAME ]
              Destroy the specified set or all the sets if none is given.

              If the set has got reference(s), nothing  is  done  and  no  set
              destroyed.

       list [ SETNAME ] [ OPTIONS ]
              List  the  header data and the entries for the specified set, or
              for all sets if none is given. The -resolve option can  be  used
              to  force  name  lookups  (which  may be slow). When the -sorted
              option is given, the entries are listed sorted (if the given set
              type  supports the operation). The option -output can be used to
              control the format of the listing: plain,  save  or  xml.   (The
              default  is  plain.)  If the option -name is specified, just the
              names of the existing sets are listed. If the option  -terse  is
              specified, just the set names and headers are listed. The output
              is printed to stdout, the option -file can be used to specify  a
              filename instead of stdout.

       save [ SETNAME ]
              Save  the given set, or all sets if none is given to stdout in a
              format that restore can read. The option -file can  be  used  to
              specify a filename instead of stdout.

       restore
              Restore  a  saved  session generated by save.  The saved session
              can be fed from stdin or the option -file can be used to specify
              a filename instead of stdin.

              Please  note,  existing  sets  and  elements  are  not erased by
              restore unless specified so in the restore  file.  All  commands
              are   allowed  in  restore  mode  except  list,  help,  version,
              interactive mode and restore itself.

       flush [ SETNAME ]
              Flush all entries from the specified set or flush  all  sets  if
              none is given.

       e, rename SETNAME-FROM SETNAME-TO
              Rename a set. Set identified by SETNAME-TO must not exist.

       w, swap SETNAME-FROM SETNAME-TO
              Swap  the content of two sets, or in another words, exchange the
              name of two sets. The referred sets must  exist  and  compatible
              type of sets can be swapped only.

       help [ TYPENAME ]
              Print help and set type specific help if TYPENAME is specified.

       version
              Print program version.

       -      If  a  dash  is specified as command, then ipset enters a simple
              interactive mode and the commands are  read  from  the  standard
              input.   The  interactive  mode  can be finished by entering the
              pseudo-command quit.

   OTHER OPTIONS
       The following additional options can  be  specified.  The  long  option
       names cannot be abbreviated.

       -!, -exist
              Ignore  errors  when  exactly  the  same set is to be created or
              already added entry is added or missing entry is deleted.

       -o, -output { plain | save | xml }
              Select the output format to the list command.

       -q, -quiet
              Suppress any output to stdout and stderr.  ipset will still exit
              with error if it cannot continue.

       -r, -resolve
              When  listing sets, enforce name lookup. The program will try to
              display the IP entries resolved to  host  names  which  requires
              slow DNS lookups.

       -s, -sorted
              Sorted  output. When listing sets entries are listed sorted. Not
              supported yet.

       -n, -name
              List just the names of the existing sets, i.e. suppress  listing
              of set headers and members.

       -t, -terse
              List  the  set  names  and headers, i.e. suppress listing of set
              members.

       -f, -file filename
              Specify a filename to print into instead of stdout (list or save
              commands) or read from instead of stdin (restore command).

INTRODUCTION

       A  set type comprises of the storage method by which the data is stored
       and the data type(s)  which  are  stored  in  the  set.  Therefore  the
       TYPENAME parameter of the create command follows the syntax

       TYPENAME := method:datatype[,datatype[,datatype]]

       where  the  current  list of the methods are bitmap, hash, and list and
       the possible data  types  are  ip,  net,  mac,  port  and  iface.   The
       dimension  of  a  set  is equal to the number of data types in its type
       name.

       When adding, deleting or testing entries  in  a  set,  the  same  comma
       separated  data  syntax  must  be  used  for the entry parameter of the
       commands, i.e

              ipset add foo ipaddr,portnum,ipaddr

       If host names or service names with dash in the name are  used  instead
       of  IP addresses or service numbers, then the host name or service name
       must be enclosed in square brackets. Example:

              ipset add foo [test-hostname],[ftp-data]

       In the case of host names the DNS  resolver  is  called  internally  by
       ipset  but  if  it returns multiple IP addresses, only the first one is
       used.

