Provided by: systemd_234-2ubuntu12_amd64 bug


       systemd-resolved.service, systemd-resolved - Network Name Resolution manager





       systemd-resolved is a system service that provides network name resolution to local
       applications. It implements a caching and validating DNS/DNSSEC stub resolver, as well as
       an LLMNR resolver and responder. Local applications may submit network name resolution
       requests via three interfaces:

       ·   The native, fully-featured API systemd-resolved exposes on the bus. See the API
           Documentation[1] for details. Usage of this API is generally recommended to clients as
           it is asynchronous and fully featured (for example, properly returns DNSSEC validation
           status and interface scope for addresses as necessary for supporting link-local

       ·   The glibc getaddrinfo(3) API as defined by RFC3493[2] and its related resolver
           functions, including gethostbyname(3). This API is widely supported, including beyond
           the Linux platform. In its current form it does not expose DNSSEC validation status
           information however, and is synchronous only. This API is backed by the glibc Name
           Service Switch (nss(5)). Usage of the glibc NSS module nss-resolve(8) is required in
           order to allow glibc's NSS resolver functions to resolve host names via

       ·   Additionally, systemd-resolved provides a local DNS stub listener on IP address
  on the local loopback interface. Programs issuing DNS requests directly,
           bypassing any local API may be directed to this stub, in order to connect them to
           systemd-resolved. Note however that it is strongly recommended that local programs use
           the glibc NSS or bus APIs instead (as described above), as various network resolution
           concepts (such as link-local addressing, or LLMNR Unicode domains) cannot be mapped to
           the unicast DNS protocol.

       The DNS servers contacted are determined from the global settings in
       /etc/systemd/resolved.conf, the per-link static settings in /etc/systemd/network/*.network
       files, the per-link dynamic settings received over DHCP and any DNS server information
       made available by other system services. See resolved.conf(5) and for
       details about systemd's own configuration files for DNS servers. To improve compatibility,
       /etc/resolv.conf is read in order to discover configured system DNS servers, but only if
       it is not a symlink to /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf (see below).

       systemd-resolved synthesizes DNS resource records (RRs) for the following cases:

       ·   The local, configured hostname is resolved to all locally configured IP addresses
           ordered by their scope, or — if none are configured — the IPv4 address
           (which is on the local loopback) and the IPv6 address ::1 (which is the local host).

       ·   The hostnames "localhost" and "localhost.localdomain" (as well as any hostname ending
           in ".localhost" or ".localhost.localdomain") are resolved to the IP addresses
  and ::1.

       ·   The hostname "gateway" is resolved to all current default routing gateway addresses,
           ordered by their metric. This assigns a stable hostname to the current gateway, useful
           for referencing it independently of the current network configuration state.

       ·   The mappings defined in /etc/hosts are resolved to their configured addresses and
           back, but they will not affect lookups for non-address types (like MX).

       Lookup requests are routed to the available DNS servers and LLMNR interfaces according to
       the following rules:

       ·   Lookups for the special hostname "localhost" are never routed to the network. (A few
           other, special domains are handled the same way.)

       ·   Single-label names are routed to all local interfaces capable of IP multicasting,
           using the LLMNR protocol. Lookups for IPv4 addresses are only sent via LLMNR on IPv4,
           and lookups for IPv6 addresses are only sent via LLMNR on IPv6. Lookups for the
           locally configured host name and the "gateway" host name are never routed to LLMNR.

       ·   Multi-label names are routed to all local interfaces that have a DNS sever configured,
           plus the globally configured DNS server if there is one. Address lookups from the
           link-local address range are never routed to DNS.

       If lookups are routed to multiple interfaces, the first successful response is returned
       (thus effectively merging the lookup zones on all matching interfaces). If the lookup
       failed on all interfaces, the last failing response is returned.

       Routing of lookups may be influenced by configuring per-interface domain names. See for details. Lookups for a hostname ending in one of the per-interface
       domains are exclusively routed to the matching interfaces.

       See the resolved D-Bus API Documentation[1] for information about the APIs
       systemd-resolved provides.


       Three modes of handling /etc/resolv.conf (see resolv.conf(5)) are supported:

       ·   A static file /usr/lib/systemd/resolv.conf is provided that lists the DNS
           stub (see above) as only DNS server. This file may be symlinked from /etc/resolv.conf
           in order to connect all local clients that bypass local DNS APIs to systemd-resolved.
           This mode of operation is recommended.

       ·   systemd-resolved maintains the /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf file for compatibility
           with traditional Linux programs. This file may be symlinked from /etc/resolv.conf and
           is always kept up-to-date, containing information about all known DNS servers. Note
           the file format's limitations: it does not know a concept of per-interface DNS servers
           and hence only contains system-wide DNS server definitions. Note that
           /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf should not be used directly by applications, but only
           through a symlink from /etc/resolv.conf. If this mode of operation is used local
           clients that bypass any local DNS API will also bypass systemd-resolved and will talk
           directly to the known DNS servers.

       ·   Alternatively, /etc/resolv.conf may be managed by other packages, in which case
           systemd-resolved will read it for DNS configuration data. In this mode of operation
           systemd-resolved is consumer rather than provider of this configuration file.

       Note that the selected mode of operation for this file is detected fully automatically,
       depending on whether /etc/resolv.conf is a symlink to /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf or
       lists as DNS server.


           Upon reception of the SIGUSR1 process signal systemd-resolved will dump the contents
           of all DNS resource record caches it maintains into the system logs.

           Upon reception of the SIGUSR2 process signal systemd-resolved will flush all caches it
           maintains. Note that it should normally not be necessary to request this explicitly –
           except for debugging purposes – as systemd-resolved flushes the caches automatically
           anyway any time the host's network configuration changes.


       systemd(1), resolved.conf(5), dnssec-trust-anchors.d(5), nss-resolve(8), systemd-
       resolve(1), resolv.conf(5), hosts(5),, systemd-networkd.service(8)


        1. API Documentation

        2. RFC3493