Provided by: git-man_2.17.1-1ubuntu0.18_all bug


       git-http-backend - Server side implementation of Git over HTTP


       git http-backend


       A simple CGI program to serve the contents of a Git repository to Git clients accessing
       the repository over http:// and https:// protocols. The program supports clients fetching
       using both the smart HTTP protocol and the backwards-compatible dumb HTTP protocol, as
       well as clients pushing using the smart HTTP protocol.

       It verifies that the directory has the magic file "git-daemon-export-ok", and it will
       refuse to export any Git directory that hasn’t explicitly been marked for export this way
       (unless the GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable is set).

       By default, only the upload-pack service is enabled, which serves git fetch-pack and git
       ls-remote clients, which are invoked from git fetch, git pull, and git clone. If the
       client is authenticated, the receive-pack service is enabled, which serves git send-pack
       clients, which is invoked from git push.


       These services can be enabled/disabled using the per-repository configuration file:

           This serves Git clients older than version 1.6.6 that are unable to use the upload
           pack service. When enabled, clients are able to read any file within the repository,
           including objects that are no longer reachable from a branch but are still present. It
           is enabled by default, but a repository can disable it by setting this configuration
           item to false.

           This serves git fetch-pack and git ls-remote clients. It is enabled by default, but a
           repository can disable it by setting this configuration item to false.

           This serves git send-pack clients, allowing push. It is disabled by default for
           anonymous users, and enabled by default for users authenticated by the web server. It
           can be disabled by setting this item to false, or enabled for all users, including
           anonymous users, by setting it to true.


       To determine the location of the repository on disk, git http-backend concatenates the
       environment variables PATH_INFO, which is set automatically by the web server, and
       GIT_PROJECT_ROOT, which must be set manually in the web server configuration. If
       GIT_PROJECT_ROOT is not set, git http-backend reads PATH_TRANSLATED, which is also set
       automatically by the web server.


       All of the following examples map http://$hostname/git/foo/bar.git to

       Apache 2.x
           Ensure mod_cgi, mod_alias, and mod_env are enabled, set GIT_PROJECT_ROOT (or
           DocumentRoot) appropriately, and create a ScriptAlias to the CGI:

               SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git
               SetEnv GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL
               ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/

           To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access, require authorization
           for both the initial ref advertisement (which we detect as a push via the service
           parameter in the query string), and the receive-pack invocation itself:

               RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} service=git-receive-pack [OR]
               RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /git-receive-pack$
               RewriteRule ^/git/ - [E=AUTHREQUIRED:yes]

               <LocationMatch "^/git/">
                       Order Deny,Allow
                       Deny from env=AUTHREQUIRED

                       AuthType Basic
                       AuthName "Git Access"
                       Require group committers
                       Satisfy Any

           If you do not have mod_rewrite available to match against the query string, it is
           sufficient to just protect git-receive-pack itself, like:

               <LocationMatch "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$">
                       AuthType Basic
                       AuthName "Git Access"
                       Require group committers

           In this mode, the server will not request authentication until the client actually
           starts the object negotiation phase of the push, rather than during the initial
           contact. For this reason, you must also enable the http.receivepack config option in
           any repositories that should accept a push. The default behavior, if http.receivepack
           is not set, is to reject any pushes by unauthenticated users; the initial request will
           therefore report 403 Forbidden to the client, without even giving an opportunity for

           To require authentication for both reads and writes, use a Location directive around
           the repository, or one of its parent directories:

               <Location /git/private>
                       AuthType Basic
                       AuthName "Private Git Access"
                       Require group committers

           To serve gitweb at the same url, use a ScriptAliasMatch to only those URLs that git
           http-backend can handle, and forward the rest to gitweb:

               ScriptAliasMatch \
                       "(?x)^/git/(.*/(HEAD | \
                                       info/refs | \
                                       objects/(info/[^/]+ | \
                                                [0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38} | \
                                                pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}\.(pack|idx)) | \
                                       git-(upload|receive)-pack))$" \

               ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/

           To serve multiple repositories from different gitnamespaces(7) in a single repository:

               SetEnvIf Request_URI "^/git/([^/]*)" GIT_NAMESPACE=$1
               ScriptAliasMatch ^/git/[^/]*(.*) /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/storage.git$1

       Accelerated static Apache 2.x
           Similar to the above, but Apache can be used to return static files that are stored on
           disk. On many systems this may be more efficient as Apache can ask the kernel to copy
           the file contents from the file system directly to the network:

               SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git

               AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/[0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38})$          /var/www/git/$1
               AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}.(pack|idx))$ /var/www/git/$1
               ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/

           This can be combined with the gitweb configuration:

               SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git

               AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/[0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38})$          /var/www/git/$1
               AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}.(pack|idx))$ /var/www/git/$1
               ScriptAliasMatch \
                       "(?x)^/git/(.*/(HEAD | \
                                       info/refs | \
                                       objects/info/[^/]+ | \
                                       git-(upload|receive)-pack))$" \
               ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/

           Ensure that mod_cgi, mod_alias, mod_auth, mod_setenv are loaded, then set
           GIT_PROJECT_ROOT appropriately and redirect all requests to the CGI:

               alias.url += ( "/git" => "/usr/lib/git-core/git-http-backend" )
               $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git" {
                       cgi.assign = ("" => "")
                       setenv.add-environment = (
                               "GIT_PROJECT_ROOT" => "/var/www/git",
                               "GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL" => ""

           To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access:

               $HTTP["querystring"] =~ "service=git-receive-pack" {
                       include "git-auth.conf"
               $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$" {
                       include "git-auth.conf"

           where git-auth.conf looks something like:

               auth.require = (
                       "/" => (
                               "method" => "basic",
                               "realm" => "Git Access",
                               "require" => "valid-user"
               # ...and set up auth.backend here

           To require authentication for both reads and writes:

               $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git/private" {
                       include "git-auth.conf"


       git http-backend relies upon the CGI environment variables set by the invoking web server,

       •   PATH_INFO (if GIT_PROJECT_ROOT is set, otherwise PATH_TRANSLATED)

       •   REMOTE_USER

       •   REMOTE_ADDR

       •   CONTENT_TYPE

       •   QUERY_STRING


       The GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable may be passed to git-http-backend to bypass
       the check for the "git-daemon-export-ok" file in each repository before allowing export of
       that repository.

       The GIT_HTTP_MAX_REQUEST_BUFFER environment variable (or the http.maxRequestBuffer config
       variable) may be set to change the largest ref negotiation request that git will handle
       during a fetch; any fetch requiring a larger buffer will not succeed. This value should
       not normally need to be changed, but may be helpful if you are fetching from a repository
       with an extremely large number of refs. The value can be specified with a unit (e.g., 100M
       for 100 megabytes). The default is 10 megabytes.

       The backend process sets GIT_COMMITTER_NAME to $REMOTE_USER and GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL to
       ${REMOTE_USER}@http.${REMOTE_ADDR}, ensuring that any reflogs created by git-receive-pack
       contain some identifying information of the remote user who performed the push.

       All CGI environment variables are available to each of the hooks invoked by the


       Part of the git(1) suite