Provided by: rear_2.00+dfsg-2_amd64 bug


       rear - bare metal disaster recovery and system migration tool


       rear [-h|--help] [-V|--version] [-dsSv] [-D|--debugscripts SET] [-c
       DIR] [-C CONFIG] [-r KERNEL] [--] COMMAND [ARGS...]


       Relax-and-Recover is the leading Open Source disaster recovery
       solution. It is a modular framework with many ready-to-go workflows for
       common situations.

       Relax-and-Recover produces a bootable image. This image can repartition
       the system. Once that is done it initiates a restore from backup.
       Restores to different hardware are possible. Relax-and-Recover can
       therefore be used as a migration tool as well.

       Currently Relax-and-Recover supports various boot media (incl. ISO,
       PXE, OBDR tape, USB or eSATA storage), a variety of network protocols
       (incl. sftp, ftp, http, nfs, cifs) for storage and backup as well as a
       multitude of backup strategies (incl. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, HP
       DataProtector, Symantec NetBackup, EMC NetWorker, FDR/Upstream,
       NovaBACKUP DC, Bareos, Bacula, rsync, rbme, Borg). This results in a
       bootable image that is capable of booting via PXE, DVD/CD, bootable
       tape or virtual provisioning.

       Relax-and-Recover was designed to be easy to set up, requires no
       maintenance and is there to assist when disaster strikes. Its
       setup-and-forget nature removes any excuses for not having a disaster
       recovery solution implemented.

       Recovering from disaster is made very straight-forward by a 2-step
       recovery process so that it can be executed by operational teams when
       required. When used interactively (e.g. when used for migrating
       systems), menus help make decisions to restore to a new (hardware)

       Extending Relax-and-Recover is made possible by its modular framework.
       Consistent logging and optionally extended output help understand the
       concepts behind Relax-and-Recover and help debug during development.

       Relax-and-Recover comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details see
       the GNU General Public License at:


       -h --help
           usage information

       -c DIR
           alternative config directory; instead of /etc/rear

       -C CONFIG
           additional config file; absolute path or relative to config

           debug mode (log debug messages to log file)

           debugscript mode (log every function call via set -x)

       --debugscripts SET
           same as -d -v -D but debugscript mode with set -SET

       -r KERNEL
           kernel version to use (by default use running kernel)

           simulation mode (show what scripts rear would include)

           step-by-step mode (acknowledge each script individually)

           verbose mode (show progress output)

       -V --version
           version information

           check if the disk layout has changed since the last run of

           dump configuration and system information; please run this to
           verify your setup

           format and label USB or tape media to be used with rear;

           first argument is the USB or tape device to use, eg.  /dev/sdX or

           print full list of commands and options

           create rescue media and backup the system (only for internal backup

           backup the system (only for internal backup methods) without
           creating rescue media

           create rescue media only

           recover the system; can be used only when running from the rescue

           only restore the backup; can be used only when running from the
           rescue media

           submit validation information

       Use rear -v help for more advanced commands.


       The process of bare metal disaster recovery consists of two parts:

       ·   Recreate the system layout

       ·   Restore the data to the system

       Most backup software solutions are very good at restoring data but do
       not support recreating the system layout. Relax-and-Recover is very
       good at recreating the system layout but works best when used together
       with supported backup software.

       In this combination Relax-and-Recover recreates the system layout and
       calls the backup software to restore the actual data. Thus there is no
       unnecessary duplicate data storage and the Relax-and-Recover rescue
       media can be very small.

       For demonstration and special use purposes Relax-and-Recover also
       includes an internal backup method, NETFS, which can be used to create
       a simple tar.gz archive of the system. For all permanent setups we
       recommend using something more professional for backup, either a
       traditional backup software (open source or commercial) or rsync with
       hardlink based solutions, e.g. RSYNC BACKUP MADE EASY.


       The OUTPUT variable defines from where our bootable rescue image will
       be booted and the OUTPUT_URL variable defines where the rescue image
       should be send to. Possible OUTPUT setting are:

           Create only the Relax-and-Recover initramfs.

           (Default) Create a bootable ISO9660 image on disk as

           Create on a remote PXE/NFS server the required files (such as
           configuration file, kernel and initrd image

           Create a bootable OBDR tape (optionally including the backup
           archive). Specify the OBDR tape device by using TAPE_DEVICE.

           Create a bootable USB disk (using extlinux). Specify the USB
           storage device by using USB_DEVICE.

       When using OUTPUT=ISO, RAMDISK, OBDR or USB you should provide the
       backup target location through the OUTPUT_URL variable. Possible
       OUTPUT_URL settings are:

           Write the image to disk. The default is in /var/lib/rear/output/.