       The bitmap and list types use a fixed sized storage. The hash types use
       a  hash to store the elements. In order to avoid clashes in the hash, a
       limited number of chaining, and if that is exhausted, the  doubling  of
       the  hash  size  is performed when adding entries by the ipset command.
       When entries added by the SET target of  iptables/ip6tables,  then  the
       hash  size  is  fixed  and the set won't be duplicated, even if the new
       entry cannot be added to the set.

GENERIC CREATE AND ADD OPTIONS

   timeout
       All set types supports the optional timeout parameter when  creating  a
       set  and  adding  entries.  The  value of the timeout parameter for the
       create command means the default timeout value  (in  seconds)  for  new
       entries.  If  a  set  is  created  with  timeout support, then the same
       timeout option can be used to specify non-default timeout  values  when
       adding  entries.  Zero timeout value means the entry is added permanent
       to the set.  The timeout value of already added elements can be changed
       by re-adding the element using the -exist option. Example:

              ipset create test hash:ip timeout 300

              ipset add test 192.168.0.1 timeout 60

              ipset -exist add test 192.168.0.1 timeout 600

       When listing the set, the number of entries printed in the header might
       be larger than the listed number of entries for sets with  the  timeout
       extensions:  the  number of entries in the set is updated when elements
       added/deleted to the set and periodically when  the  garbage  collector
       evicts the timed out entries.

   counters, packets, bytes
       All set types support the optional counters option when creating a set.
       If the option is specified then the set is created with packet and byte
       counters  per  element  support.  The  packet  and  byte  counters  are
       initialized to zero when the elements are (re-)added to the set, unless
       the  packet  and  byte  counter  values are explicitly specified by the
       packets and bytes options. An example when an element is added to a set
       with non-zero counter values:

              ipset create foo hash:ip counters

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1 packets 42 bytes 1024

   comment
       All  set  types  support the optional comment extension.  Enabling this
       extension on an ipset enables you to annotate an ipset  entry  with  an
       arbitrary  string. This string is completely ignored by both the kernel
       and ipset itself and is purely for  providing  a  convenient  means  to
       document the reason for an entry's existence. Comments must not contain
       any quotation marks and the usual escape character (\) has no  meaning.
       For example, the following shell command is illegal:

              ipset add foo 1.1.1.1 comment "this comment is \"bad\""

       In  the above, your shell will of course escape the quotation marks and
       ipset will see the quote marks in the argument for the  comment,  which
       will  result in a parse error.  If you are writing your own system, you
       should avoid creating comments containing a quotation mark  if  you  do
       not  want  to  break "ipset save" and "ipset restore", nonetheless, the
       kernel will not stop you from doing  so.  The  following  is  perfectly
       acceptable:

              ipset create foo hash:ip comment

              ipset  add foo 192.168.1.1/24 comment "allow access to SMB share
              on \\\\fileserv\\"

              the above would  appear  as:  "allow  access  to  SMB  share  on
              \\fileserv\"

   skbinfo, skbmark, skbprio, skbqueue
       All  set  types  support the optional skbinfo extension. This extension
       allows you to store the metainfo (firewall mark, tc class and  hardware
       queue) with every entry and map it to packets by usage of SET netfilter
       target  with  --map-set  option.   skbmark  option  format:   MARK   or
       MARK/MASK, where MARK and MASK are 32bit hex numbers with 0x prefix. If
       only mark is specified mask 0xffffffff are used.  skbprio option has tc
       class  format:  MAJOR:MINOR,  where  major  and  minor  numbers are hex
       without 0x prefix.  skbqueue option is just decimal number.

