Provided by: crasm_1.8-1build1_amd64 bug


       crasm - Cross assembler for 6800/6801/6803/6502/65C02/Z80


       crasm [-o codefile] [-slx] asmfile

       Assemble  the microprocessor program asmfile and produce output file codefile in Intel HEX
       or Motorola S Code format.  A program listing and a symbol table are also produced on  the
       standard  output.   The current version of crasm can assemble programs for the 6800, 6801,
       6803, 6502, 65C02, and Z80 processors.  The full list is printed  when  you  invoke  crasm
       without arguments.


       -o codefile
              Specify  the  name  of  the  output  file.  No output file is produced without this

       -s     Disable warnings.

       -l     Disable program listing output.

       -x     Disable symbol table output.


       Each line of the assembly program should follow one of the following templates, where  the
       brackets delimit optional parts.

              label = expression [;comment]
              [label] mnemonic operand [;comment]

       Comments  are introduced by a semicolon (;) and extend to the end of the line.  Labels are
       identifiers containing up to 36 alphanumeric characters (including period and underscore).
       Labels  cannot start with a digit.  The format of the mnemonics and operands field depends
       on the selected micro-processor.  A few mnemonics are valid for  all  processors  and  are
       used to give directives to the assembled.  These are known as "pseudo-mnemonics".

       Labels are identifiers representing
       — an absolute address,
       — a relative address (position independent code),
       — a register,
       — a list of registers,
       — a specific bit at a specific address,
       — or a mnemonic.

       Most  labels  are  composed  of  at  most  36  alphanumeric  characters,  periods  (.)  or
       underscores (_).  Labels cannot start with a digit.  They are case insensitive.

       Labels starting with a period (.)  are local labels whose scope is either limited  to  the
       macro  in which they are defined, or to the code segment delimited by the pseudo-mnemonics
       CODE or DUMMY.

       The predefined "star" label (*) represents the current program counter, that  is  to  say,
       the  address  where  the next assembly code instruction will be encoded.  Other predefined
       labels include all  pseudo-mnemonics,  micro-processor  specific  mnemonics  and  register

       The  assembled  recognizes  numerical  constants expressed in decimal, hexadecimal, octal,
       binary, or ascii.

                      │Type          Format   Examples                           │
                      │decimal       dddd     1234, 675, 12, 1, but not 0.12.    │
                      │hexadecimal   $dddd    $fd12, $2AC, $0.                   │
                      │              ddddH    03H, 2da7H, 0FC84H, but not FC84H. │
                      │              0Xdddd   0x03, 0x2AC, 0Xfc84.               │
                      │octal         ddddQ    377Q, 012412Q.                     │
                      │binary        %dddd    %01110110, %1100.                  │
                      │              ddddB    01110110B, 1100B.                  │
                      │              0Bdddd   0b1100                             │
                      │ascii         'cccc'   'a', 'AB', '"', '\n', '\''.        │
                      │              "cccc"   "\t", "\"", "a'b".                 │
       Like labels, expressions can represent an absolute address (abs), a relative  address  for
       position  independent code (rel), a register (reg), or a list of registers (reglist), or a
       reference to a specific bit at a specific address (bspec).

       The following operators are recognized on expressions.

                      │Syntax           Result    Description                     │
                      │ abs{abs}        bspec     bit reference, e.g. pia{3}      │
                      │ ADDR(abs)       abs       address from a bit reference    │
                      │ BIT(abs)        abs       bit number from a bit reference │
                      │ - abs           abs       two's complement                │
                      │ ~ abs           abs       one's complement                │
                      │ abs << abs      abs       left shift                      │
                      │ abs >> abs      abs       right shift                     │
                      │ abs | abs       abs       bitwise or                      │
                      │ abs & abs       abs       bitwise and                     │
                      │ abs ^ abs       abs       bitwise xor                     │
                      │ abs * abs       abs       multiplication                  │
                      │ abs * abs       abs       division                        │
                      │ abs + abs       abs       addition                        │
                      │ rel + abs       rel       addition                        │
                      │ abs - abs       abs       subtraction                     │
                      │ rel - abs       rel       subtraction                     │
                      │ rel - rel       abs       subtraction                     │
                      │ reg - reg       reglist   register range                  │
                      │ reglist \ reg   reglist   register list                   │
       The table lists operators in order of decreasing precedence.  Parenthesis can be  used  to
       avoid  ambiguities.   A  warning is generated when an entire expression is surrounded with
       parenthesis and can be confused with a micro-processor addressing mode.


