Provided by: lilo_24.2-1_i386 bug

NAME

       lilo - install boot loader of LiLO

SYNOPSIS

       Main function:

        lilo

       Auxiliary uses:

        lilo -A        # activate/show active partition
        lilo -E        # edit header or update a bitmap file
        lilo -I        # inquire path name of current kernel
        lilo -M        # write a Master Boot Loader on a device
        lilo -q        # query map and show its content
        lilo -R        # set default command line for next reboot
        lilo -T        # tell more about specified topic
        lilo {-u|-U}   # uninstall LiLO boot loader

DESCRIPTION

       lilo installs a boot loader that will be activated the next time you
       boot your system. The default configuration file /etc/lilo.conf (see
       manpage lilo.conf(5)) will contain most options, but many, including
       those which override the configuration file, may be specified  on the
       command line.

OPTIONS

       -A master-device [N]
           Used with a single argument, inquire of active partition on device
           master-device; e.g. /dev/sda. With N==0: deactivate all partitions
           on the device. With N in the range [1..n]: activate the specified
           partition and deactivate all others.  Normally, only primary
           partitions [1..4] may be activated, but if the 'Extended Master
           Boot Loader' is present on the Master Boot Record (MBR) of the
           device (see the -M option), any partition may be made active.
           Whether the actual OS in the partition will boot from a logical
           partition depends on the characteristics of the OS. LILO boot
           records for Linux may be booted from a logical partition.

       -b bootdev
           Set the boot device where the boot loader will be installed. For
           example "-b /dev/sda" set the Master Boot Record (MBR) on the first
           disk as boot device. "-b /dev/sdb5" set the first logical partition
           on the second disk as boot device.

       -B bitmap-file
           Define a bitmap file for the boot-time graphics screen, preferably
           one already pre-processed with the -E option.

       -c  Enable map compaction. This will merge read requests from adjacent
           sectors.  Speeds up the booting especially from floppy.

       -C config-file
           Set another pathname and filename for the configuration file. The
           default configuration file is /etc/lilo.conf.

       -d delay-time
           Set the delay time in tenths of a second ('20' = 2 sec) before
           automatically booting the first image. This give you time to
           interrupt the automatic boot process with: Shift, Alt, Ctrl,
           ScrollLock, or CapsLock. If interrupted, the boot: prompt will be
           displayed.

           This switch will be overridden by the appearance of prompt in the
           configuration file!

       -D label
           Use the kernel with the given label as the default kernel to boot,
           instead of the first one in the list of the configuration file.

       -E filename.xxx
           If the extension .xxx is .bmp, then take the file to be a bitmap
           graphic file for use in the bitmap= configuration file directive.
           Enter an interactive editor to create or update the color/placement
           information in the LILO header of this bitmap file. (see bmp-
           colors, bmp-table, and bmp-timer on the manual page for lilo.conf
           (5).)

           If .xxx is .dat then take this file to be a configuration file to
           set bitmap graphic parameters, which are transferred into the LILO
           header in the bitmap file of the same name.

           When a .bmp file is modified using a graphics editor (e.g. GIMP),
           the LILO header will be lost. It can be restored using the dat
           file, which is used as a text-based backup for the LILO header
           information.

       -f disk-tab
           Set another disk geometry parameter file. The default is
           /etc/disktab.

       -F  Override boot sector check for filesystems (e.g., swap, ext4, xfs
           ...) which might be destroyed by the installation of the LILO boot
           sector on the first sector of the partition if these filesystems
           use the first sector as a superblock.

           Compare with -P ignore, which bypasses certain partition table
           checks.

       -g  Generate 'cylinder/head/sector' (CHS geometric) disk addresses.
           Limited to cylinders up to 1023. Forces compatibility with very old
           versions of LILO (obsolete switch).

       -H  Override fatal halt if a RAID array does not have all disks active.

       -I label [D|a|i|k|r|R]
           label is taken to be the name of an image specified in the
           configuration file.  This command will print the path name of the
           corresponding kernel file, keytable file, initial ramdisk file,
           root specification, or "append=" string ("i", "k", "r", "R", or "a"
           option). The "D" option ignores the label parameter and prints the
           default "image=" label, or the first "image=" label is selected if
           no default image is set.

       -l  Generate 24-bit linear sector addresses instead of
           cylinder/head/sector addresses.

       -L  Generate 32-bit Logical Block Addresses (LBA) instead of
           cylinder/head/sector (CHS) addresses, allowing access to all
           partitions on disks with more than 1024 cylinders.  (This is the
           default geometry).

       -m map-file
           Use another map file instead of the default file /boot/map.

       -M master-device {mbr|ext}
           Install a Master Boot Record on the device specified as master-
           device, selecting the Standard or Extended Master Boot Loader per
           option. The primary partition table on master-device is
           undisturbed. If no valid Volume-ID (serial number) is present, then
           generate one and write it to the MBR. If mbr is set, the Standard
           Master Boot Loader will search partitions 1-4 for an active flag,
           and boot the flagged partition. Only one active flag is allowed. If
           ext is set, the search for an active partition will include logical
           partitions as well.  The presence of the Extended Master Boot
           Loader on the Master Boot Record (MBR = sector 0) of a disk affects
           the operation of the -A option.

