Provided by: lvm2_2.02.133-1ubuntu10_amd64 bug


       lvm — LVM2 tools


       lvm [command|file]


       lvm  provides  the command-line tools for LVM2.  A separate manual page
       describes each command in detail.

       If lvm is invoked with no  arguments  it  presents  a  readline  prompt
       (assuming  it was compiled with readline support).  LVM commands may be
       entered interactively at this prompt with readline facilities including
       history  and  command name and option completion.  Refer to readline(3)
       for details.

       If lvm is invoked with argv[0] set  to  the  name  of  a  specific  LVM
       command  (for  example  by  using  a hard or soft link) it acts as that

       On invocation, lvm requires that only  the  standard  file  descriptors
       stdin,  stdout and stderr are available.  If others are found, they get
       closed and messages are issued warning about the  leak.   This  warning
       can    be    suppressed    by    setting   the   environment   variable

       Where commands take VG or LV names as arguments, the full path name  is
       optional.   An  LV called "lvol0" in a VG called "vg0" can be specified
       as "vg0/lvol0".  Where a list of VGs is required but is left  empty,  a
       list  of  all VGs will be substituted.  Where a list of LVs is required
       but a VG is  given,  a  list  of  all  the  LVs  in  that  VG  will  be
       substituted.  So lvdisplay vg0 will display all the LVs in "vg0".  Tags
       can also be used - see --addtag below.

       One advantage  of  using  the  built-in  shell  is  that  configuration
       information gets cached internally between commands.

       A file containing a simple script with one command per line can also be
       given on the command line.  The script can also be executed directly if
       the first line is #! followed by the absolute path of lvm.


       The  following commands are built into lvm without links normally being
       created in the filesystem for them.

       config        The same as lvmconfig(8) below.
       devtypes      Display the recognised built-in block device types.
       dumpconfig    The same as lvmconfig(8) below.
       formats       Display recognised metadata formats.
       help          Display the help text.
       lvpoll        Complete lvmpolld operations (Internal command).
       pvdata        Not implemented in LVM2.
       segtypes      Display recognised Logical Volume segment types.
       systemid      Display any system ID currently set on this host.
       tags          Display any tags defined on this host.
       version       Display version information.


       The following commands implement the core LVM functionality.

       pvchange      Change attributes of a Physical Volume.
       pvck          Check Physical Volume metadata.
       pvcreate      Initialize a disk or partition for use by LVM.
       pvdisplay     Display attributes of a Physical Volume.
       pvmove        Move Physical Extents.
       pvremove      Remove a Physical Volume.
       pvresize      Resize a disk or partition in use by LVM2.
       pvs           Report information about Physical Volumes.
       pvscan        Scan all disks for Physical Volumes.
       vgcfgbackup   Backup Volume Group descriptor area.
       vgcfgrestore  Restore Volume Group descriptor area.
       vgchange      Change attributes of a Volume Group.
       vgck          Check Volume Group metadata.
       vgconvert     Convert Volume Group metadata format.
       vgcreate      Create a Volume Group.
       vgdisplay     Display attributes of Volume Groups.
       vgexport      Make volume Groups unknown to the system.
       vgextend      Add Physical Volumes to a Volume Group.
       vgimport      Make exported Volume Groups known to the system.
       vgimportclone Import  and  rename  duplicated  Volume  Group  (e.g.   a
                     hardware snapshot).
       vgmerge       Merge two Volume Groups.
       vgmknodes     Recreate   Volume  Group  directory  and  Logical  Volume
                     special files
       vgreduce      Reduce a Volume Group by removing one  or  more  Physical
       vgremove      Remove a Volume Group.
       vgrename      Rename a Volume Group.
       vgs           Report information about Volume Groups.
       vgscan        Scan all disks for Volume Groups and rebuild caches.
       vgsplit       Split a Volume Group into two, moving any logical volumes
                     from  one  Volume  Group  to  another  by  moving  entire
                     Physical Volumes.
       lvchange      Change attributes of a Logical Volume.
       lvconvert     Convert  a  Logical  Volume  from  linear  to  mirror  or
       lvcreate      Create a Logical Volume in an existing Volume Group.
       lvdisplay     Display attributes of a Logical Volume.
       lvextend      Extend the size of a Logical Volume.
       lvmchange     Change attributes of the Logical Volume Manager.
       lvmconfig     Display  the  configuration  information  after   loading
                     lvm.conf(5) and any other configuration files.
       lvmdiskscan   Scan for all devices visible to LVM2.
       lvmdump       Create lvm2 information dumps for diagnostic purposes.
       lvreduce      Reduce the size of a Logical Volume.
       lvremove      Remove a Logical Volume.
       lvrename      Rename a Logical Volume.
       lvresize      Resize a Logical Volume.
       lvs           Report information about Logical Volumes.
       lvscan        Scan (all disks) for Logical Volumes.