               (base+$12) >> 8 & 0xff00

       The last example causes a warning because the parenthesis were  not  necessary  and  might
       suggest a micro-processor addressing mode.

       All  arithmetic  expressions  are  evaluated  on  32 bits.  Arithmetic operations overflow
       silently.  The arithmetic values are then truncated to the  size  implied  by  the  micro-
       processor mnemonic.  This truncation might cause a warning message.

       Examples: all the following instructions

              (6502)         lda #$1234
              (6800)         ldaa $1234,x
              (Z80)          ld (ix+0C2H),b

       cause a warning

              >>> WARNING: Operand overflow

       However expression

              $1123454 * 1298992

       overflows silently.

       The following pseudo-mnemonics are always recognized.

       CPU cpuname
              Indicates  the  selected  micro-processor type.  This must appear before anu micro-
              processor specific instruction.  The possible values of cpuname are listed when you
              invoke  crasm without arguments.  The current list includes 6800, 6801, 6803, 6502,
              65C02, and Z80

       OUTPUT binformat
              Indicates the format of the output file.  Argument binformat can take values  SCODE
              for  producing  an  output  file  using  Motorola's  S code, or HEX for Intel's Hex
              format.  The default depends on the selected micro-processor.

              Delimit the scope of local labels and introduce a program section.

       DUMMY  Delimit the scope of local labels and introduce a fake program section  whose  sole
              effect is to define labels without generating code.

       label EQU expression
       label = expression
              Define  the  value  of  label  label.  Labels defined using these directives can be
              redefined later in the program.

       [label] DB expression[,...,expression]
              Insert the specified data bytes (8 bits).

       [label] DW expression[,...,expression]
              Insert the specified data words (16  bits).   The  byte  ordering  depends  on  the
              selected micro-processor.

       [label] DL expression[,...,expression]
              Insert  the  specified  data  longs  (32  bits).   The byte ordering depends on the
              selected micro-processor.

       [label] DDB expression[,...,expression]
              Insert the specified double bytes (16 bits).  The byte ordering is the opposite  of
              the usual byte ordering for the selected micro-processor.

       [label] ASC stringconstant
              Insert  the ascii representation of the string stringconstant .  The string must be
              delimited by double quotes.  The C escape sequences \r, \n, \t, \0, \', \", and  \\
              are recognized.

       [label] DS countexpr,[valexpr]
              Insere countexpr bytes with value valexpr.        The default value is zero.

       [label] ALIGN EVEN
       [label] ALIGN ODD
              Insert a null byte in order to make the program counter even or odd.

       IF condexpr
              Conditional assembly: If expression condexpr is non zero, process the lines located
              between the IF and the ELSE pseudo-mnemonics.  Otherwise process the lines  located
              between  the ELSE and the ENDC pseudo-mnemonics.  Conditional assembly instructions
              can be nested. The ELSE part can be omitted.

       label MACRO
              Define a new mnemonic label equivalent to all the instructions located between  the
              MACRO  and  ENDM  pseudo-mnemonics.  Invocations of the macro can specify a list of
              comma separated operands.  The character sequences \1, \2,  ...  \N  in  the  macro
              definition  are  replaced  by  the supplied operands.  The character sequence \0 is
              replaced by the number of supplied operands.

              This pseudo mnemonic can be used inside a macro definition to exit the macro.  This
              is useful in conjunction with the conditional assembly pseudo-mnemonics.

       INCLUDE filename
              Force the assembler to process file named filename at the current point.

       LIST ON
       LIST OFF
              Enable or disable the production of a listing (default is on.)

       CLIST ON
       CLIST OFF
              Enable  or  disable  the  production  of a listing for the non active branches of a
              conditional assembly construct (default is on.)

       ILIST ON
       ILIST OFF
              Enable or disable the production of a listing for included files (default is off.)

       MLIST ON
       MLIST OFF
              Enable or disable the production of a listing for the macro expansions (default  is

       NAM title
              Provide name title for the header of the listing pages.

              Start a new listing page.

       PAGE columns,rows
              Specify the size of a listing page.

       SKIP number
              Skip number lines.

       FAIL message
              Generate an error message message.


       Here is a small 6502 program:

              cpu 6502
          cout = $fded ; display a character
             * = $300  ; assemble at $300
          pstring  ldy #0
          .1       lda message,y
                   beq .2
                   jsr cout
          .2       bne .1
          message  asc "This is the message "


       Leon Bottou, September 1987.