       -p  Require interactive entry of all passwords set as "" in the
           configuration file.

       -P {fix|ignore|<global-option}>
           Fix or ignore 'corrupt' partition tables, e.g. partition tables
           with linear and cylinder/head/sector addresses that do not
           correspond. Always try ignore first, as fix will re-write the
           partition table, possibly destroying all partitions on the disk.

           ignore is also used to bypass the partition table check for
           partition types within the partition table which might not allow
           the installation of a LILO boot sector. Compare with the '-F' flag,
           which overrides the check of the actual boot sector.

           <global-option> allows the passing of any global option which may
           appear in the global section (top) of the  configuration file
           (/etc/lilo.conf).  For instance '-P nowarn' will pass the 'nowarn'
           option, just as though 'nowarn' appeared in the configuration file
           (same as the '-w' switch).  Similarly '-P timeout=50' will add or
           override the 'timeout=' line in the  configuration file. Note that
           the general -P switch actually duplicates a number of command line
           option switches. However, it is not strictly the same as some
           switches which cause an override of other options; e.g. '-g' (-P
           geometric), '-L' (-P lba32).

       -q  List the currently mapped files. lilo maintains a file, by default
           /boot/map, containing each name and location of the kernel(s) to
           boot. This option will list the names therein.  Use with -v for
           more detailed information about the installed boot loader.

       -r root-directory
           Before doing anything else, do a 'chroot' to the indicated
           directory. The new root directory must contain a /dev directory and
           may need a /boot directory.  It may also need an /etc/lilo.conf
           file.

       -R command-line
           This  option sets the default command for the boot loader for the
           next time it executes. After execution the boot loader will erase
           this line because it is a once-only command. It is typically used
           in reboot scripts, just before calling 'shutdown -r'. Used without
           any arguments, it will cancel a lock-ed or fallback command line.

           This Command line starts with image identifier (as shown during map
           file update), then space, then kernel parameters. The kernel
           parameters are appended to kernel command line constructed
           routinely. In either case, it there were parameters or not, such
           one-time command will be treated by loaders code, as if it is set
           at 'boot:' prompt. This could lead to 'password:' prompt at boot
           time. Be warned!  Refer to lilo.conf(5) for details.

       -s save-file
           When lilo writes a new boot sector, it preserves the former
           contents of the boot sector in a file, named by default
           /boot/boot.NNNN, where NNNN is the hexadecimal representation of
           the major and minor device numbers of the drive/partition.

           This option defines the backup save file in one of three ways: a
           save directory (default is '/boot') using the default filename
           'boot.NNNN' in the defined directory; a pathname template to which
           '.NNNN' is appended (default would be '/boot/boot'); or the full
           pathname of the file, which must include the correct '.NNNN'
           suffix. When used with the -u option, the full file pathname must
           be set.

       -S save-file
           Normally lilo will not overwrite an existing boot sector save file.
           This options says that overwriting is to be forced. As with -s, the
           setting may be of a save directory, pathname template, or full
           pathname (which includes the '.NNNN' suffix).

       -t  Test only. Do not really write a new boot sector or map file. Use
           together with -v to find out what lilo is about to do.

       -T option
           Print out system information, some of it extracted from system
           bios. This is more convenient than booting the LILO diagnostic
           floppy on problem systems. option may be any one of the following:

            help          print a list of available diagnostics
            ChRul         list the partition types subject to
                            Change-Rules
            EBDA          list Extended BIOS Data Area information
            geom=<drive>  list drive geometry for bios drive;
                            e.g. geom=0x80
            geom          list drive geometry for all drives
            table=<drive> list the primary partition table;
                            e.g. table=/dev/sda
            video         list graphic modes available to boot
                            loader

       -u [device-name]
           Uninstall lilo by copying the saved boot sector back. The -s and -C
           switches may be used with this option. The device-name is optional.
           A time-stamp is checked.

       -U [device-name]
           The same as '-u', but do not check the time-stamp.

       -v [number]
           Increase verbosity. Giving one to five -v options will make lilo
           more verbose.  The number (range 1..5) set verbosity level.

       -V  Print version number.

       -w[+|-]
           Used as -w or -w- to suppress warning messages. Used as '-w+' to
           override 'nowarn' in the configuration file and show warning
           messages.

       -x option
           For RAID installations  only. The option may be any of the
           keywords: none, auto, mbr, mbr-only, or a comma separated list of
           additional boot devices (no spaces allowed in the list).

           RAID installations write the boot record to the RAID partition.
           Conditional writing of MBRs may occur to aid in making the RAID set
           bootable in a recovery situation, but all default actions may be
           overridden. Action similar to previous versions is achieved using
           the '-x mbr-only' switch.

       -X  Reserved for LILO internal use. May produce different output for
           different LILO versions. The line beginning "CFLAGS=" will contain
           the compiler options used to generate this version of LILO.