       The  following commands are not implemented in LVM2 but might be in the
       future: lvmsadc, lvmsar, pvdata.


       The following options are available for many of the commands.  They are
       implemented  generically  and  documented  here rather than repeated on
       individual manual pages.

       Additional hyphens within  option  names  are  ignored.   For  example,
       --readonly and --read-only are both accepted.

              Display the help text.

              Display version information.

              Set  verbose  level.  Repeat  from  1 to 3 times to increase the
              detail of messages sent to stdout and stderr.  Overrides  config
              file setting.

              Set debug level. Repeat from 1 to 6 times to increase the detail
              of messages sent to the log file and/or syslog (if  configured).
              Overrides config file setting.

              Suppress  output and log messages.  Overrides -d and -v.  Repeat
              once to also suppress any prompts with answer 'no'.

              Don't prompt for confirmation interactively but  instead  always
              assume the answer is 'yes'.  Take great care if you use this!

              Run  in  test  mode. Commands will not update metadata.  This is
              implemented by disabling all metadata writing  but  nevertheless
              returning  success  to  the  calling function.  This may lead to
              unusual error messages  in  multi-stage  operations  if  a  tool
              relies  on  reading  back  metadata  it believes has changed but

       --driverloaded {y|n}
              Whether or not the device-mapper kernel driver  is  loaded.   If
              you  set  this  to  n,  no  attempt  will be made to contact the

       -A|--autobackup {y|n}
              Whether or not to metadata should  be  backed  up  automatically
              after  a  change.  You are strongly advised not to disable this!
              See vgcfgbackup(8).

              When set, the tools will do their  best  to  provide  access  to
              Volume  Groups  that  are  only partially available (one or more
              Physical Volumes belonging to the Volume Group are missing  from
              the  system).   Where  part  of  a  logical  volume  is missing,
              /dev/ioerror will be substituted, and you could  use  dmsetup(8)
              to  set this up to return I/O errors when accessed, or create it
              as a large block device of nulls.  Metadata may not  be  changed
              with this option. To insert a replacement Physical Volume of the
              same or large size use pvcreate -u to set the uuid to match  the
              original followed by vgcfgrestore(8).

       -S|--select Selection
              For  reporting  commands, display only rows that match Selection
              criteria.  All rows are displayed with the additional "selected"
              column  (-o selected) showing 1 if the row matches the Selection
              and 0 otherwise. For non-reporting commands  which  process  LVM
              entities,  the  selection can be used to match items to process.
              See SELECTION  CRITERIA  section  of  this  man  page  for  more
              information   about   the   way   the   selection  criteria  are

       -M|--metadatatype Type
              Specifies which type of on-disk metadata to use, such as lvm1 or
              lvm2,  which  can  be  abbreviated  to 1 or 2 respectively.  The
              default (lvm2) can be changed by setting format  in  the  global
              section of the config file lvm.conf(5).

              This lets you proceed with read-only metadata operations such as
              lvchange -ay and vgchange -ay even if the locking module  fails.
              One  use  for  this  is  in  a  system  init  script if the lock
              directory is mounted read-only when the script runs.

              Use to avoid exiting with an non-zero status code if the command
              is  run  without  clustered  locking  and  some clustered Volume
              Groups have to be skipped over.

              Run the command in a special read-only mode which will read  on-
              disk  metadata  without  needing to take any locks.  This can be
              used to peek inside metadata used by  a  virtual  machine  image
              while  the  virtual  machine is running.  It can also be used to
              peek  inside  the  metadata  of  clustered  Volume  Groups  when
              clustered locking is not configured or running.  No attempt will
              be made to communicate with the device-mapper kernel driver,  so
              this  option  is unable to report whether or not Logical Volumes
              are actually in use.