              ipset create foo hash:ip skbinfo

              ipset add foo skbmark 0x1111/0xff00ffff skbprio 1:10 skbqueue 10

   hashsize
       This parameter is valid for the create command of all hash  type  sets.
       It defines the initial hash size for the set, default is 1024. The hash
       size must be a power of two, the kernel  automatically  rounds  up  non
       power of two hash sizes to the first correct value.  Example:

              ipset create test hash:ip hashsize 1536

   maxelem
       This  parameter  is valid for the create command of all hash type sets.
       It does define the maximal number of elements which can  be  stored  in
       the set, default 65536.  Example:

              ipset create test hash:ip maxelem 2048.

   family { inet | inet6 }
       This  parameter  is  valid for the create command of all hash type sets
       except for  hash:mac.   It  defines  the  protocol  family  of  the  IP
       addresses  to be stored in the set. The default is inet, i.e IPv4.  For
       the inet family one can add or delete multiple entries by specifying  a
       range  or  a  network  of  IPv4 addresses in the IP address part of the
       entry:

       ipaddr := { ip | fromaddr-toaddr | ip/cidr }

       netaddr := { fromaddr-toaddr | ip/cidr }

       Example:

              ipset create test hash:ip family inet6

   nomatch
       The hash set types which can store net type of data  (i.e.  hash:*net*)
       support  the optional nomatch option when adding entries. When matching
       elements in the set, entries marked as nomatch are skipped as if  those
       were  not  added to the set, which makes possible to build up sets with
       exceptions. See the example at hash type hash:net below.

       When elements are tested by ipset, the nomatch  flags  are  taken  into
       account.  If  one wants to test the existence of an element marked with
       nomatch in a set, then the flag must be specified too.

   forceadd
       All hash  set  types  support  the  optional  forceadd  parameter  when
       creating  a  set.   When  sets created with this option become full the
       next addition to the set may succeed and evict a random entry from  the
       set.

              ipset create foo hash:ip forceadd

SET TYPES

   bitmap:ip
       The  bitmap:ip  set  type uses a memory range to store either IPv4 host
       (default) or IPv4 network addresses. A bitmap:ip type of set can  store
       up to 65536 entries.

       CREATE-OPTIONS  := range fromip-toip|ip/cidr [ netmask cidr ] [ timeout
       value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := { ip | fromip-toip | ip/cidr }

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes  value  ]  [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := { ip | fromip-toip | ip/cidr }

       TEST-ENTRY := ip

       Mandatory create options:

       range fromip-toip|ip/cidr
              Create  the  set  from  the  specified  inclusive  address range
              expressed in an IPv4 address range or network. The size  of  the
              range  (in  entries)  cannot  exceed  the limit of maximum 65536
              elements.

       Optional create options:

       netmask cidr
              When the optional netmask parameter specified, network addresses
              will be stored in the set instead of IP host addresses. The cidr
              prefix value must be between 1-32.  An IP address will be in the
              set  if  the  network  address, which is resulted by masking the
              address with the specified netmask, can be found in the set.

       The bitmap:ip type supports adding or deleting multiple entries in  one
       command.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo bitmap:ip range 192.168.0.0/16

              ipset add foo 192.168.1/24

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.1

   bitmap:ip,mac
       The  bitmap:ip,mac set type uses a memory range to store IPv4 and a MAC
       address pairs. A bitmap:ip,mac type  of  set  can  store  up  to  65536
       entries.

       CREATE-OPTIONS  :=  range  fromip-toip|ip/cidr  [  timeout  value  ]  [
       counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ip[,macaddr]

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes  value  ]  [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ip[,macaddr]

       TEST-ENTRY := ip[,macaddr]

       Mandatory options to use when creating a bitmap:ip,mac type of set:

       range fromip-toip|ip/cidr
              Create  the  set  from  the  specified  inclusive  address range
              expressed in an IPv4 address range or network. The size  of  the
              range cannot exceed the limit of maximum 65536 entries.

