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NAME

       ld.so, ld-linux.so* - dynamic linker/loader

SYNOPSIS

       The  dynamic  linker  can  be  run  either  indirectly  by running some
       dynamically linked program or shared object (in which case no  command-
       line  options to the dynamic linker can be passed and, in the ELF case,
       the dynamic linker which is  stored  in  the  .interp  section  of  the
       program is executed) or directly by running:

       /lib/ld-linux.so.*  [OPTIONS] [PROGRAM [ARGUMENTS]]

DESCRIPTION

       The  programs  ld.so  and ld-linux.so* find and load the shared objects
       (shared libraries) needed by a program, prepare the program to run, and
       then run it.

       Linux binaries require dynamic linking (linking at run time) unless the
       -static option was given to ld(1) during compilation.

       The program ld.so handles a.out binaries, a format used long  ago;  ld-
       linux.so* handles ELF (/lib/ld-linux.so.1 for libc5, /lib/ld-linux.so.2
       for glibc2), which everybody has been using for years now.   Otherwise,
       both  have  the  same  behavior,  and  use  the  same support files and
       programs ldd(1), ldconfig(8), and /etc/ld.so.conf.

       When resolving shared object dependencies,  the  dynamic  linker  first
       inspects each dependency string to see if it contains a slash (this can
       occur if a shared object pathname containing slashes was  specified  at
       link  time).   If  a  slash  is  found,  then  the dependency string is
       interpreted as a (relative or absolute) pathname, and the shared object
       is loaded using that pathname.

       If  a  shared  object  dependency  does not contain a slash, then it is
       searched for in the following order:

       o  (ELF only) Using the directories specified in the  DT_RPATH  dynamic
          section  attribute of the binary if present and DT_RUNPATH attribute
          does not exist.  Use of DT_RPATH is deprecated.

       o  Using  the  environment   variable   LD_LIBRARY_PATH   (unless   the
          executable  is  being  run in secure-execution mode; see below).  in
          which case it is ignored.

       o  (ELF only) Using the directories specified in the DT_RUNPATH dynamic
          section attribute of the binary if present.

       o  From the cache file /etc/ld.so.cache, which contains a compiled list
          of candidate  shared  objects  previously  found  in  the  augmented
          library  path.   If,  however,  the  binary  was  linked with the -z
          nodeflib linker option, shared objects  in  the  default  paths  are
          skipped.    Shared   objects   installed   in   hardware  capability
          directories (see below) are preferred to other shared objects.

       o  In the default path  /lib,  and  then  /usr/lib.   (On  some  64-bit
          architectures,  the  default  paths  for  64-bit  shared objects are
          /lib64, and then /usr/lib64.)  If the binary was linked with the  -z
          nodeflib linker option, this step is skipped.

   Rpath token expansion
       ld.so  understands  certain strings in an rpath specification (DT_RPATH
       or DT_RUNPATH); those strings are substituted as follows

       $ORIGIN (or equivalently ${ORIGIN})
              This expands to the directory containing the program  or  shared
              object.   Thus,  an  application located in somedir/app could be
              compiled with

                  gcc -Wl,-rpath,'$ORIGIN/../lib'

              so that it finds an associated shared object in  somedir/lib  no
              matter  where  somedir  is  located  in the directory hierarchy.
              This facilitates the creation of "turn-key" applications that do
              not  need  to  be  installed  into  special directories, but can
              instead be unpacked into any directory and still find their  own
              shared objects.

       $LIB (or equivalently ${LIB})
              This  expands  to  lib  or  lib64  depending on the architecture
              (e.g., on x86-64, it expands to lib64 and on x86-32, it  expands
              to lib).

       $PLATFORM (or equivalently ${PLATFORM})
              This  expands to a string corresponding to the processor type of
              the host system (e.g., "x86_64").  On  some  architectures,  the
              Linux  kernel  doesn't  provide a platform string to the dynamic
              linker.  The value of this string is taken from the  AT_PLATFORM
              value in the auxiliary vector (see getauxval(3)).

OPTIONS

       --list List all dependencies and how they are resolved.

       --verify
              Verify  that  program  is  dynamically  linked  and this dynamic
              linker can handle it.

       --inhibit-cache
              Do not use /etc/ld.so.cache.

       --library-path path
              Use path instead of LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable setting
              (see below).