              Cause the command to access foreign VGs, that would otherwise be
              skipped.  It can be used to report or display a VG that is owned
              by another host.  This option can cause  a  command  to  perform
              poorly  because lvmetad caching is not used and metadata is read
              from disks.

              Cause the command to access shared VGs, that would otherwise  be
              skipped  when  lvmlockd  is  not  being used.  It can be used to
              report or display a lockd VG without locking.

       --addtag Tag
              Add the tag Tag to  a  PV,  VG  or  LV.   Supply  this  argument
              multiple  times  to  add  more than one tag at once.  A tag is a
              word that can be used to group LVM2 objects  of  the  same  type
              together.  Tags can be given on the command line in place of PV,
              VG or LV arguments.  Tags should be prefixed  with  @  to  avoid
              ambiguity.   Each  tag  is  expanded  by  replacing  it with all
              objects possessing that tag which are of the  type  expected  by
              its  position  on  the  command line.  PVs can only possess tags
              while they are part of a Volume Group: PV tags are discarded  if
              the  PV  is  removed  from the VG.  As an example, you could tag
              some LVs as database and others as userdata  and  then  activate
              the  database  ones  with  lvchange  -ay @database.  Objects can
              possess  multiple  tags  simultaneously.   Only  the  new   LVM2
              metadata   format  supports  tagging:  objects  using  the  LVM1
              metadata format cannot be tagged because the on-disk format does
              not support it.  Characters allowed in tags are: A-Z a-z 0-9 _ +
              . - and as of version 2.02.78 the following characters are  also
              accepted: / = ! : # &

       --deltag Tag
              Delete the tag Tag from a PV, VG or LV, if it's present.  Supply
              this argument multiple times to remove  more  than  one  tag  at

       --alloc {anywhere|contiguous|cling|inherit|normal}
              Selects  the  allocation policy when a command needs to allocate
              Physical Extents from the Volume Group.  Each Volume  Group  and
              Logical  Volume  has  an allocation policy defined.  The default
              for a Volume Group is normal which  applies  common-sense  rules
              such  as  not  placing  parallel  stripes  on  the same Physical
              Volume.  The default for  a  Logical  Volume  is  inherit  which
              applies the same policy as for the Volume Group.  These policies
              can be changed using lvchange(8) and vgchange(8)  or  overridden
              on  the  command  line  of any command that performs allocation.
              The contiguous policy requires  that  new  Physical  Extents  be
              placed  adjacent to existing Physical Extents.  The cling policy
              places new Physical Extents  on  the  same  Physical  Volume  as
              existing  Physical  Extents  in  the  same stripe of the Logical
              Volume.  If  there  are  sufficient  free  Physical  Extents  to
              satisfy  an  allocation  request  but  normal  doesn't use them,
              anywhere will - even if that reduces performance by placing  two
              stripes on the same Physical Volume.

       --commandprofile ProfileName
              Selects the command configuration profile to use when processing
              an LVM command.  See also lvm.conf(5) for more information about
              command  profile  config  and  the  way  it  fits with other LVM
              configuration methods. Using --commandprofile  option  overrides
              any    command   profile   specified   via   LVM_COMMAND_PROFILE
              environment variable.

       --metadataprofile ProfileName
              Selects  the  metadata  configuration  profile   to   use   when
              processing  an  LVM command.  When using metadata profile during
              Volume Group or Logical Volume creation,  the  metadata  profile
              name  is  saved  in  metadata. When such Volume Group or Logical
              Volume  is  processed  next  time,  the  metadata   profile   is
              automatically applied and the use of --metadataprofile option is
              not necessary. See also lvm.conf(5) for more  information  about
              metadata  profile  config  and  the  way  it fits with other LVM
              configuration methods.

       --profile ProfileName
              A  short  form  of  --metadataprofile  for  vgcreate,  lvcreate,
              vgchange   and   lvchange   command   and   a   short   form  of
              --commandprofile for any other command (with  the  exception  of
              lvmconfig  command  where the --profile has special meaning, see
              lvmconfig(8) for more information).

       --config ConfigurationString
              Uses the ConfigurationString as direct string representation  of
              the  configuration  to  override the existing configuration. The
              ConfigurationString is of exactly the same format as used in any
              LVM  configuration  file.  See  lvm.conf(5) for more information
              about direct config override on command line and the way it fits
              with other LVM configuration methods.