       The  bitmap:ip,mac  type  is exceptional in the sense that the MAC part
       can be left out when adding/deleting/testing entries in the set. If  we
       add  an  entry  without  the MAC address specified, then when the first
       time the entry is matched by the kernel, it will automatically fill out
       the missing MAC address with the source MAC address from the packet. If
       the entry was specified with a timeout value, the timer starts off when
       the IP and MAC address pair is complete.

       The  bitmap:ip,mac  type  of sets require two src/dst parameters of the
       set match and SET target netfilter kernel modules and  the  second  one
       must  be src to match, add or delete entries, because the set match and
       SET target have access to the source MAC address only.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo bitmap:ip,mac range 192.168.0.0/16

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,12:34:56:78:9A:BC

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.1

   bitmap:port
       The bitmap:port set type uses a memory range to store port numbers  and
       such a set can store up to 65536 ports.

       CREATE-OPTIONS  := range fromport-toport [ timeout value ] [ counters ]
       [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := { [proto:]port | [proto:]fromport-toport }

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes  value  ]  [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := { [proto:]port | [proto:]fromport-toport }

       TEST-ENTRY := [proto:]port

       Mandatory options to use when creating a bitmap:port type of set:

       range [proto:]fromport-toport
              Create the set from the specified inclusive port range.

       The  set  match  and  SET target netfilter kernel modules interpret the
       stored numbers as TCP or UDP port numbers.

       proto only needs to be specified if a service name is  used,  and  that
       name does not exist as a TCP service.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo bitmap:port range 0-1024

              ipset add foo 80

              ipset test foo 80

              ipset del foo udp:[macon-udp]-[tn-tl-w2]

   hash:ip
       The  hash:ip  set type uses a hash to store IP host addresses (default)
       or network addresses. Zero valued IP address  cannot  be  stored  in  a
       hash:ip type of set.

       CREATE-OPTIONS  :=  [  family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ netmask cidr ] [ timeout  value  ]  [  counters  ]  [
       comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ipaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS  :=  [  timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ipaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := ipaddr

       Optional create options:

       netmask cidr
              When the optional netmask parameter specified, network addresses
              will be stored in the set instead of IP host addresses. The cidr
              prefix value must be between 1-32 for IPv4 and between 1-128 for
              IPv6.  An  IP address will be in the set if the network address,
              which is resulted by masking the address with the  netmask,  can
              be found in the set.  Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:ip netmask 30

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.0/24

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.2

   hash:mac
       The  hash:mac  set type uses a hash to store MAC addresses. Zero valued
       MAC addresses cannot be stored in a hash:mac type of set.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ hashsize value ] [ maxelem value ] [ timeout  value
       ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := macaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS  :=  [  timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := macaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := macaddr

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:mac

              ipset add foo 01:02:03:04:05:06

              ipset test foo 01:02:03:04:05:06

   hash:net
       The hash:net set type uses a hash to store different sized  IP  network
       addresses.   Network  address with zero prefix size cannot be stored in
       this type of sets.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize  value  ]  [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := netaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS  := [ timeout value ] [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [ bytes
       value ] [ comment string ] [ skbmark  value  ]  [  skbprio  value  ]  [
       skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := netaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := netaddr

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       When  adding/deleting/testing  entries, if the cidr prefix parameter is
       not  specified,  then  the  host  prefix   value   is   assumed.   When
       adding/deleting   entries,  the  exact  element  is  added/deleted  and
       overlapping elements are not  checked  by  the  kernel.   When  testing
       entries,  if  a  host address is tested, then the kernel tries to match
       the host address in the networks added  to  the  set  and  reports  the
       result accordingly.

       From  the  set  netfilter match point of view the searching for a match
       always  starts  from  the smallest  size  of  netblock  (most  specific
       prefix)  to  the  largest one (least specific prefix) added to the set.
       When  adding/deleting IP addresses  to the set  by  the  SET  netfilter
       target,  it   will   be added/deleted by the most specific prefix which
       can be found in  the set, or by the host prefix value  if  the  set  is
       empty.