       --inhibit-rpath list
              Ignore  RPATH  and  RUNPATH information in object names in list.
              This option is ignored when  running  in  secure-execution  mode
              (see below).

       --audit list
              Use objects named in list as auditors.

ENVIRONMENT

       Various  environment  variables  influence the operation of the dynamic
       linker.

   Secure-execution mode
       For security reasons, the effects of  some  environment  variables  are
       voided  or  modified  if  the dynamic linker determines that the binary
       should be run in secure-execution mode.  This determination is made  by
       checking  whether  the  AT_SECURE  entry  in  the auxiliary vector (see
       getauxval(3)) has a nonzero value.  This entry may have a nonzero value
       for various reasons, including:

       *  The  process's  real  and effective user IDs differ, or the real and
          effective group IDs differ.  This typically occurs as  a  result  of
          executing a set-user-ID or set-group-ID program.

       *  A  process  with a non-root user ID executed a binary that conferred
          permitted or effective capabilities.

       *  A nonzero value may have been set by a Linux Security Module.

   Environment variables
       Among the more important environment variables are the following:

       LD_ASSUME_KERNEL (glibc since 2.2.3)
              Each shared object can inform the dynamic linker of the  minimum
              kernel  ABI  version  that  it  requires.   (This requirement is
              encoded in an ELF note section that is viewable  via  readelf -n
              as  a section labeled NT_GNU_ABI_TAG.)  At run time, the dynamic
              linker determines the ABI version of the running kernel and will
              reject  loading shared objects that specify minimum ABI versions
              that exceed that ABI version.

              LD_ASSUME_KERNEL can be used to  cause  the  dynamic  linker  to
              assume  that  it  is running on a system with a different kernel
              ABI version.  For example, the following command line causes the
              dynamic  linker  to  assume  it  is  running on Linux 2.2.5 when
              loading the shared objects required by myprog:

                  $ LD_ASSUME_KERNEL=2.2.5 ./myprog

              On systems that provide multiple versions of a shared object (in
              different  directories  in  the search path) that have different
              minimum kernel ABI version requirements, LD_ASSUME_KERNEL can be
              used to select the version of the object that is used (dependent
              on the directory search order).  Historically, the  most  common
              use  of  the LD_ASSUME_KERNEL feature was to manually select the
              older LinuxThreads POSIX threads implementation on systems  that
              provided  both LinuxThreads and NPTL (which latter was typically
              the default on such systems); see pthreads(7).

       LD_BIND_NOW
              (libc5; glibc since 2.1.1) If set to a nonempty  string,  causes
              the  dynamic  linker  to  resolve all symbols at program startup
              instead of deferring function call resolution to the point  when
              they  are  first  referenced.   This  is  useful  when  using  a
              debugger.

       LD_LIBRARY_PATH
              A list of directories in which to search for  ELF  libraries  at
              execution-time.   The  items in the list are separated by either
              colons or semicolons.  Similar to the PATH environment variable.
              This variable is ignored in secure-execution mode.

       LD_PRELOAD
              A  list  of additional, user-specified, ELF shared objects to be
              loaded before  all  others.   The  items  of  the  list  can  be
              separated  by spaces or colons.  This can be used to selectively
              override functions in other shared  objects.   The  objects  are
              searched  for  using  the  rules  given  under  DESCRIPTION.  In
              secure-execution mode, preload pathnames containing slashes  are
              ignored,  and  shared objects in the standard search directories
              are loaded only if the set-user-ID mode bit is  enabled  on  the
              shared object file.

       LD_TRACE_LOADED_OBJECTS
              (ELF only) If set (to any value), causes the program to list its
              dynamic dependencies, as if run by ldd(1),  instead  of  running
              normally.

       Then there are lots of more or less obscure variables, many obsolete or
       only for internal use.

       LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH
              (libc5) Version of LD_LIBRARY_PATH for a.out binaries only.  Old
              versions of ld-linux.so.1 also supported LD_ELF_LIBRARY_PATH.

       LD_AOUT_PRELOAD
              (libc5)  Version  of  LD_PRELOAD  for  a.out binaries only.  Old
              versions of ld-linux.so.1 also supported LD_ELF_PRELOAD.

       LD_AUDIT
              (glibc since 2.4) A colon-separated list of user-specified,  ELF
              shared  objects  to  be  loaded  before all others in a separate
              linker namespace (i.e., one  that  does  not  intrude  upon  the
              normal  symbol bindings that would occur in the process).  These
              objects can be used  to  audit  the  operation  of  the  dynamic
              linker.  LD_AUDIT is ignored in secure-execution mode.

