Provided by: groff_1.22.3-9_amd64 bug

NAME

       groff_man - groff man macros to support generation of man pages

SYNOPSIS

       groff -man [options ...] [files ...]
       groff -m man [options ...] [files ...]

DESCRIPTION

       The  man  macros  used to generate man pages with groff were written by
       James Clark.  This document provides a brief summary of the use of each
       macro in that package.

OPTIONS

       The  man  macros  understand  the following command line options (which
       define various registers).

       -rcR=1 This option (the default if in nroff  mode)  creates  a  single,
              very long page instead of multiple pages.  Say -rcR=0 to disable
              it.

       -rC1   If more than one manual page  is  given  on  the  command  line,
              number the pages continuously, rather than starting each at 1.

       -rD1   Double-sided  printing.   Footers  for  even  and  odd pages are
              formatted differently.

       -rFT=dist
              Set distance of the footer relative to the bottom of the page if
              negative  or  relative  to  the top if positive.  The default is
              -0.5i.

       -rHY=flags
              Set hyphenation flags.   Possible  values  are  1  to  hyphenate
              without  restrictions,  2  to  not  hyphenate the last word on a
              page, 4 to not hyphenate the last two characters of a word,  and
              8  to  not  hyphenate the first two characters of a word.  These
              values are additive; the default is 14.

       -rIN=width
              Set body text indentation to  width.   The  default  is  7n  for
              nroff,  7.2n  for troff.  For nroff, this value should always be
              an integer multiple of unit ‘n’ to get consistent indentation.

       -rLL=line-length
              Set line length.  If this option is not given, the  line  length
              is  set to respect any value set by a prior ‘.ll’ request (which
              must be in effect when the ‘.TH’  macro  is  invoked),  if  this
              differs  from  the built-in default for the formatter; otherwise
              it defaults to 78n in nroff mode and 6.5i in troff mode.

              Note that the use of a ‘.ll’  request  to  initialize  the  line
              length   is  supported  for  backward  compatibility  with  some
              versions of the man program; direct initialization of  the  ‘LL’
              register  should  always  be  preferred  to  the  use  of such a
              request.  In particular, note that a ‘.ll 65n’ request does  not
              preserve  the normal nroff default line length, (the man default
              initialization to 78n prevails), whereas, the ‘-rLL=65n’ option,
              or  an  equivalent ‘.nr LL 65n’ request preceding the use of the
              ‘TH’ macro, does set a line length of 65n.

       -rLT=title-length
              Set title length.  If this option is not given, the title length
              defaults to the line length.

       -rPnnn Enumeration of pages start with nnn rather than with 1.

       -rSxx  Base  document  font size is xx points (xx can be 10, 11, or 12)
              rather than 10 points.

       -rSN=width
              Set sub-subheading indentation to width.  The default is 3n.

       -rXnnn After page nnn, number pages as  nnna,  nnnb,  nnnc,  etc.   For
              example,  the option ‘-rX2’ produces the following page numbers:
              1, 2, 2a, 2b, 2c, etc.

USAGE

       This section describes the available  macros  for  manual  pages.   For
       further customization, put additional macros and requests into the file
       man.local, which is loaded immediately after the man package.

       .EX
       .EE    Example/End Example.  After .EX, filling  is  disabled  and  the
              font  is  set  to constant-width.  This is useful for formatting
              code, command, and configuration-file examples.   The  EE  macro
              restores filling and restores the previous font.

              These  macros  are  defined  on  many  (but not all) legacy Unix
              systems running classic troff.  To be certain your page will  be
              portable  to  those  systems,  copy  their  definitions from the
              an-ext.tmac file of a groff installation.

       .HP [nnn]
              Set  up  a  paragraph  with  hanging  left   indentation.    The
              indentation  is  set  to  nnn  if that argument is supplied (the
              default unit is ‘n’ if omitted), otherwise  it  is  set  to  the
              previous  indentation  value specified with .TP, .IP, or .HP (or
              to the default value if none of them have been used yet).   Font
              size  and  face  are reset to its default values.  The following
              paragraph illustrates the effect  of  this  macro  with  hanging
              indentation  set  to  4 (enclosed by .RS and .RE to set the left
              margin temporarily to the current indentation):

              This is a paragraph following an invocation of the HP macro.  As
                  you can see, it produces a paragraph where all lines but the
                  first are indented.

