Provided by: screen_4.6.2-1ubuntu1.1_amd64 bug


       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation


       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]


       Screen  is  a  full-screen  window  manager  that  multiplexes a physical terminal between
       several processes (typically interactive shells).   Each  virtual  terminal  provides  the
       functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in addition, several control functions from the ISO
       6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple  character sets).  There is a scrollback history buffer for each virtual terminal
       and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a shell in  it  (or  the  specified
       command)  and  then  gets  out of your way so that you can use the program as you normally
       would.  Then, at any time, you can create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in
       them  (including  more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn output
       logging on and off, copy-and-paste text between  windows,  view  the  scrollback  history,
       switch  between  windows  in whatever manner you wish, etc. All windows run their programs
       completely independent of each other. Programs  continue  to  run  when  their  window  is
       currently  not  visible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per default) kills the window that contained
       it.  If this window was in the foreground, the display switches to the previous window; if
       none are left, screen exits. Shells usually distinguish between running as login-shell  or
       sub-shell.   Screen  runs them as sub-shells, unless told otherwise (See "shell" .screenrc

       Everything you type is sent to the program  running  in  the  current  window.   The  only
       exception  to  this  is the one keystroke that is used to initiate a command to the window
       manager.  By default, each command begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now  on),
       and  is  followed  by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always two characters  in

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control, although this notation is used
       in this manual for readability.  Please use the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a")  as
       arguments to e.g. the escape command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This  creates  a  new  window
       running  a  shell  and switches to that window immediately, regardless of the state of the
       process running in the current window.  Similarly, you can create  a  new  window  with  a
       custom  command  in it by first binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc file
       or at the "C-a :" command line) and then using it just  like  the  "C-a  c"  command.   In
       addition, new windows can be created by running a command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will not run another copy of
       screen, but will instead supply the command name and its arguments to the  window  manager
       (specified  in  the  $STY  environment variable) who will use it to create the new window.
       The above example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its  window.
       -  Note  that  you  cannot  transport environment variables from the invoking shell to the
       application (emacs in this case), because it is forked from the parent screen process, not
       from the invoking shell.

       If  "/run/utmp"  is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be written to this file
       for each window, and removed when the window is terminated.  This is  useful  for  working
       with "talk", "script", "shutdown", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs that use the
       utmp file to determine who you are. As long as screen is  active  on  your  terminal,  the
       terminal's own record is removed from the utmp file. See also "C-a L".


       Before  you  begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have correctly selected your
       terminal type, just as you would for any other termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this
       by using tset for example.)

       If  you're  impatient and want to get started without doing a lot more reading, you should
       remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing these two characters will display a  list  of
       the  available  screen  commands  and  their  bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the
       section "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If  your  terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the last position on
       the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen) consider using a  version  of  your
       terminal's termcap that has automatic margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and
       optimal update of the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals  nowadays  have  "magic"
       margins  (automatic  margins  plus  usable  last column). This is the VT100 style type and
       perfectly suited for screen.  If all you've got is a "true"  auto-margin  terminal  screen
       will  be  content  to  use  it, but updating a character put into the last position on the
       screen may not be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a  safe
       position  in  some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a terminal with insert-
       character capability.


       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each window's termcap,  even
            if screen must redraw parts of the display in order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the  sizes  of  all  windows to the size of the current terminal.  By default,
            screen tries to restore its old window sizes when attaching  to  resizable  terminals
            (those with "WS" in its description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to file.

       -d|-D []
            does  not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen session. It has the
            same effect as  typing  "C-a  d"  from  screen's  controlling  terminal.  -D  is  the
            equivalent  to  the  power detach key.  If no session can be detached, this option is
            ignored. In combination with the -r/-R option more powerful effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even create it first.

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or create it. Use the first session  if
               more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout remotely first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is running, then reattach.
               If necessary detach and logout remotely first.  If it was not  running  create  it
               and notify the user. This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note:  It  is  always  a  good  idea to check the status of your sessions by means of
            "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be  x  and  the  character  generating  a  literal
            command  character to y (when typed after the command character).  The default is "C-
            a" and `a', which can be specified as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session,  this
            option  sets  the  default  command character. In a multiuser session all users added
            will start off with this command character. But when attaching to an already  running
            session,  this option changes only the command character of the attaching user.  This
            option is equivalent to either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This can also be  defined
            through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the display immediately when
            flow-control is on.  See the "defflow" .screenrc command for  details.   The  use  of
            this option is discouraged.

