Provided by: resolvconf_1.79ubuntu4_all bug


       resolvconf - manage nameserver information


       cat FILE | resolvconf -a IFACE.PROG

       resolvconf -d IFACE.PROG

       resolvconf -u

       resolvconf --enable-updates | --disable-updates | --updates-are-enabled


       The  resolvconf  package  comprises  a  simple  database  for  run-time
       nameserver  information  and   a   simple   framework   for   notifying
       applications  of  changes  in  that  information.  Resolvconf thus sets
       itself up as the intermediary between programs that  supply  nameserver
       information and applications that use that information.

       Information  is  added  to  or  removed  from  the  database  using the
       resolvconf program.  See the OPTIONS section below for a discussion  of
       the available options.


       Normally  the  resolvconf  program  is  run  only  by network interface
       configuration programs  such  as  ifup(8),  ifdown,  NetworkManager(8),
       dhclient(8),  and pppd(8); and by local nameservers such as dnsmasq(8).
       These programs obtain nameserver information from some source and  push
       it to resolvconf.

       The dhclient program, for example, may receive nameserver addresses and
       domain search list information during its  negotiation  with  the  DHCP
       server;          if         so,         its         hook         script
       /etc/dhcp/dhclient-enter-hooks.d/resolvconf pushes this information  to

       The  ifup program can be used to configure network interfaces according
       to settings in /etc/network/interfaces.  To make ifup  push  nameserver
       information   to   resolvconf  when  it  configures  an  interface  the
       administrator must add dns- option lines to the relevant  iface  stanza
       in   interfaces(5).    The   following   option   names  are  accepted:
       dns-nameserver, dns-search, and dns-sortlist.

       To add a nameserver IP  address,  add  an  option  line  consisting  of
       dns-nameserver  and the address.  To add multiple nameserver addresses,
       include multiple such dns-nameserver lines.


       To add search domain names, add a line beginning with dns-search.


       The dns-nameservers option is also accepted and, unlike dns-nameserver,
       can be given multiple arguments, separated by spaces.

       The dns-domain option is deprecated in favor of dns-search.

       The resulting stanza might look like the following example.

           iface eth0 inet static

       N.B.:  On  a  machine  where resolvconf has just been or is about to be
       installed and which previously  relied  on  a  static  /etc/resolv.conf

       ·      the nameserver information in that static file, (which is to say
              the information  on  nameserver,  domain,  search  and  sortlist
              lines)  should be migrated to the appropriate iface stanza(s) in
              /etc/network/interfaces(5) as just described;

       ·      options (which is to say, any options lines) should be  migrated
              to /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/base.

   Command line
       The  administrator  can  run resolvconf from the command line to add or
       delete nameserver information, but this is not  normally  necessary  or


       Nameserver  information  provided  to  resolvconf  is stored for use by
       subscribers to resolvconf's notification service.  Subscriber  packages
       that  need  to  know  when  nameserver  information  has changed should
       install    a    script    in    /etc/resolvconf/update.d/    (or     in
       /etc/resolvconf/update-libc.d/:  see  below).   For example, DNS caches
       such as dnsmasq(8) and pdnsd(8) subscribe to the  notification  service
       so that they know whither to forward queries.  Client hook scripts will
       find  the  files  containing  nameserver  information  in  the  current

       The most important software package that subscribes to the notification
       service is the GNU C Library resolver(3).  This library is used by many
       applications  that  need  to  resolve  domain  names.   When nameserver
       information  is  updated,  the   script   /etc/resolvconf/update.d/libc
       generates   a   new   version   of  the  resolver  configuration  file,
       /run/resolvconf/resolv.conf, as described below.  If the new version of
       the  file  differs  from  the  previously  generated  one then the hook
       scripts found in /etc/resolvconf/update-libc.d/ are executed.

       The dynamically generated resolver  configuration  file  always  starts
       with  the  contents of /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/head and ends with
       the contents of /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/tail.  Between  head  and
       tail  the  libc  script inserts dynamic nameserver information compiled
       from, first, information provided for  configured  interfaces;  second,
       static     information     from     /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/base.
       Specifically, it writes:

         1) up   to   three   nameserver   lines,   ordered    according    to
            /etc/resolvconf/interface-order,  possibly  fewer  if  one  of the
            addresses     is     a     loopback      address      and      the
            variable is affirmatively set, as  discussed  in  the  ENVIRONMENT
            VARIABLES section;

         2) up  to  one search line containing the combined domain search list
            from all "domain" and "search" input lines, also ordered according
            to interface-order(5);

         3) all other non-comment input lines.

       To   make   the   resolver  use  this  dynamically  generated  resolver
       configuration   file   the    administrator    should    ensure    that
       /etc/resolv.conf  is  a  symbolic  link to /run/resolvconf/resolv.conf.
       This link  is  normally  created  on  installation  of  the  resolvconf
       package.   The link is never modified by the resolvconf program itself.
       If you find that /etc/resolv.conf is not being updated, please check to
       make sure that the link is intact.