              Use of this presentation-level macro is deprecated.  While it is
              universally   portable   to   legacy  Unix  systems,  a  hanging
              indentation cannot be expressed naturally under HTML,  and  many
              HTML-based manual viewers simply interpret it as a starter for a
              normal paragraph.  Thus,  any  information  or  distinction  you
              tried to express with the indentation may be lost.

       .IP [designator] [nnn]
              Set  up an indented paragraph, using designator as a tag to mark
              its beginning.  The indentation is set to nnn if  that  argument
              is  supplied  (the default unit is ‘n’ if omitted), otherwise it
              is set to the previous indentation  value  specified  with  .TP,
              .IP,  or  .HP (or to the default value if none of them have been
              used yet).  Font size and face of the  paragraph  (but  not  the
              designator) are reset to its default values.

              To start an indented paragraph with a particular indentation but
              without a designator, use ‘""’ (two doublequotes) as the  second
              argument.

              For  example,  the  following  paragraphs  were  all set up with
              bullets as the designator, using ‘.IP \(bu 4’.  The whole  block
              has  been  enclosed  with  .RS  and  .RE  to set the left margin
              temporarily to the current indentation value.

              ·   IP is one of the three macros used in  the  man  package  to
                  format lists.

              ·   HP  is another.  This macro produces a paragraph with a left
                  hanging indentation.

              ·   TP is another.  This  macro  produces  an  unindented  label
                  followed by an indented paragraph.

       .LP
       .PP
       .P     These  macros  are  mutual  aliases.   Any of them causes a line
              break at the current position,  followed  by  a  vertical  space
              downwards  by  the  amount  specified by the PD macro.  The font
              size and shape are reset to the  default  value  (normally  10pt
              Roman).  Finally, the current left margin and the indentation is
              reset to the default values.

       .RE [nnn]
              This macro moves the left margin back to  level  nnn,  restoring
              the previous left margin.  If no argument is given, it moves one
              level back.  The first level (i.e., no  call  to  .RS  yet)  has
              number 1, and each call to .RS increases the level by 1.

       .RS [nnn]
              This  macro  moves the left margin to the right by the value nnn
              if specified (default unit is ‘n’); otherwise it is set  to  the
              previous  indentation  value specified with .TP, .IP, or .HP (or
              to the default value if none of them have been used  yet).   The
              indentation value is then set to the default.

              Calls to the RS macro can be nested.

       .SH [text for a heading]
              Set  up  an unnumbered section heading sticking out to the left.
              Prints out all the text following .SH up to the end of the  line
              (or  the  text in the next input line if there is no argument to
              .SH) in bold face (or the font specified by the string HF),  one
              size larger than the base document size.  Additionally, the left
              margin and the indentation for the following text  is  reset  to
              the default values.

       .SS [text for a heading]
              Set  up a secondary, unnumbered section heading.  Prints out all
              the text following .SS up to the end of the line (or the text in
              the next input line if there is no argument to .SS) in bold face
              (or the font specified by the string HF), at the  same  size  as
              the  base  document size.  Additionally, the left margin and the
              indentation for the following  text  is  reset  to  the  default
              values.

       .TH title section [extra1] [extra2] [extra3]
              Set  the  title  of  the  man  page  to title and the section to
              section, which must take on a value between 1 and 8.  The  value
              section may also have a string appended, e.g. ‘.pm’, to indicate
              a specific subsection of the man pages.  Both title and  section
              are  positioned  at  the left and right in the header line (with
              section in parentheses immediately appended to title.  extra1 is
              positioned  in  the  middle  of  the  footer  line.   extra2  is
              positioned at the left in the footer line (or  at  the  left  on
              even  pages  and  at  the  right  on  odd  pages if double-sided
              printing is active).  extra3 is centered in the header line.