       -l and -ln
            turns  login  mode  on  or  off  (for  /run/utmp updating).  This can also be defined
            through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does not start screen, but  prints  a  list  of  strings  and  creation
            timestamps  identifying  your  screen  sessions.   Sessions  marked `detached' can be
            resumed with "screen -r". Those marked `attached' are running and have a  controlling
            terminal.  If  the  session  runs  in  multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked as  `unreachable'  either  live  on  a  different  host  or  are  `dead'.   An
            unreachable  session is considered dead, when its name matches either the name of the
            local host, or the specified parameter, if any.  See the -r flag  for  a  description
            how to construct matches.  Sessions marked as `dead' should be thoroughly checked and
            removed.  Ask your system administrator if you are not sure. Remove sessions with the
            -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -Logfile file
            By  default  logfile  name  is  "screenlog.0".  You can set new logfile name with the
            "-Logfile" option.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the $STY environment variable. With "screen -m" creation of a
            new  session  is  enforced,  regardless  whether screen is called from within another
            screen session or not. This flag has a special meaning in connection  with  the  `-d'

       -d -m   Start  screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but doesn't attach to
               it. This is useful for system startup scripts.

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork a  new  process.  The
               command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects a more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than true VT100 emulation
            (only affects auto-margin terminals without `LP').  This can  also  be  set  in  your
            .screenrc by specifying `OP' in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect  a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to a specific window or
            you want to send a command via the "-X" option to a specific window. As with screen's
            select  command,  "-"  selects  the blank window. As a special case for reattach, "="
            brings up the windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a  new  window.
            The command will not be executed if the specified window could not be found.

       -q   Suppress  printing  of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the exit value is as
            follows: 9 indicates a directory without sessions.  10  indicates  a  directory  with
            running  but  not  attachable  sessions.  11  (or  more) indicates 1 (or more) usable
            sessions.  In combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows: 10  indicates  that
            there  is  no  session  to  resume. 12 (or more) indicates that there are 2 (or more)
            sessions to resume and you should specify which one to choose.  In  all  other  cases
            "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some  commands now can be queried from a remote session using this flag, e.g. "screen
            -Q windows". The commands will send the  response  to  the  stdout  of  the  querying
            process.  If  there  was an error in the command, then the querying process will exit
            with a non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes a detached screen session.  No other options (except combinations with -d/-D)
            may  be  specified,  though  an  optional  prefix  of [pid.] may be needed to
            distinguish between multiple detached screen sessions.  The second form  is  used  to
            connect to another user's screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This indicates
            that screen should look for sessions  in  another  user's  directory.  This  requires

       -R   resumes  screen only when it's unambiguous which one to attach, usually when only one
            screen is detached. Otherwise lists available sessions.  -RR attempts to  resume  the
            youngest  (in  terms  of  creation  time)  detached  screen  session  it  finds.   If
            successful, all other command-line options  are  ignored.   If  no  detached  session
            exists,  starts a new session using the specified options, just as if -R had not been
            specified. The option is set by default if screen is run as a  login-shell  (actually
            screen  uses "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option see there.
            Note: Time-based session selection is a Debian addition.

       -s program
            sets the default shell to  the  program  specified,  instead  of  the  value  in  the
            environment  variable $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not defined).  This can also be defined
            through the "shell" .screenrc command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a meaningful name for
            the  session.  This  name  identifies  the session for "screen -list" and "screen -r"
            actions. It substitutes the default [] suffix.

       -t name
            sets the title (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified  program.   See  also  the
            "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment variable using the specified term as opposed to the default
            setting of screen.

       -U   Run screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells  screen  that  your  terminal  sends  and
            understands  UTF-8  encoded  characters.  It  also  sets the default encoding for new
            windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed sessions instead of marking them
            as  `dead'.   An unreachable session is considered dead, when its name matches either
            the name of the local host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.   See  the  -r
            flag for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach  to  a  not  detached screen session. (Multi display mode).  Screen refuses to
            attach from within itself.  But  when  cascading  multiple  screens,  loops  are  not
            detected; take care.

       -X   Send  the specified command to a running screen session. You may use the -S option to
            specify the screen session if you have several screen sessions running. You  can  use
            the  -d  or  -r  option  to  tell screen to look only for attached or detached screen
            sessions. Note that this command doesn't work if the session is password protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.