       The  GNU  C  Library  resolver  library isn't the only resolver library
       available.  However, any resolver library that  reads  /etc/resolv.conf
       (and  most of them do, in order to be compatible) should work fine with

       Subscriber  packages  that  need  to  know  only  when   the   resolver
       configuration   file   has   changed   should   install   a  script  in
       /etc/resolvconf/update-libc.d/         rather          than          in
       /etc/resolvconf/update.d/.   (For  example,  two  packages that install
       update-libc.d/  hook  scripts  are  fetchmail  and  squid.)   This   is
       important  for  synchronization purposes: scripts in update-libc.d/ are
       run after resolv.conf has been updated; the  same  is  not  necessarily
       true of scripts in update.d/.


       -a IFACE.PROG
              Add  or  overwrite  the  record  IFACE.PROG  then run the update
              scripts if updating is enabled.  When this option  is  used  the
              information must be provided to resolvconf on its standard input
              in the format of the resolv.conf(5) file.  Each line in the file
              must be terminated by a newline.

       -d IFACE.PROG
              Delete  the  record  IFACE.PROG  then  run the update scripts if
              updating is enabled.

       The string IFACE.PROG may not contain spaces, slashes, an initial  dot,
       an  initial  hyphen  or  an initial tilde.  It is conventionally formed
       from IFACE, the name of the interface involved, a dot, and  IPROG,  the
       name of the interface configuration program, e.g., "eth0.dhclient".

       -u     Just run the update scripts (if updating is enabled).

       With -a, -d or -u:
              if  updating  is  not  enabled,  schedule a delayed update.  The
              delayed update will be carried out when updates are enabled.

              Set the  flag  indicating  that  resolvconf  should  run  update
              scripts  when  invoked  in  the  future with -a, -d or -u.  If a
              delayed update was scheduled then run update scripts.

              Clear the flag.

              Return 0 if the flag is set, otherwise return 1.


       The  following  variables  can  be  set  in  the   configuration   file
       /etc/default/resolvconf.   If  the file does not exist you will have to
       create it.

              If set to "yes"  then  resolvconf  will  print  a  message  when
              /etc/resolv.conf  is  not  a  symbolic  link  to the resolvconf-
              generated resolver configuration file.  Set to "no"  to  prevent
              the printing of this message.  The default is "yes".

              If  set  to  "yes"  then  the  libc  script will include no more
              nameserver addresses after the first nameserver address that  is
              a loopback address.  (In IPv4 a loopback address is any one that
              starts with "127.".  In IPv6 the loopback address is "::1".)

              The advantage of truncating the nameserver list after a loopback
              address  is  that  doing  so  inhibits  unnecessary  changes  to
              resolv.conf and thus reduces the number of  instances  in  which
              the update-libc.d/ scripts have to be run.  When an interface is
              brought up or down the local caching nameserver that listens  on
              the  loopback address is still informed of the change and adapts
              accordingly; the clients of the resolver  which  use  the  local
              caching  nameserver do not need to be notified of the change.  A
              disadvantage of this mode of operation is that applications have
              no  secondary  or  tertiary  nameserver  address to fall back on
              should the local caching nameserver crash.  Insofar as  a  local
              nameserver crash can be regarded as an unlikely event, this is a
              relatively  minor  disadvantage.   Set  to   "no"   to   disable
              truncation.  The default is "yes".

              A     deprecated     synonym     for     this     variable    is


              See the ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES section.

              Determines the order of precedence of nameserver  addresses  and
              search domain names.  See above and interface-order(5).

              File  containing  basic resolver information.  The lines in this
              file are included in the resolver configuration file  even  when
              no interfaces are configured.

              File  to  be  prepended  to  the  dynamically generated resolver
              configuration file.  Normally this is just a comment line.

              File to  be  appended  to  the  dynamically  generated  resolver
              configuration file.  To append nothing, make this an empty file.
              This file is a good place to put a resolver options line if  one
              is needed, e.g.,

                  options inet6

              Copy  of the /etc/resolv.conf file before the resolvconf package
              was installed.  This file has no effect on  the  functioning  of
              resolvconf;  it  is  retained  so  that  /etc/resolv.conf can be
              restored to its original state  if  the  resolvconf  package  is

              Note  also  that a copy of this file is included in the database
              until the first reboot  after  installation  of  the  resolvconf
              package;   this   ensures   that  nameservers  reachable  before
              installation   of   resolvconf   are   still   reachable   after
              installation  of  resolvconf  even  though at that point not all
              suppliers of nameserver  information  may  have  supplied  their
              information to resolvconf(8).

              Note also that the administrator can choose to create a symbolic
              link in /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/ from tail to original  so
              that the contents of original are always added to the end of the
              dynamically generated file.


       Currently resolvconf does not  check  the  sanity  of  the  information
       provided to it.


       Written by Thomas Hood <> with contributions by Nathan
       Stratton Treadway.


       Copyright © 2004-2013 Thomas Hood.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.


       interface-order(5), resolv.conf(5), resolver(3).

       Read the resolvconf package README file for more in-depth information.