              For HTML output, headers and footers are completely suppressed.

              Additionally, this macro starts a new page; the new line  number
              is  1 again (except if the ‘-rC1’ option is given on the command
              line) -- this feature is intended only for  formatting  multiple
              man pages; a single man page should contain exactly one TH macro
              at the beginning of the file.

       .TP [nnn]
              Set up an indented paragraph with label.  The indentation is set
              to  nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is ‘n’ if
              omitted), otherwise it is set to the previous indentation  value
              specified with .TP, .IP, or .HP (or to the default value if none
              of them have been used yet).

              The first input line of text following this macro is interpreted
              as a string to be printed flush-left, as it is appropriate for a
              label.  It is not interpreted as part of a paragraph,  so  there
              is  no  attempt  to  fill  the  first  line  with  text from the
              following input lines.  Nevertheless, if the  label  is  not  as
              wide  as  the  indentation the paragraph starts at the same line
              (but indented), continuing on the following lines.  If the label
              is  wider  than  the  indentation  the  descriptive  part of the
              paragraph begins on  the  line  following  the  label,  entirely
              indented.   Note  that  neither  font shape nor font size of the
              label is set to a default value; on the other hand, the rest  of
              the text has default font settings.

              The TP macro is the macro used for the explanations you are just
              reading.

       .TQ    The TQ macro sets up header continuation for a TP  macro.   With
              it,  you  can  stack  up  any  number  of  labels  (such as in a
              glossary, or list of commands)  before  beginning  the  indented
              paragraph.  For an example, look up the documentation of the LP,
              PP, and P macros.

              This macro is not defined on legacy Unix systems running classic
              troff.   To  be  certain  your  page  will  be portable to those
              systems, copy its definition from  the  an-ext.tmac  file  of  a
              groff installation.

       To  summarize,  the  following  macros  cause  a  line  break  with the
       insertion of vertical space (which amount can be changed  with  the  PD
       macro): SH, SS, TP, TQ, LP (PP, P), IP, and HP.  The macros RS, RE, EX,
       and EE also cause a break but no insertion of vertical space.

MACROS TO SET FONTS

       The standard font is Roman; the default text size is 10 point.

       .B [text]
              Causes text to appear in bold face.  If no text  is  present  on
              the  line  where  the macro is called the text of the next input
              line appears in bold face.

       .BI text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in bold  face
              and  italic.   The  text  must  be on the same line as the macro
              call.  Thus

                     .BI this "word and" that

              would cause ‘this’ and ‘that’ to  appear  in  bold  face,  while
              ‘word and’ appears in italics.

       .BR text
              Causes  text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face
              and roman.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .I [text]
              Causes text to appear in italic.  If no text is present  on  the
              line  where  the macro is called the text of the next input line
              appears in italic.

       .IB text
              Causes text to appear alternately in italic and bold face.   The
              text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .IR text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in italic and
              roman.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .RB text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman  and
              bold face.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .RI text
              Causes  text on the same line to appear alternately in roman and
              italic.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .SB [text]
              Causes the text on the same line or the text on the  next  input
              line to appear in boldface font, one point size smaller than the
              default font.

       .SM [text]
              Causes the text on the same line or the text on the  next  input
              line to appear in a font that is one point size smaller than the
              default font.

MACROS TO DESCRIBE HYPERLINKS AND EMAIL ADDRESSES

       The following macros are not defined on  legacy  Unix  systems  running
       classic  troff.   To  be  certain  your  page will be portable to those
       systems, copy their definitions from the an-ext.tmac file  of  a  groff
       installation.

       Using  these  macros  helps  ensure  that  you get hyperlinks when your
       manual page is rendered in a browser or  other  program  that  is  Web-
       enabled.

       .MT address
       .ME [punctuation]
              Wrap an email address.  The argument of .MT is the address; text
              following, until .ME, is  a  name  to  be  associated  with  the
              address.   Any  argument to the ME macro is pasted to the end of
              the link text.  On a device that is not a browser,

                     contact
                     .MT fred.foonly@\:fubar.net
                     Fred Foonly
                     .ME
                     for more information

              usually displays like this: “contact Fred  Foonly  <fred.foonly@
              fubar.net> for more information”.