       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one  other  character.
       For  your convenience, all commands that are bound to lower-case letters are also bound to
       their control character counterparts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-
       a  c" as well as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZATION" for
       a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings. The trailiing  commas  in  boxes  with
       multiple keystroke entries are separators, not part of the bindings.

       │C-a '            │ (select)        │ Prompt for a window name │
       │                 │                 │ or number to switch to.  │
       │C-a "            │ (windowlist -b) │ Present a  list  of  all │
       │                 │                 │ windows for selection.   │
       │C-a digit        │ (select 0-9)    │ Switch  to window number │
       │                 │                 │ 0 - 9                    │
       │C-a -            │ (select -)      │ Switch to window  number │
       │                 │                 │ 0  -  9, or to the blank │
       │                 │                 │ window.                  │
       │C-a tab          │ (focus)         │ Switch the  input  focus │
       │                 │                 │ to the next region.  See │
       │                 │                 │ also   split,    remove, │
       │                 │                 │ only.                    │
       │C-a C-a          │ (other)         │ Toggle   to  the  window │
       │                 │                 │ displayed    previously. │
       │                 │                 │ Note  that  this binding │
       │                 │                 │ defaults to the  command │
       │                 │                 │ character  typed  twice, │
       │                 │                 │ unless overridden.   For │
       │                 │                 │ instance, if you use the │
       │                 │                 │ option   "-e]x",    this │
       │                 │                 │ command becomes "]]".    │
       │C-a a            │ (meta)          │ Send     the     command │
       │                 │                 │ character    (C-a)    to │
       │                 │                 │ window.    See    escape │
       │                 │                 │ command.                 │
       │C-a A            │ (title)         │ Allow the user to  enter │
       │                 │                 │ a  name  for the current │
       │                 │                 │ window.                  │
       │C-a b,           │ (break)         │ Send a break to window.  │
       │C-a C-b          │                 │                          │
       │C-a B            │ (pow_break)     │ Reopen the terminal line │
       │                 │                 │ and send a break.        │
       │C-a c,           │ (screen)        │ Create a new window with │
       │C-a C-c          │                 │ a shell  and  switch  to │
       │                 │                 │ that window.             │
       │C-a C            │ (clear)         │ Clear the screen.        │
       │C-a d,           │ (detach)        │ Detach  screen from this │
       │C-a C-d          │                 │ terminal.                │
       │C-a D D          │ (pow_detach)    │ Detach and logout.       │
       │C-a f,           │ (flow)          │ Toggle flow on,  off  or │
       │C-a C-f          │                 │ auto.                    │
       │C-a F            │ (fit)           │ Resize the window to the │
       │                 │                 │ current region size.     │
       │C-a C-g          │ (vbell)         │ Toggles screen's  visual │
       │                 │                 │ bell mode.               │
       │C-a h            │ (hardcopy)      │ Write  a hardcopy of the │
       │                 │                 │ current  window  to  the │
       │                 │                 │ file "hardcopy.n".       │
       │C-a H            │ (log)           │ Begins/ends  logging  of │
       │                 │                 │ the  current  window  to │
       │                 │                 │ the file "screenlog.n".  │
       │C-a i,           │ (info)          │ Show   info  about  this │
       │C-a C-i          │                 │ window.                  │
       │C-a k,           │ (kill)          │ Destroy current window.  │
       │C-a C-k          │                 │                          │
       │C-a l,           │ (redisplay)     │ Fully  refresh   current │
       │C-a C-l          │                 │ window.                  │
       │C-a L            │ (login)         │ Toggle    this   windows │
       │                 │                 │ login  slot.   Available │
       │                 │                 │ only    if   screen   is │
       │                 │                 │ configured to update the │
       │                 │                 │ utmp  database.   T{ C-a │
       │                 │                 │ m,                       │
       │                 │                 │ C-a C-m                  │
       │C-a M            │ (monitor)       │ Toggles  monitoring   of │
       │                 │                 │ the current window.      │
       │C-a space,       │ (next)          │ Switch   to   the   next │
       │C-a n,           │                 │ window.                  │
       │C-a C-n          │                 │                          │
       │C-a N            │ (number)        │ Show  the  number   (and │
       │                 │                 │ title)  of  the  current │
       │                 │                 │ window.                  │