           Write the image by mounting the target filesystem via NFS.

           Write the image by mounting the target filesystem via CIFS.

           Write the image using lftp and the FISH protocol.

           Write the image using lftp and the FTP protocol.

           Write the image using lftp and the FTPS protocol.

           Write the image using lftp and the HFTP protocol.

           Write the image using lftp and the HTTP (PUT) procotol.

           Write the image using lftp and the HTTPS (PUT) protocol.

           Write the image using lftp and the secure FTP (SFTP) protocol.

           Write the image using rsync and the RSYNC protocol.

           Write the image using sshfs and the SSH protocol.

           Do not copy the ISO image from /var/lib/rear/output/ to a remote
           output location.  OUTPUT_URL=null is useful when another program
           (e.g. an external backup program) is used to save the ISO image
           from the local system to a remote place, or with
           BACKUP_URL=iso:///backup when the backup is included in the ISO
           image to avoid a (big) copy of the ISO image at a remote output
           location. In the latter case the ISO image must be manually saved
           from the local system to a remote place.  OUTPUT_URL=null is only
           supported together with BACKUP=NETFS.

       If you do not specify OUTPUT_URL variable then by default it will be
       aligned to what was defined by variable BACKUP_URL. And, the ISO image
       will then be copied to the same location as your backup of the system

       The ISO_DEFAULT variable defines what default boot option is used on
       the rescue image. Possible values are manual, boothd or unattended.
       Manual will make you boot into the shell directly by default, boothd
       will boot to the first disk (default) or unattended will automatically
       start in recovery mode.


       Currently Relax-and-Recover supports the following backup methods.
       Please distinguish carefully between Relax-and-Recover support for 3rd
       party backup software and Relax-and-Recover internal backup methods.
       The latter also creates a backup of your data while the former will
       only integrate Relax-and-Recover with the backup software to restore
       the data with the help of the backup software without actually creating
       backups. This means that for all non-internal backup software you must
       take care of creating backups yourself.

       Especially the rear mkbackup command can be confusing as it is only
       useful for the internal backup methods and has no function at all with
       the other (external) backup methods.

       The following backup methods need to be set in Relax-and-Recover with
       the BACKUP option. As mentioned we have two types of BACKUP methods -
       internal and external.

       The following BACKUP methods are external of Relax-and-Recover meaning
       that you are responsible of backups being made:

           (default) Not really a backup method at all, Relax-and-Recover
           simply halts the recovery and requests that somebody will restore
           the data to the appropriate location (e.g. via SSH). This method
           works especially well with an rsync based backup that is pushed
           back to the backup client.

           Internal backup method that uses an arbitrary external command to
           create a backup and restore the data.

           Use HP Data Protector to restore the data.

           Use FDR/Upstream to restore the data.

           Use CommVault Galaxy 5 to restore the data.

           Use CommVault Galaxy 7 to restore the data.

           Use CommVault Galaxy 10 (or Simpana 10) to restore the data.

           Use Symantec NetBackup to restore the data.

           Use IBM Tivoli Storage Manager to restore the data. The
           Relax-and-Recover result files (e.g. ISO image) are also saved into

           Using EMC NetWorker (Legato) to restore the data.

           Using SEP Sesam to restore the data.

           Using Novastor NovaBACKUP DC to restore the data.

           Use Rsync Backup Made Easy (rbme) to restore the data.

           Use Open Source backup solution BAREOS (a fork a BUCULA) to restore
           the data.

           Use Open Source backup solution BACULA to restore the data.

           Use encrypted bandwidth-efficient backup solution using the rsync
           algorithm to restore the data.

           Use BorgBackup (short Borg) a deduplicating backup program to
           restore the data.

       The following BACKUP methods are internal of Relax-and-Recover:

           Internal backup method which can be used to create a simple backup
           (tar archive).

           Use rsync to restore data.

       If your favourite backup software is missing from this list, please
       submit a patch or ask us to implement it for you.

       When using BACKUP=NETFS you should provide the backup target location
       through the BACKUP_URL variable. Possible BACKUP_URL settings are:

           To backup to local disk, use BACKUP_URL=file:///directory/path/

           To backup to NFS disk, use

           To backup to tape device, use BACKUP_URL=tape:///dev/nst0 or
           alternatively, simply define TAPE_DEVICE=/dev/nst0

           When backup method BACKUP=RSYNC is chosen then we need to define a
           corresponding BACKUP_URL rule:


           To backup to a Samba share (CIFS), use
           BACKUP_URL=cifs://cifs-server-name/share/path. To provide
           credentials for CIFS mounting use a /etc/rear/cifs credentials file
           and define BACKUP_OPTIONS="cred=/etc/rear/cifs" and pass along:

               password=_secret password_

           To backup to USB storage device, use
           BACKUP_URL=usb:///dev/disk/by-path/REAR-000 or use a real device
           node or a specific filesystem label. Alternatively, you can specify
           the device using USB_DEVICE=/dev/disk/by-path/REAR-000.