              The  use  of  \:  to  insert  hyphenless  breakpoints is a groff
              extension and can be omitted.

       .UR URL
       .UE [punctuation]
              Wrap a World Wide Web hyperlink.  The argument  to  .UR  is  the
              URL;  thereafter,  lines until .UE are collected and used as the
              link text.  Any argument to the UE macro is pasted to the end of
              the text.  On a device that is not a browser,

                     this is a link to
                     .UR http://\:randomsite.org/\:fubar
                     some random site
                     .UE ,
                     given as an example

              usually  displays like this: “this is a link to some random site
              <http://randomsite.org/fubar>, given as an example”.

              The use of \:  to  insert  hyphenless  breakpoints  is  a  groff
              extension and can be omitted.

MACROS TO DESCRIBE COMMAND SYNOPSES

       The  following  macros  are  not defined on legacy Unix systems running
       classic troff.  To be certain your  page  will  be  portable  to  those
       systems,  copy  their  definitions from the an-ext.tmac file of a groff
       installation.

       These macros are a convenience for authors.  They also assist automated
       translation tools and help browsers in recognizing command synopses and
       treating them differently from running text.

       .OP key value
              Describe an optional command argument.  The  arguments  of  this
              macro  are  set surrounded by option braces in the default Roman
              font; the first argument is printed with a bold face, while  the
              second argument is typeset as italic.

       .SY command
              Begin synopsis.  Takes a single argument, the name of a command.
              Text following, until closed by  .YS,  is  set  with  a  hanging
              indentation  with  the  width  of  command  plus  a space.  This
              produces the traditional look of a Unix command synopsis.

       .YS    This macro restores normal indentation at the end of  a  command
              synopsis.

       Here is a real example:

              .SY groff
              .OP \-abcegiklpstzCEGNRSUVXZ
              .OP \-d cs
              .OP \-f fam
              .OP \-F dir
              .OP \-I dir
              .OP \-K arg
              .OP \-L arg
              .OP \-m name
              .OP \-M dir
              .OP \-n num
              .OP \-o list
              .OP \-P arg
              .OP \-r cn
              .OP \-T dev
              .OP \-w name
              .OP \-W name
              .RI [ file
              .IR .\|.\|. ]
              .YS

       produces the following output:

              groff [-abcegiklpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir]
                    [-I dir] [-K arg] [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num]
                    [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn] [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name]
                    [file ...]

       If necessary, you might use br requests to control line breaking.   You
       can  insert  plain  text  as  well;  this  looks  like  the traditional
       (unornamented) syntax for a required command argument or filename.

MISCELLANEOUS

       The default indentation is 7.2n in troff mode  and  7n  in  nroff  mode
       except for grohtml, which ignores indentation.

       .AT [system [release]]
              Alter  the  footer  for  use  with AT&T man pages.  This command
              exists only for compatibility; don't use it.  See the groff info
              manual for more.

       .BT    Print  the footer string.  Redefine this macro to get control of
              the footer.

       .DT    Set tabs every 0.5 inches.  Since this macro  is  always  called
              during  a  TH  macro,  it makes sense to call it only if the tab
              positions have been changed.

              Use  of  this  presentation-level  macro  is   deprecated.    It
              translates  poorly to HTML, under which exact whitespace control
              and tabbing are not readily  available.   Thus,  information  or
              distinctions  that you use .DT to express are likely to be lost.
              If you feel tempted to use it, you should probably be  composing
              a table using tbl(1) markup instead.

       .PD [nnn]
              Adjust  the  empty space before a new paragraph or section.  The
              optional argument gives the amount of  space  (default  unit  is
              ‘v’); without parameter, the value is reset to its default value
              (1 line in nroff mode, 0.4v otherwise).  This affects the macros
              SH, SS, TP, LP (resp. PP and P), IP, and HP.