       The  lookup time grows linearly with the number of the different prefix
       values added to the set.

       Example:

              ipset create foo hash:net

              ipset add foo 192.168.0.0/24

              ipset add foo 10.1.0.0/16

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/24

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/30 nomatch

       When matching the elements in the set  above,  all  IP  addresses  will
       match  from  the  networks 192.168.0.0/24, 10.1.0.0/16 and 192.168.0/24
       except the ones from 192.168.0/30.

   hash:net,net
       The hash:net,net set type uses a hash to store pairs of different sized
       IP  network  addresses.  Bear  in  mind  that  the  first parameter has
       precedence over the second, so a nomatch entry could be potentially  be
       ineffective  if a more specific first parameter existed with a suitable
       second parameter.  Network address with  zero  prefix  size  cannot  be
       stored in this type of set.

       CREATE-OPTIONS  :=  [  family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := netaddr,netaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [  bytes
       value  ]  [  comment  string  ]  [  skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [
       skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := netaddr,netaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := netaddr,netaddr

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       When adding/deleting/testing entries, if the cidr prefix  parameter  is
       not   specified,   then   the   host  prefix  value  is  assumed.  When
       adding/deleting  entries,  the  exact  element  is  added/deleted   and
       overlapping  elements  are  not  checked  by  the kernel.  When testing
       entries, if a host address is tested, then the kernel  tries  to  match
       the  host  address  in  the  networks  added to the set and reports the
       result accordingly.

       From the set netfilter match point of view the searching  for  a  match
       always   starts   from   the smallest  size  of netblock (most specific
       prefix) to the largest one (least specific prefix) with the first param
       having  precedence.   When  adding/deleting IP addresses  to the set by
       the SET netfilter target, it  will  be   added/deleted   by   the  most
       specific  prefix  which  can be found in the set, or by the host prefix
       value if the set is empty.

       The lookup time grows linearly with the number of the different  prefix
       values added to the first parameter of the set. The number of secondary
       prefixes further increases this as the list of  secondary  prefixes  is
       traversed per primary prefix.

       Example:

              ipset create foo hash:net,net

              ipset add foo 192.168.0.0/24,10.0.1.0/24

              ipset add foo 10.1.0.0/16,10.255.0.0/24

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/24,192.168.54.0-192.168.54.255

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/30,192.168.64/30 nomatch

       When  matching  the  elements  in  the set above, all IP addresses will
       match     from     the      networks      192.168.0.0/24<->10.0.1.0/24,
       10.1.0.0/16<->10.255.0.0/24  and  192.168.0/24<->192.168.54.0/24 except
       the ones from 192.168.0/30<->192.168.64/30.

   hash:ip,port
       The hash:ip,port set type uses a hash to  store  IP  address  and  port
       number  pairs.  The port number is interpreted together with a protocol
       (default TCP) and zero protocol number cannot be used.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize  value  ]  [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port

       ADD-OPTIONS  :=  [  timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port

       TEST-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port

       The [proto:]port part of the elements may be expressed in the following
       forms,  where  the  range  variations are valid when adding or deleting
       entries:

       portname[-portname]
              TCP port or range of ports expressed in TCP portname identifiers
              from /etc/services

       portnumber[-portnumber]
              TCP port or range of ports expressed in TCP port numbers

       tcp|sctp|udp|udplite:portname|portnumber[-portname|portnumber]
              TCP,  SCTP,  UDP or UDPLITE port or port range expressed in port
              name(s) or port number(s)

       icmp:codename|type/code
              ICMP  codename  or  type/code.  The  supported   ICMP   codename
              identifiers can always be listed by the help command.

       icmpv6:codename|type/code
              ICMPv6  codename  or  type/code.  The  supported ICMPv6 codename
              identifiers can always be listed by the help command.

       proto:0
              All other protocols, as an  identifier  from  /etc/protocols  or
              number. The pseudo port number must be zero.