              The  dynamic  linker will notify the audit shared objects at so-
              called auditing checkpoints—for example, loading  a  new  shared
              object,  resolving  a  symbol,  or calling a symbol from another
              shared object—by calling  an  appropriate  function  within  the
              audit  shared  object.   For  details,  see  rtld-audit(7).  The
              auditing interface is largely compatible with that  provided  on
              Solaris,  as described in its Linker and Libraries Guide, in the
              chapter Runtime Linker Auditing Interface.

       LD_BIND_NOT
              (glibc since 2.1.95) If this environment variable is  set  to  a
              nonempty string, do not update the GOT (global offset table) and
              PLT (procedure linkage table) after resolving a symbol.

       LD_DEBUG
              (glibc since 2.1) Output verbose debugging information about the
              dynamic  linker.  If set to all prints all debugging information
              it has, if set  to  help  prints  a  help  message  about  which
              categories can be specified in this environment variable.  Since
              glibc 2.3.4,  LD_DEBUG  is  ignored  in  secure-execution  mode,
              unless  the file /etc/suid-debug exists (the content of the file
              is irrelevant).

       LD_DEBUG_OUTPUT
              (glibc since 2.1)  File  in  which  LD_DEBUG  output  should  be
              written.   The  default  is  standard error.  LD_DEBUG_OUTPUT is
              ignored in secure-execution mode.

       LD_DYNAMIC_WEAK
              (glibc since 2.1.91) If this  environment  variable  is  defined
              (with any value), allow weak symbols to be overridden (reverting
              to old glibc behavior).  Since glibc 2.3.4,  LD_DYNAMIC_WEAK  is
              ignored in secure-execution mode.

       LD_HWCAP_MASK
              (glibc since 2.1) Mask for hardware capabilities.

       LD_KEEPDIR
              (a.out  only)(libc5)  Don't ignore the directory in the names of
              a.out libraries to be loaded.  Use of this  option  is  strongly
              discouraged.

       LD_NOWARN
              (a.out only)(libc5) Suppress warnings about a.out libraries with
              incompatible minor version numbers.

       LD_ORIGIN_PATH
              (glibc since 2.1) Path where the binary is found  (for  non-set-
              user-ID  programs).   Since glibc 2.4, LD_ORIGIN_PATH is ignored
              in secure-execution mode.

       LD_POINTER_GUARD
              (glibc from 2.4 to 2.22) Set to 0 to disable  pointer  guarding.
              Any  other  value  enables  pointer  guarding, which is also the
              default.  Pointer guarding is a security mechanism whereby  some
              pointers  to  code  stored  in  writable  program memory (return
              addresses saved  by  setjmp(3)  or  function  pointers  used  by
              various  glibc  internals)  are mangled semi-randomly to make it
              more difficult for an attacker to hijack the pointers for use in
              the  event  of a buffer overrun or stack-smashing attack.  Since
              glibc 2.23, LD_POINTER_GUARD can no longer be  used  to  disable
              pointer guarding, which is now always enabled.

       LD_PROFILE
              (glibc  since  2.1)  The  name of a (single) shared object to be
              profiled, specified either as a pathname or a soname.  Profiling
              output    is    appended    to   the   file   whose   name   is:
              "$LD_PROFILE_OUTPUT/$LD_PROFILE.profile".

       LD_PROFILE_OUTPUT
              (glibc since 2.1) Directory where LD_PROFILE  output  should  be
              written.   If  this variable is not defined, or is defined as an
              empty string, then the default is  /var/tmp.   LD_PROFILE_OUTPUT
              is  ignored  in  secure-execution  mode; instead /var/profile is
              always used.

       LD_SHOW_AUXV
              (glibc since 2.1) If this environment variable is defined  (with
              any  value),  show the auxiliary array passed up from the kernel
              (see also getauxval(3)).  Since  glibc  2.3.5,  LD_SHOW_AUXV  is
              ignored in secure-execution mode.

       LD_TRACE_PRELINKING
              (glibc  since 2.4) If this environment variable is defined (with
              any value),  trace  prelinking  of  the  object  whose  name  is
              assigned  to  this  environment  variable.  (Use ldd(1) to get a
              list of the objects that might be traced.)  If the  object  name
              is not recognized, then all prelinking activity is traced.