              Use   of   this  presentation-level  macro  is  deprecated.   It
              translates poorly to HTML, under which exact control  of  inter-
              paragraph  spacing  is not readily available.  Thus, information
              or distinctions that you use .PD to express  are  likely  to  be
              lost.

       .PT    Print  the header string.  Redefine this macro to get control of
              the header.

       .UC [version]
              Alter the footer for use  with  BSD  man  pages.   This  command
              exists only for compatibility; don't use it.  See the groff info
              manual for more.

       The following strings are defined:

       \*R    The ‘registered’ sign.

       \*S    Switch back to the default font size.

       \*(lq
       \*(rq  Left and right quote.  This is equal to ‘\(lq’  and  ‘\(rq\[cq],
              respectively.

       \*(HF  The  typeface  used  to  print  headings  and  subheadings.  The
              default is ‘B’.

       \*(Tm  The ‘trademark’ sign.

       If a preprocessor like tbl or eqn is needed, it has  become  common  to
       make the first line of the man page look like this:

              '\" word

       Note  the single space character after the double quote.  word consists
       of letters for the needed preprocessors: ‘e’ for eqn,  ‘r’  for  refer,
       and  ‘t’  for tbl.  Modern implementations of the man program read this
       first line and automatically call the right preprocessor(s).

PORTABILITY AND TROFF REQUESTS

       Since the man macros consist of groups of groff requests, one  can,  in
       principle,   supplement  the  functionality  of  the  man  macros  with
       individual groff requests where necessary.  See the  groff  info  pages
       for a complete reference of all requests.

       Note,  however,  that  using  raw troff requests is likely to make your
       page render poorly on the (increasingly common) class of  viewers  that
       render  it  to  HTML.   Troff  requests make implicit assumptions about
       things like character  and  page  sizes  that  may  break  in  an  HTML
       environment; also, many of these viewers don't interpret the full troff
       vocabulary, a problem that can lead to  portions  of  your  text  being
       silently dropped.

       For  portability  to  modern  viewers,  it  is  best to write your page
       entirely in the requests described on this page.  Further, it  is  best
       to  completely  avoid  those  we have described as ‘presentation-level’
       (.HP, .PD, and .DT).

       The macros we  have  described  as  extensions  (.EX/.EE,  .SY/.OP/.YS,
       .UR/.UE,  and .MT/.ME) should be used with caution, as they may not yet
       be built in to some viewer that is important to your audience.   If  in
       doubt, copy the implementation onto your page.

FILES

       man.tmac
       an.tmac
              These are wrapper files to call andoc.tmac.

       andoc.tmac
              Use  this  file in case you don't know whether the man macros or
              the mdoc package should be used.  Multiple man pages (in  either
              format) can be handled.

       an-old.tmac
              Most man macros are contained in this file.

       an-ext.tmac
              The extension macro definitions for .SY, .OP, .YS, .TQ, .EX/.EE,
              .UR/.UE, and .MT/.ME are contained in this file.  It is  written
              in  classic  troff,  and  released  for  free  re-use,  and  not
              copylefted; manual page authors concerned about  portability  to
              legacy  Unix  systems  are  encouraged to copy these definitions
              into their pages, and maintainers of troff or its workalikes are
              encouraged to re-use them.

              Note  that  the  definitions for these macros are read after the
              call of TH, so they will replace macros of the same names  given
              at  the  beginning  of  your  file.   If  you  must use your own
              definitions for these macros, they must be given  after  calling
              TH.

       man.local
              Local changes and customizations should be put into this file.

SEE ALSO

       tbl(1), eqn(1), refer(1), man(1), man(7), groff_mdoc(7)

COPYING

       Copyright © 1999-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the
       entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a
       permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
       manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified
       versions, except that this permission notice may be included in
       translations approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the
       original English.

AUTHORS

       This manual page was originally written for the Debian GNU/Linux system
       by Susan G. Kleinmann ⟨sgk@debian.org⟩.

       It was corrected and updated by Werner Lemberg ⟨wl@gnu.org⟩.

       The extension macros were documented (and partly designed) by Eric S.
       Raymond ⟨esr@thyrsus.com⟩; he also wrote the portability advice.