       The hash:ip,port type of sets require two src/dst parameters of the set
       match and SET target kernel modules.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:ip,port

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.0/24,80-82

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,udp:53

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,vrrp:0

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.1,80

   hash:net,port
       The hash:net,port set type uses a hash  to  store  different  sized  IP
       network address and port pairs. The port number is interpreted together
       with a protocol (default TCP) and zero protocol number cannot be  used.
       Network address with zero prefix size is not accepted either.

       CREATE-OPTIONS  :=  [  family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ]  [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [ bytes
       value  ]  [  comment  string  ]  [  skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [
       skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port

       TEST-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       For the netaddr part  of  the  elements  see  the  description  at  the
       hash:net  set  type.  For the [proto:]port part of the elements see the
       description at the hash:ip,port set type.

       When adding/deleting/testing entries, if the cidr prefix  parameter  is
       not   specified,   then   the   host  prefix  value  is  assumed.  When
       adding/deleting  entries,  the  exact  element  is  added/deleted   and
       overlapping  elements  are  not  checked  by  the kernel.  When testing
       entries, if a host address is tested, then the kernel  tries  to  match
       the  host  address  in  the  networks  added to the set and reports the
       result accordingly.

       From the set netfilter match point of view the searching for  a   match
       always   starts   from   the smallest  size  of netblock (most specific
       prefix) to the largest one (least specific prefix) added  to  the  set.
       When   adding/deleting  IP  addresses   to the set by the SET netfilter
       target, it  will  be added/deleted by the most  specific  prefix  which
       can  be  found  in   the set, or by the host prefix value if the set is
       empty.

       The lookup time grows linearly with the number of the different  prefix
       values added to the set.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:net,port

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/24,25

              ipset add foo 10.1.0.0/16,80

              ipset test foo 192.168.0/24,25

   hash:ip,port,ip
       The  hash:ip,port,ip  set  type  uses  a hash to store IP address, port
       number and a second IP address triples. The port number is  interpreted
       together  with a protocol (default TCP) and zero protocol number cannot
       be used.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize  value  ]  [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,ip

       ADD-OPTIONS  :=  [  timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,ip

       TEST-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,ip

       For the first ipaddr and [proto:]port parts of  the  elements  see  the
       descriptions at the hash:ip,port set type.

       The  hash:ip,port,ip  type  of sets require three src/dst parameters of
       the set match and SET target kernel modules.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:ip,port,ip

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,80,10.0.0.1

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.1,udp:53,10.0.0.1

   hash:ip,port,net
       The hash:ip,port,net set type uses a hash to  store  IP  address,  port
       number  and  IP network address triples. The port number is interpreted
       together with a protocol (default TCP) and zero protocol number  cannot
       be used. Network address with zero prefix size cannot be stored either.

       CREATE-OPTIONS  :=  [  family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize value ] [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ]  [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [ bytes
       value  ]  [  comment  string  ]  [  skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [
       skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := ipaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       For  the  ipaddr  and  [proto:]port  parts  of  the  elements  see  the
       descriptions  at the hash:ip,port set type. For the netaddr part of the
       elements see the description at the hash:net set type.

       From the set netfilter match point of view the searching  for  a  match
       always   starts   from   the smallest  size  of netblock (most specific
       cidr) to the largest one (least specific cidr) added to the set.   When
       adding/deleting  triples  to  the  set  by the SET netfilter target, it
       will  be added/deleted by the most specific cidr which can be found  in
       the set, or by the host cidr value if the set is empty.

       The  lookup  time  grows linearly with the number of the different cidr
       values added to the set.