       The valid characters for VG and LV names are: a-z A-Z 0-9 + _ . -

       VG  and  LV  names  cannot begin with a hyphen.  There are also various
       reserved names that are used internally by lvm that can not be used  as
       LV  or VG names. A VG cannot be called anything that exists in /dev/ at
       the time of creation, nor can it be called '.' or '..'.  An  LV  cannot
       be  called '.', '..', 'snapshot' or 'pvmove'.  The LV name may also not
       contain any of the following strings: A directory bearing the  name  of
       each Volume Group is created under /dev when any of its Logical Volumes
       are activated.  Each active Logical  Volume  is  accessible  from  this
       directory  as a symbolic link leading to a device node.  Links or nodes
       in /dev/mapper are intended only  for  internal  use  and  the  precise
       format  and  escaping  might change between releases and distributions.
       Other      software      and      scripts      should      use      the
       /dev/VolumeGroupName/LogicalVolumeName  format  to reduce the chance of
       needing amendment when the software is updated.   Should  you  need  to
       process the node names in /dev/mapper, you may use dmsetup splitname to
       separate out the original VG, LV and internal layer names.


       When an operation needs to allocate Physical Extents for  one  or  more
       Logical Volumes, the tools proceed as follows:

       First  of  all,  they generate the complete set of unallocated Physical
       Extents in the Volume Group.  If any ranges  of  Physical  Extents  are
       supplied  at  the  end  of  the command line, only unallocated Physical
       Extents within those ranges  on  the  specified  Physical  Volumes  are

       Then  they  try  each  allocation  policy  in  turn,  starting with the
       strictest policy (contiguous) and ending  with  the  allocation  policy
       specified  using  --alloc  or  set  as  the  default for the particular
       Logical Volume or Volume Group concerned.   For  each  policy,  working
       from  the  lowest-numbered  Logical  Extent of the empty Logical Volume
       space that needs to be filled, they allocate as much space as  possible
       according  to the restrictions imposed by the policy.  If more space is
       needed, they move on to the next policy.

       The restrictions are as follows:

       Contiguous requires that the physical location of  any  Logical  Extent
       that is not the first Logical Extent of a Logical Volume is adjacent to
       the physical location of the Logical Extent immediately preceding it.

       Cling requires that the Physical Volume used for any Logical Extent  to
       be  added  to  an existing Logical Volume is already in use by at least
       one  Logical  Extent  earlier  in  that   Logical   Volume.    If   the
       configuration  parameter allocation/cling_tag_list is defined, then two
       Physical Volumes are considered to match if any of the listed  tags  is
       present  on  both  Physical  Volumes.   This  allows groups of Physical
       Volumes with similar properties (such as their physical location) to be
       tagged and treated as equivalent for allocation purposes.

       When  a  Logical  Volume is striped or mirrored, the above restrictions
       are applied independently to each stripe or  mirror  image  (leg)  that
       needs space.

       Normal  will not choose a Physical Extent that shares the same Physical
       Volume as a Logical Extent already  allocated  to  a  parallel  Logical
       Volume (i.e. a different stripe or mirror image/leg) at the same offset
       within that parallel Logical Volume.

       When allocating a mirror log at the same time  as  Logical  Volumes  to
       hold  the  mirror  data,  Normal  will  first  try  to select different
       Physical Volumes for the log and the data.  If that's not possible  and
       the allocation/mirror_logs_require_separate_pvs configuration parameter
       is set to 0, it will then allow the log  to  share  Physical  Volume(s)
       with part of the data.

       When  allocating thin pool metadata, similar considerations to those of
       a mirror log in the last paragraph apply based  on  the  value  of  the
       allocation/thin_pool_metadata_require_separate_pvs        configuration

       If you rely upon any layout behaviour beyond that documented  here,  be
       aware that it might change in future versions of the code.

       For  example,  if  you  supply  on  the command line two empty Physical
       Volumes  that  have  an  identical  number  of  free  Physical  Extents
       available for allocation, the current code considers using each of them
       in the order they are listed, but there is  no  guarantee  that  future
       releases  will  maintain that property.  If it is important to obtain a
       specific layout for a particular Logical Volume, then you should  build
       it  up  through  a  sequence of lvcreate(8) and lvconvert(8) steps such
       that the restrictions described above applied to each  step  leave  the
       tools no discretion over the layout.