           If you combine this with OUTPUT=USB you will end up with a bootable
           USB device.

           To backup to a remote server via sshfs (SSH protocol), use

           It is advisable to add ServerAliveInterval 15 in the
           /root/.ssh/config file for the remote system

           To include the backup within the ISO image. It is important that
           the BACKUP_URL and OUTPUT_URL variables are different. E.g.


       When using BACKUP=NETFS and BACKUP_PROG=tar there is an option to
       select BACKUP_TYPE=incremental or BACKUP_TYPE=differential to let rear
       make incremental or differential backups until the next full backup day
       e.g. via FULLBACKUPDAY="Mon" is reached or when the last full backup is
       too old after FULLBACKUP_OUTDATED_DAYS has passed. Incremental or
       differential backup is currently only known to work with
       BACKUP_URL=nfs. Other BACKUP_URL schemes may work but at least
       BACKUP_URL=usb is known not to work with incremental or differential


       To configure Relax-and-Recover you have to edit the configuration files
       in /etc/rear/. All *.conf files there are part of the configuration,
       but only site.conf and local.conf are intended for the user
       configuration. All other configuration files hold defaults for various
       distributions and should not be changed.

       In /etc/rear/templates/ there are also some template files which are
       used by Relax-and-Recover to create configuration files (mostly for the
       boot environment). Modify the templates to adjust the information
       contained in the emails produced by Relax-and-Recover. You can use
       these templates to prepend your own configurations to the configuration
       files created by Relax-and-Recover, for example you can edit
       PXE_pxelinux.cfg to add some general pxelinux configuration you use.

       In almost all circumstances you have to configure two main settings and
       their parameters: The backup method and the output method.

       The backup method defines, how your data was saved and whether
       Relax-and-Recover should backup your data as part of the mkrescue
       process or whether you use an external application, e.g. backup
       software to archive your data.

       The output method defines how the rescue system is written to disk and
       how you plan to boot the failed computer from the rescue system.

       See the default configuration file /usr/share/rear/conf/default.conf
       for an overview of the possible methods and their options.

       An example to use TSM for backup and ISO for output would be to add
       these lines to /etc/rear/local.conf (no need to define a BACKUP_URL
       when using an external backup solution):


       And if all your systems use NTP for time synchronisation, you can also
       add these lines to /etc/rear/site.conf


       Do not forget to distribute the site.conf to all your systems.

       The resulting ISO image will be created in /var/lib/rear/output/. You
       can now modify the behaviour by copying the appropriate configuration
       variables from default.conf to local.conf and changing them to suit
       your environment.


           Successful program execution.

           Usage, syntax or execution errors. Check the log file in
           /var/log/rear/ for more information.


       To print out the current settings for BACKUP and OUTPUT methods and
       some system information. This command can be used to see the supported
       features for the given release and platform.

           # rear dump

       To create a new rescue environment. Do not forget to copy the resulting
       rescue system away so that you can use it in the case of a system

           # rear -v mkrescue

       To create a new rescue image together with a complete archive of your
       local system run the command:

           # rear -v mkbackup


           The program itself.

           System specific configuration can be set here.

           Site specific configuration can be set here (not created by

           Directory holding the log files.

           Relax-and-Recover working directory. If Relax-and-Recover exits
           with an error, you must remove this directory manually.

           Relax-and-Recover script components.

           Relax-and-Recover default values. Contains a complete set of
           parameters and its explanation. Please do not edit or modify. Copy
           values to local.conf or site.conf instead.


       Feedback is welcome, please report any issues or improvements to our
       issue-tracker at:

       Furthermore, we welcome pull requests via GitHub.


       Relax-and-Recover comes with extensive documentation located in


       Gratien Dhaese, Schlomo Schapiro, Johannes Meixner, Jeroen Hoekx and
       Dag Wieers.

       Lars Pinne (original man page).

       Relax-and-Recover is a collaborative process using Github at:

       The Relax-and-Recover website is located at:


       (c) 2006-2017

       Schlomo Schapiro

       Gratien Dhaese, IT3 Consultants

       Johannes Meixner, SUSE

       Jeroen Hoekx

       Dag Wieers, Dagit Linux Solutions

       Relax-and-Recover comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details see
       the GNU General Public License at

                                6 January 2017                         REAR(8)