       The hash:ip,port,net type of sets require three src/dst  parameters  of
       the set match and SET target kernel modules.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:ip,port,net

              ipset add foo 192.168.1,80,10.0.0/24

              ipset add foo 192.168.2,25,10.1.0.0/16

              ipset test foo 192.168.1,80.10.0.0/24

   hash:ip,mark
       The  hash:ip,mark  set  type uses a hash to store IP address and packet
       mark pairs.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ markmask  value  ]  [
       hashsize  value  ]  [  maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [
       comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := ipaddr,mark

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes  value  ]  [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := ipaddr,mark

       TEST-ENTRY := ipaddr,mark

       Optional create options:

       markmask value
              Allows  you  to  set bits you are interested in the packet mark.
              This values is then used to perform bitwise  AND  operation  for
              every  mark  added.   markmask  can  be  any value between 1 and
              4294967295, by default all 32 bits are set.

       The mark can be any value between 0 and 4294967295.

       The hash:ip,mark type of sets require two src/dst parameters of the set
       match and SET target kernel modules.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:ip,mark

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.0/24,555

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,0x63

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.1,111236

   hash:net,port,net
       The  hash:net,port,net  set  type behaves similarly to hash:ip,port,net
       but accepts a cidr value for both the first and last parameter.  Either
       subnet  is  permitted  to be a /0 should you wish to match port between
       all destinations.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize  value  ]  [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ]  [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [ bytes
       value ] [ comment string ] [ skbmark  value  ]  [  skbprio  value  ]  [
       skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       TEST-ENTRY := netaddr,[proto:]port,netaddr

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       For  the  [proto:]port  part of the elements see the description at the
       hash:ip,port set type. For the netaddr part of  the  elements  see  the
       description at the hash:net set type.

       From  the  set  netfilter match point of view the searching for a match
       always  starts  from  the smallest  size  of  netblock  (most  specific
       cidr)  to the largest one (least specific cidr) added to the set.  When
       adding/deleting triples to the set by  the  SET  netfilter  target,  it
       will   be added/deleted by the most specific cidr which can be found in
       the set, or by the host cidr value if  the  set  is  empty.  The  first
       subnet has precedence when performing the most-specific lookup, just as
       for hash:net,net

       The lookup time grows linearly with the number of  the  different  cidr
       values  added to the set and by the number of secondary cidr values per
       primary.

       The hash:net,port,net type of sets require three src/dst parameters  of
       the set match and SET target kernel modules.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:net,port,net

              ipset add foo 192.168.1.0/24,0,10.0.0/24

              ipset add foo 192.168.2.0/24,25,10.1.0.0/16

              ipset test foo 192.168.1.1,80,10.0.0.1

   hash:net,iface
       The  hash:net,iface  set  type  uses a hash to store different sized IP
       network address and interface name pairs.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ family { inet | inet6 } ] | [ hashsize  value  ]  [
       maxelem value ] [ timeout value ] [ counters ] [ comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := netaddr,[physdev:]iface

       ADD-OPTIONS := [ timeout value ]  [ nomatch ] [ packets value ] [ bytes
       value ] [ comment string ] [ skbmark  value  ]  [  skbprio  value  ]  [
       skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := netaddr,[physdev:]iface

       TEST-ENTRY := netaddr,[physdev:]iface

       where netaddr := ip[/cidr]

       For  the  netaddr  part  of  the  elements  see  the description at the
       hash:net set type.

       When adding/deleting/testing entries, if the cidr prefix  parameter  is
       not   specified,   then   the   host  prefix  value  is  assumed.  When
       adding/deleting  entries,  the  exact  element  is  added/deleted   and
       overlapping  elements  are  not  checked  by  the kernel.  When testing
       entries, if a host address is tested, then the kernel  tries  to  match
       the  host  address  in  the  networks  added to the set and reports the
       result accordingly.

       From the set netfilter match point of view the searching for  a   match
       always   starts   from   the smallest  size  of netblock (most specific
       prefix) to the largest one (least specific prefix) added  to  the  set.
       When   adding/deleting  IP  addresses   to the set by the SET netfilter
       target, it  will  be added/deleted by the most  specific  prefix  which
       can  be  found  in   the set, or by the host prefix value if the set is
       empty.