       To  view the way the allocation process currently works in any specific
       case, read the debug logging output, for example by adding -vvvv  to  a


       Some  logical  volume types are simple to create and can be done with a
       single lvcreate(8) command.  The  linear  and  striped  logical  volume
       types  are  an example of this.  Other logical volume types may require
       more than one command to create.   The  cache  (lvmcache(7))  and  thin
       provisioning (lvmthin(7)) types are examples of this.


       The  selection criteria are a set of statements combined by logical and
       grouping operators. The statement consists of column name for  which  a
       set of valid values is defined using comparison operators. For complete
       list of column names (fields) that can be used in  selection,  see  the
       output of <lvm reporting command> -S help.

   Comparison operators (cmp_op)
       =~     Matching regular expression.
       !~     Not matching regular expression.
       =      Equal to.
       !=     Not equal to.
       >=     Greater than or equal to.
       >      Greater than
       <=     Less than or equal to.
       <      Less than.

   Binary logical operators (cmp_log)
       &&     All fields must match
       ,      All fields must match
       ||     At least one field must match
       #      At least one field must match

   Unary logical operators
       !      Logical negation

   Grouping operators
       (      Left parenthesis
       )      Right parenthesis
       [      List start
       ]      List end
       {      List subset start
       }      List subset end

   Informal grammar specification
       STATEMENT  =  column  cmp_op  VALUE  |  STATEMENT  log_op  STATEMENT  |
              (STATEMENT) | !(STATEMENT)

       VALUE = [VALUE log_op VALUE]
              For list-based types: string list. Matches strictly.  The log_op
              must always be of one type within the whole list value.

       VALUE = {VALUE log_op VALUE}
              For list-based types: string list. Matches a subset.  The log_op
              must always be of one type within the whole list value.

       VALUE = value
              For scalar types: number (integer), size (floating point  number
              with  size  unit suffix), percent (floating point number with or
              without % suffix), string.


       All tools return a status code  of  zero  on  success  or  non-zero  on


       HOME   Directory containing .lvm_history if the internal readline shell
              is invoked.

              Name of default command profile to use for  LVM  commands.  This
              profile  is  overriden by direct use of --commandprofile command
              line option.

              Directory containing lvm.conf(5) and  other  LVM  system  files.
              Defaults to "/etc/lvm".

              Suppress  warnings about unexpected file descriptors passed into

              The Volume Group name that is assumed for  any  reference  to  a
              Logical Volume that doesn't specify a path.  Not set by default.

              Path to the file that stores the lvmetad process ID.

              Path to the socket used to communicate with lvmetad.

              Path to the file that stores the lvmpolld process ID.

              Path to the socket used to communicate with lvmpolld..

              A  string  of  up to 32 letters appended to the log filename and
              followed by the process ID and  a  timestamp.   When  set,  each
              process logs to a separate file.

              The  status  anticipated  when  the  process exits.  Use ">N" to
              match any status greater than N.   If  the  actual  exit  status
              matches   and   a   log   file  got  produced,  it  is  deleted.
              LVM_LOG_FILE_EPOCH and LVM_EXPECTED_EXIT_STATUS  together  allow
              automated test scripts to discard uninteresting log data.

              Used to suppress warning messages when the configured locking is
              known to be unavailable.

              Abort processing if the code detects a non-fatal internal error.

              Avoid interaction with udev.  LVM will manage the relevant nodes
              in /dev directly.




       lvm.conf(5),    lvmcache(7),    lvmthin(7),    clvmd(8),    dmsetup(8),
       lvchange(8),  lvcreate(8),  lvdisplay(8),  lvextend(8),   lvmchange(8),
       lvmconfig(8),  lvmdiskscan(8),  lvreduce(8),  lvremove(8), lvrename(8),
       lvresize(8),  lvs(8),  lvscan(8),  pvchange(8),  pvck(8),  pvcreate(8),
       pvdisplay(8),     pvmove(8),     pvremove(8),     pvs(8),    pvscan(8),
       vgcfgbackup(8),  vgchange(8),   vgck(8),   vgconvert(8),   vgcreate(8),
       vgdisplay(8),  vgextend(8),  vgimport(8), vgimportclone(8), vgmerge(8),
       vgmknodes(8), vgreduce(8), vgremove(8), vgrename(8), vgs(8), vgscan(8),
       vgsplit(8), readline(3)