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       This  manual  page  is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of
       this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux  manual  page  for  details  of
       Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.


       csplit — split files based on context


       csplit [−ks] [−f prefix] [−n number] file arg...


       The  csplit  utility  shall  read the file named by the file operand, write all or part of
       that file into other files as directed by the arg operands, and write  the  sizes  of  the


       The  csplit  utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section
       12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       −f prefix Name the created files prefix00, prefix01, ..., prefixn.  The  default  is  xx00
                 ...   xxn.   If the prefix argument would create a filename exceeding {NAME_MAX}
                 bytes, an error shall result, csplit shall exit with a diagnostic  message,  and
                 no files shall be created.

       −k        Leave  previously  created files intact. By default, csplit shall remove created
                 files if an error occurs.

       −n number Use number decimal digits to form filenames for the  file  pieces.  The  default
                 shall be 2.

       −s        Suppress the output of file size messages.


       The following operands shall be supported:

       file      The  pathname  of  a  text  file to be split. If file is '−', the standard input
                 shall be used.

       Each arg operand can be one of the following:

                 A file shall be created using the content of the lines from the current line  up
                 to,  but not including, the line that results from the evaluation of the regular
                 expression with offset, if any,  applied.  The  regular  expression  rexp  shall
                 follow the rules for basic regular expressions described in the Base Definitions
                 volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 9.3, Basic Regular Expressions.  The application
                 shall use the sequence "\/" to specify a <slash> character within the rexp.  The
                 optional offset shall be a positive or negative  integer  value  representing  a
                 number  of  lines.  A  positive  integer  value  can be preceded by '+'.  If the
                 selection of lines from an offset expression of this type would  create  a  file
                 with  zero lines, or one with greater than the number of lines left in the input
                 file, the results are unspecified. After the section  is  created,  the  current
                 line  shall  be  set to the line that results from the evaluation of the regular
                 expression with any offset applied. If the current line is the first line in the
                 file  and a regular expression operation has not yet been performed, the pattern
                 match of rexp shall be applied from the current line to the  end  of  the  file.
                 Otherwise,  the  pattern  match of rexp shall be applied from the line following
                 the current line to the end of the file.

                 Equivalent to /rexp/[offset], except that no  file  shall  be  created  for  the
                 selected  section of the input file. The application shall use the sequence "\%"
                 to specify a <percent-sign> character within the rexp.

       line_no   Create a file from the current line up to (but not including)  the  line  number
                 line_no.   Lines in the file shall be numbered starting at one. The current line
                 becomes line_no.

       {num}     Repeat  operand.  This  operand  can  follow  any  of  the  operands   described
                 previously. If it follows a rexp type operand, that operand shall be applied num
                 more times. If it follows a line_no operand,  the  file  shall  be  split  every
                 line_no lines, num times, from that point.

       An  error  shall  be  reported if an operand does not reference a line between the current
       position and the end of the file.


       See the INPUT FILES section.


       The input file shall be a text file.


       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of csplit:

       LANG      Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
                 null.   (See   the   Base  Definitions  volume  of  POSIX.1‐2008,  Section  8.2,
                 Internationalization  Variables  for  the  precedence  of   internationalization
                 variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL    If  set  to  a  non-empty  string  value,  override  the values of all the other
                 internationalization variables.

                 Determine the locale for the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and multi-
                 character collating elements within regular expressions.

       LC_CTYPE  Determine  the  locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data
                 as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte  characters  in
                 arguments  and input files) and the behavior of character classes within regular

                 Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format  and  contents  of
                 diagnostic messages written to standard error.

       NLSPATH   Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.


       If  the  −k  option  is specified, created files shall be retained. Otherwise, the default
       action occurs.


       Unless the −s option is used, the standard output shall  consist  of  one  line  per  file
       created, with a format as follows:

           "%d\n", <file size in bytes>


       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.


       The output files shall contain portions of the original input file; otherwise, unchanged.




       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0    Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.


       By  default,  created  files  shall  be  removed if an error occurs. When the −k option is
       specified, created files shall not be removed if an error occurs.

       The following sections are informative.




        1. This example creates four files, cobol00 ...  cobol03:

               csplit −f cobol file '/procedure division/' /par5./ /par16./

           After editing the split files, they can be recombined as follows:

               cat cobol0[0−3] > file

           Note that this example overwrites the original file.

        2. This example would split the file after the  first  99  lines,  and  every  100  lines
           thereafter,  up  to  9999 lines; this is because lines in the file are numbered from 1
           rather than zero, for historical reasons:

               csplit −k file  100  {99}

        3. Assuming that prog.c follows the C-language coding convention of ending routines  with
           a  '}'  at  the  beginning  of  the  line, this example creates a file containing each
           separate C routine (up to 21) in prog.c:

               csplit −k prog.c '%main(%'  '/^}/+1' {20}


       The −n option was added to extend the range of filenames that could be handled.

       Consideration was given to adding a −a flag to use the alphabetic filename generation used
       by  the  historical split utility, but the functionality added by the −n option was deemed
       to make alphabetic naming unnecessary.




       sed, split

       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Chapter  8,  Environment  Variables,  Section
       9.3, Basic Regular Expressions, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines


       Portions  of  this  text  are  reprinted  and  reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  --  Portable  Operating  System
       Interface  (POSIX),  The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the
       Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc  and  The  Open  Group.   (This  is
       POSIX.1-2008  with  the  2013  Technical  Corrigendum  1  applied.)  In  the  event of any
       discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open  Group  Standard,  the
       original  IEEE  and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard
       can be obtained online at .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are most  likely  to  have
       been  introduced  during  the conversion of the source files to man page format. To report
       such errors, see .