       The second direction parameter of the set match and SET target  modules
       corresponds to the incoming/outgoing interface: src to the incoming one
       (similar to the -i flag of iptables), while dst  to  the  outgoing  one
       (similar  to  the  -o  flag of iptables). When the interface is flagged
       with physdev:, the interface is interpreted  as  the  incoming/outgoing
       bridge port.

       The  lookup time grows linearly with the number of the different prefix
       values added to the set.

       The internal restriction of the hash:net,iface set  type  is  that  the
       same  network  prefix  cannot  be  stored  with  more than 64 different
       interfaces in a single set.

       Examples:

              ipset create foo hash:net,iface

              ipset add foo 192.168.0/24,eth0

              ipset add foo 10.1.0.0/16,eth1

              ipset test foo 192.168.0/24,eth0

   list:set
       The list:set type uses a simple list in which you can store set names.

       CREATE-OPTIONS := [ size value ] [ timeout  value  ]  [  counters  ]  [
       comment ] [ skbinfo ]

       ADD-ENTRY := setname [ { before | after } setname ]

       ADD-OPTIONS  :=  [  timeout value ] [ packets value ] [ bytes value ] [
       comment string ] [ skbmark value ] [ skbprio value ] [ skbqueue value ]

       DEL-ENTRY := setname [ { before | after } setname ]

       TEST-ENTRY := setname [ { before | after } setname ]

       Optional create options:

       size value
              The size of the list, the default is 8.

       By the ipset command you  can add, delete  and  test  set  names  in  a
       list:set type of set.

       By the set match or SET target of netfilter you can test, add or delete
       entries in the sets added to the list:set type of set. The  match  will
       try to find a matching entry in the sets and the target will try to add
       an entry to the first set to which it can  be  added.   The  number  of
       direction  options  of  the  match and target are important: sets which
       require more parameters than specified are  skipped,  while  sets  with
       equal  or  less  parameters  are  checked,  elements added/deleted. For
       example if a and b are list:set type of sets then in the command

              iptables -m set --match-set a src,dst -j SET --add-set b src,dst

       the match and target will skip any set in a and  b  which  stores  data
       triples,  but will match all sets with single or double data storage in
       a set and stop matching at the first successful set, and add src to the
       first  single  or  src,dst to the first double data storage set in b to
       which the entry can be added. You can imagine a list:set type of set as
       an ordered union of the set elements.

       Please  note:  by  the  ipset  command you can add, delete and test the
       setnames in a list:set type of set, and not the  presence  of  a  set's
       member (such as an IP address).

GENERAL RESTRICTIONS

       Zero valued set entries cannot be used with hash methods. Zero protocol
       value with ports cannot be used.

COMMENTS

       If you want to store same size subnets from a given  network  (say  /24
       blocks  from a /8 network), use the bitmap:ip set type.  If you want to
       store random same size  networks  (say  random  /24  blocks),  use  the
       hash:ip  set  type.  If  you  have  got  random  size of netblocks, use
       hash:net.

       Backward compatibility is maintained and  old  ipset  syntax  is  still
       supported.

       The  iptree  and iptreemap set types are removed: if you refer to them,
       they are automatically replaced by hash:ip type of sets.

DIAGNOSTICS

       Various error messages are printed to standard error.  The exit code is
       0 for correct functioning.

BUGS

       Bugs? No, just funny features. :-) OK, just kidding...

SEE ALSO

       iptables(8), ip6tables(8) iptables-extensions(8)

AUTHORS

       Jozsef  Kadlecsik  wrote  ipset,  which  is  based  on ippool by Joakim
       Axelsson, Patrick Schaaf and Martin Josefsson.
       Sven Wegener wrote the iptreemap type.

LAST REMARK

       I stand on the shoulders of giants.