Provided by: borgbackup_1.1.5-1_amd64 bug


       borg-patterns - Details regarding patterns


       The  path/filenames used as input for the pattern matching start from the currently active
       recursion root. You usually give the recursion root(s) when invoking borg and these can be
       either relative or absolute paths.

       So,  when  you  give  relative/  as  root, the paths going into the matcher will look like
       relative/.../file.ext.  When  you  give  /absolute/  as  root,   they   will   look   like
       /absolute/.../file.ext. This is meant when we talk about "full path" below.

       File patterns support these styles: fnmatch, shell, regular expressions, path prefixes and
       path full-matches. By default, fnmatch is used for --exclude patterns and  shell-style  is
       used for the experimental --pattern option.

       If  followed  by  a  colon (':') the first two characters of a pattern are used as a style
       selector. Explicit style selection is necessary when a non-default  style  is  desired  or
       when the desired pattern starts with two alphanumeric characters followed by a colon (i.e.

       Fnmatch, selector fm:
              This is the default style for --exclude and --exclude-from.  These patterns  use  a
              variant  of  shell  pattern syntax, with '*' matching any number of characters, '?'
              matching any single character, '[...]' matching  any  single  character  specified,
              including  ranges,  and  '[!...]'  matching  any  character  not specified. For the
              purpose of these patterns, the path separator ('' for  Windows  and  '/'  on  other
              systems)  is  not treated specially. Wrap meta-characters in brackets for a literal
              match (i.e. [?] to match the literal character ?). For a path to match  a  pattern,
              the  full path must match, or it must match from the start of the full path to just
              before a path separator. Except for the root path, paths will never end in the path
              separator  when  matching  is  attempted.   Thus, if a given pattern ends in a path
              separator, a '*' is appended before matching is attempted.

       Shell-style patterns, selector sh:
              This is the default style for --pattern and --patterns-from.  Like fnmatch patterns
              these are similar to shell patterns. The difference is that the pattern may include
              **/ for matching zero or more  directory  levels,  *  for  matching  zero  or  more
              arbitrary characters with the exception of any path separator.

       Regular expressions, selector re:
              Regular  expressions  similar  to  those  found in Perl are supported. Unlike shell
              patterns regular expressions are not required  to  match  the  full  path  and  any
              substring match is sufficient. It is strongly recommended to anchor patterns to the
              start ('^'), to the end ('$') or both. Path separators ('' for Windows and  '/'  on
              other  systems)  in  paths  are  always  normalized to a forward slash ('/') before
              applying a pattern. The regular  expression  syntax  is  described  in  the  Python
              documentation for the re module.

       Path prefix, selector pp:
              This   pattern  style  is  useful  to  match  whole  sub-directories.  The  pattern
              pp:root/somedir matches root/somedir and everything therein.

       Path full-match, selector pf:
              This pattern style is (only) useful to match full paths.  This is kind of a  pseudo
              pattern  as  it can not have any variable or unspecified parts - the full path must
              be given.  pf:root/file.ext matches root/file.txt only.

              Implementation note: this is implemented via  very  time-efficient  O(1)  hashtable
              lookups  (this  means  you can have huge amounts of such patterns without impacting
              performance much).  Due to that, this kind of pattern does not respect any  context
              or  order.  If you use such a pattern to include a file, it will always be included
              (if the directory recursion encounters it).  Other  include/exclude  patterns  that
              would normally match will be ignored.  Same logic applies for exclude.

          re:,  sh:  and  fm: patterns are all implemented on top of the Python SRE engine. It is
          very easy to formulate patterns for each of these types which  requires  an  inordinate
          amount  of  time to match paths. If untrusted users are able to supply patterns, ensure
          they cannot supply re: patterns.  Further,  ensure  that  sh:  and  fm:  patterns  only
          contain a handful of wildcards at most.

       Exclusions  can  be  passed via the command line option --exclude. When used from within a
       shell the patterns should be quoted to protect them from expansion.

       The --exclude-from option permits loading exclusion patterns from a  text  file  with  one
       pattern  per  line.  Lines  empty  or  starting  with the number sign ('#') after removing
       whitespace on both ends are ignored. The optional style selector prefix is also  supported
       for  patterns  loaded  from a file. Due to whitespace removal paths with whitespace at the
       beginning or end can only be excluded using regular expressions.


          # Exclude '/home/user/file.o' but not '/home/user/file.odt':
          $ borg create -e '*.o' backup /

          # Exclude '/home/user/junk' and '/home/user/subdir/junk' but
          # not '/home/user/importantjunk' or '/etc/junk':
          $ borg create -e '/home/*/junk' backup /

          # Exclude the contents of '/home/user/cache' but not the directory itself:
          $ borg create -e /home/user/cache/ backup /

          # The file '/home/user/cache/important' is *not* backed up:
          $ borg create -e /home/user/cache/ backup / /home/user/cache/important

          # The contents of directories in '/home' are not backed up when their name
          # ends in '.tmp'
          $ borg create --exclude 're:^/home/[^/]+\.tmp/' backup /

          # Load exclusions from file
          $ cat >exclude.txt <<EOF
          # Comment line
          $ borg create --exclude-from exclude.txt backup /
       A more general and easier to use way to define filename matching patterns exists with  the
       experimental  --pattern  and  --patterns-from  options.  Using  these, you may specify the
       backup roots (starting points) and patterns for inclusion/exclusion.  A root  path  starts
       with  the prefix R, followed by a path (a plain path, not a file pattern). An include rule
       starts with the prefix +, an exclude rule starts with the prefix -,  an  exclude-norecurse
       rule  starts  with !, all followed by a pattern.  Inclusion patterns are useful to include
       paths that are contained in an excluded path. The first matching pattern is used so if  an
       include  pattern  matches  before  an  exclude  pattern,  the  file  is  backed  up. If an
       exclude-norecurse pattern matches a directory, it won't recurse into it and won't discover
       any potential matches for include rules below that directory.

       Note  that  the  default  pattern  style  for --pattern and --patterns-from is shell style
       (sh:), so those patterns behave similar to rsync  include/exclude  patterns.  The  pattern
       style can be set via the P prefix.

       Patterns  (--pattern)  and excludes (--exclude) from the command line are considered first
       (in the order of appearance). Then patterns  from  --patterns-from  are  added.  Exclusion
       patterns from --exclude-from files are appended last.


          # backup pics, but not the ones from 2018, except the good ones:
          # note: using = is essential to avoid cmdline argument parsing issues.
          borg create --pattern=+pics/2018/good --pattern=-pics/2018 repo::arch pics

          # use a file with patterns:
          borg create --patterns-from patterns.lst repo::arch

       The patterns.lst file could look like that:

          # "sh:" pattern style is the default, so the following line is not needed:
          P sh
          R /
          # can be rebuild
          - /home/*/.cache
          # they're downloads for a reason
          - /home/*/Downloads
          # susan is a nice person
          # include susans home
          + /home/susan
          # don't backup the other home directories
          - /home/*


       The Borg Collective

                                            2018-03-29                           BORG-PATTERNS(1)