       LD_USE_LOAD_BIAS
              By  default (i.e., if this variable is not defined), executables
              and prelinked shared objects will honor base addresses of  their
              dependent shared objects and (nonprelinked) position-independent
              executables (PIEs) and other shared objects will not honor them.
              If   LD_USE_LOAD_BIAS   is   defined  with  the  value  1,  both
              executables  and  PIEs  will  honor  the  base  addresses.    If
              LD_USE_LOAD_BIAS   is   defined   with   the  value  0,  neither
              executables nor  PIEs  will  honor  the  base  addresses.   This
              variable is ignored in secure-execution mode.

       LD_VERBOSE
              (glibc  since  2.1)  If  set to a nonempty string, output symbol
              versioning   information    about    the    program    if    the
              LD_TRACE_LOADED_OBJECTS environment variable has been set.

       LD_WARN
              (ELF  only)(glibc since 2.1.3) If set to a nonempty string, warn
              about unresolved symbols.

       LD_PREFER_MAP_32BIT_EXEC
              (x86-64  only)(glibc  since  2.23)  According   to   the   Intel
              Silvermont software optimization guide, for 64-bit applications,
              branch prediction performance can be  negatively  impacted  when
              the  target  of  a branch is more than 4GB away from the branch.
              If this environment variable is set (to any value),  ld.so  will
              first  try  to  map executable pages using the mmap(2) MAP_32BIT
              flag, and fall back to mapping without that flag if that attempt
              fails.   NB:  MAP_32BIT will map to the low 2GB (not 4GB) of the
              address space.  Because  MAP_32BIT  reduces  the  address  range
              available   for   address  space  layout  randomization  (ASLR),
              LD_PREFER_MAP_32BIT_EXEC is always disabled in  secure-execution
              mode.

       LDD_ARGV0
              (libc5) argv[0] to be used by ldd(1) when none is present.

FILES

       /lib/ld.so
              a.out dynamic linker/loader
       /lib/ld-linux.so.{1,2}
              ELF dynamic linker/loader
       /etc/ld.so.cache
              File  containing  a  compiled  list  of  directories in which to
              search for shared objects  and  an  ordered  list  of  candidate
              shared objects.
       /etc/ld.so.preload
              File  containing  a  whitespace-separated  list  of  ELF  shared
              objects to be loaded before the program.
       lib*.so*
              shared objects

NOTES

       The ld.so functionality is available  for  executables  compiled  using
       libc  version  4.4.3  or greater.  ELF functionality is available since
       Linux 1.1.52 and libc5.

   Hardware capabilities
       Some shared objects are compiled using  hardware-specific  instructions
       which  do  not exist on every CPU.  Such objects should be installed in
       directories whose names define the required hardware capabilities, such
       as /usr/lib/sse2/.  The dynamic linker checks these directories against
       the hardware of the machine and selects the most suitable version of  a
       given  shared  object.  Hardware capability directories can be cascaded
       to combine CPU features.  The list  of  supported  hardware  capability
       names   depends   on  the  CPU.   The  following  names  are  currently
       recognized:

       Alpha  ev4, ev5, ev56, ev6, ev67

       MIPS   loongson2e, loongson2f, octeon, octeon2

       PowerPC
              4xxmac,  altivec,  arch_2_05,  arch_2_06,  booke,  cellbe,  dfp,
              efpdouble,  efpsingle,  fpu,  ic_snoop, mmu, notb, pa6t, power4,
              power5,  power5+,  power6x,  ppc32,  ppc601,  ppc64,  smt,  spe,
              ucache, vsx

       SPARC  flush, muldiv, stbar, swap, ultra3, v9, v9v, v9v2

       s390   dfp,  eimm,  esan3,  etf3enh,  g5,  highgprs, hpage, ldisp, msa,
              stfle, z900, z990, z9-109, z10, zarch

       x86 (32-bit only)
              acpi, apic, clflush, cmov, cx8, dts, fxsr, ht, i386, i486, i586,
              i686,  mca,  mmx,  mtrr, pat, pbe, pge, pn, pse36, sep, ss, sse,
              sse2, tm

SEE ALSO

       ld(1),   ldd(1),   pldd(1),    sprof(1),    dlopen(3),    getauxval(3),
       capabilities(7), rtld-audit(7), ldconfig(8), sln(8)

COLOPHON

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       description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
       latest     version     of     this    page,    can    be    found    at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.