       -z  When used with the '-M' switch, clears the Volume-ID.  Usually used
           in the following sequence to generate a new Volume-ID:

               lilo -z -M /dev/sda
               lilo -M /dev/sda

       -Z option
           Tells the boot installer whether special precautions need to be
           taken because the BIOS fails to pass the correct device code in DL
           (-Z0). Or may specify that the BIOS always gets DL right (-Z1).
           Corresponds to, and overrides, the configuration file option
           'bios-passes-dl='.

CONFIG OPTIONS

       The above command line options correspond to the key words in the
       config file indicated below.

                     -b bootdev       boot=bootdev

                     -B file.bmp      bitmap=file.bmp
                     -c               compact
                     -d dsec          delay=dsec
                     -D label         default=label
                     -f file          disktab=file
                     -g               geometric
                     -l               linear
                     -L               lba32
                     -m mapfile       map=mapfile
                     -P fix           fix-table
                     -P ignore        ignore-table
                     -s file          backup=file
                     -S file          force-backup=file
                     -v [N]           verbose=N
                     -w               nowarn
                     -x option        raid-extra-boot=option
                     -Z option        bios-passes-dl=option

BOOT OPTIONS

       The  options  described  here may be specified at boot time on the
       command line when a kernel image is booted. These options are processed
       by LILO, and are removed from the command line before it is passed to
       the kernel, unless otherwise noted.

       lock
           Locks the command line, as though 'lock' had been defined in
           /etc/lilo.conf.

       mem=###[,K,M,G]
           Set the maximum memory in the system in bytes, kilobytes, megabytes
           or gigabytes.  This option is not removed from the command line,
           and is always passed to the kernel.

       nobd
           Suppresses the BIOS data check. This option is reserved for use
           with non-IBM-compliant BIOS's which hang with the lines:

               Loading...............
               BIOS data check

       vga=[ASK,EXT,EXTENDED,NORMAL,###,0x###]
           Allows overriding the default video mode upon kernel startup.

BOOT ERRORS

       The  boot process takes place in two stages. The first stage loader is
       a single sector, and is loaded by the BIOS or by the loader in the MBR.
       It loads the multi-sector second stage loader, but is very space
       limited. When the first stage  loader  gets  control, it types  the
       letter 'L'; when it is ready to transfer control to the second stage
       loader it types the letter 'I'. If any error occurs, like a disk read
       error, it will put out a hexadecimal error code and then re-try the
       operation.  All hex error codes are BIOS return values, except for the
       lilo-generated codes: 40, 99 and 9A. A partial list of error codes
       follows:

           00  no error
           01  invalid disk command
           02  address mark not found
           03  disk write-protected
           04  sector not found
           06  floppy disk removed
           08  DMA overrun
           0A  bad sector flag
           0B  bad track flag
           20  controller failure
           40  seek failure (BIOS)
           40  cylinder>1023 (LILO)
           99  invalid second stage index sector (LILO)
           9A  no second stage loader signature (LILO)
           AA  drive not ready
           FF  sense operation failed

       Error code 40 is generated by the BIOS, or by LILO during the
       conversion of a linear (24-bit) disk address to a geometric (C:H:S)
       address. On older systems which do not support lba32 (32-bit)
       addressing, this error may also be generated.  Errors 99 and 9A usually
       mean the map file ('-m' or 'map=') is not readable, likely because LILO
       was not re-run after some system change, or there is a geometry
       mismatch between what LILO used (lilo -v3 to display) and what is
       actually being used by the BIOS (one of the lilo diagnostic  disks,
       available in the source distribution, may be needed to diagnose this
       problem).

       When  the second stage loader has received control from the first
       stage, it prints the letter 'L', and when it has initialized itself,
       including verifying the "Descriptor Table" - the list of kernels/others
       to boot - it will print the letter "O", to form the full word "LILO",
       in uppercase.

       All second stage loader error messages are English text and try to
       pinpoint, more or less successfully, the point of failure.

BUGS

       Configuration file options 'backup' and 'force-backup' should specify a
       backup directory or backup file pathname template on all RAID
       installations. Use of an explicit filename may not allow multiple
       backup files to be created correctly.  It is best to use the  default
       mechanism, as it works correctly in all cases.

COPYRIGHT and LICENSE

        Copyright (C) 1992-1998 Werner Almesberger
        Copyright (C) 1999-2007 John Coffman
        Copyright (C) 2009-2014 Joachim Wiedorn

       Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
       modification, are permitted under the terms of the BSD license found in
       the COPYING file.

AUTHOR

       lilo was written by:

        Werner Almesberger (version 0 to 21),
        John Coffman (version 21.2 to 22.8),
        Joachim Wiedorn (since version 23.0).

       This manual page was written by Werner Almesberger and Joachim Wiedorn
       <joodevel at joonet.de>.

SEE ALSO

       lilo.conf(5), liloconfig(8), lilo-uuid-diskid(8), mkrescue(8),
       fdisk(8), mkinitrd(8)