       │C-a backspace,   │ (prev)          │ Switch to  the  previous │
       │C-a C-h,         │                 │ window  (opposite of C-a │
       │C-a p,           │                 │ n).                      │
       │C-a C-p          │                 │                          │
       │C-a q,           │ (xon)           │ Send a control-q to  the │
       │C-a C-q          │                 │ current window.          │
       │C-a Q            │ (only)          │ Delete  all  regions but │
       │                 │                 │ the  current  one.   See │
       │                 │                 │ also    split,   remove, │
       │                 │                 │ focus.                   │
       │C-a r,           │ (wrap)          │ Toggle    the    current │
       │C-a C-r          │                 │ window's       line-wrap │
       │                 │                 │ setting    (turn     the │
       │                 │                 │ current         window's │
       │                 │                 │ automatic margins on and │
       │                 │                 │ off).                    │
       │C-a s,           │ (xoff)          │ Send  a control-s to the │
       │C-a C-s;         │                 │ current window.          │
       │C-a S            │ (split)         │ Split the current region │
       │                 │                 │ horizontally   into  two │
       │                 │                 │ new  ones.    See   also │
       │                 │                 │ only, remove, focus.     │
       │C-a t,           │ (time)          │ Show system information. │
       │C-a C-t          │                 │                          │
       │C-a v            │ (version)       │ Display  the version and │
       │                 │                 │ compilation date.        │
       │C-a C-v          │ (digraph)       │ Enter digraph.           │
       │C-a w,           │ (windows)       │ Show a list of window.   │
       │C-a C-w          │                 │                          │
       │C-a W            │ (width)         │ Toggle 80/132 columns.   │
       │C-a x or C-a C-x │ (lockscreen)    │ Lock this terminal.      │
       │C-a X            │ (remove)        │ Kill the current region. │
       │                 │                 │ See  also  split,  only, │
       │                 │                 │ focus.                   │
       │C-a z,           │ (suspend)       │ Suspend  screen.    Your │
       │C-a C-z          │                 │ system must support BSD- │
       │                 │                 │ style job-control.       │
       │C-a Z            │ (reset)         │ Reset    the     virtual │
       │                 │                 │ terminal  to its "power- │
       │                 │                 │ on" values.              │
       │C-a .            │ (dumptermcap)   │ Write out  a  ".termcap" │
       │                 │                 │ file.                    │
       │C-a ?            │ (help)          │ Show key bindings.       │
       │C-a \            │ (quit)          │ Kill   all  windows  and │
       │                 │                 │ terminate screen.        │
       │C-a :            │ (colon)         │ Enter command line mode. │
       │C-a [,           │ (copy)          │ Enter    copy/scrollback │
       │C-a C-[,         │                 │ mode.                    │
       │C-a esc          │                 │                          │
       │C-a C-],         │ (paste .)       │ Write  the  contents  of │
       │C-a ]            │                 │ the paste buffer to  the │
       │                 │                 │ stdin   queue   of   the │
       │                 │                 │ current window.          │
       │C-a {,           │ (history)       │ Copy   and    paste    a │
       │C-a }            │                 │ previous (command) line. │
       │C-a >            │ (writebuf)      │ Write  paste buffer to a │
       │                 │                 │ file.                    │
       │C-a <            │ (readbuf)       │ Reads    the     screen- │
       │                 │                 │ exchange  file  into the │
       │                 │                 │ paste buffer.            │
       │C-a =            │ (removebuf)     │ Removes the file used by │
       │                 │                 │ C-a < and C-a >.         │
       │C-a ,            │ (license)       │ Shows where screen comes │
       │                 │                 │ from, where it  went  to │
       │                 │                 │ and why you can use it.  │
       │C-a _            │ (silence)       │ Start/stop    monitoring │
       │                 │                 │ the current  window  for │
       │                 │                 │ inactivity.              │
       │C-a |            │ (split -v)      │ Split the current region │
       │                 │                 │ vertically into two  new │
       │                 │                 │ ones.                    │
       │C-a *            │ (displays)      │ Show  a  listing  of all │
       │                 │                 │ currently       attached │
       │                 │                 │ displays.                │


       The  "socket  directory"  defaults  either  to  $HOME/.screen or simply to /tmp/screens or
       preferably to /run/screen chosen at compile-time. If screen is installed setuid-root, then
       the  administrator  should  compile  screen  with  an  adequate  (not  NFS mounted) socket
       directory. If screen is not running  setuid-root,  the  user  can  specify  any  mode  700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization commands from the files "/etc/screenrc"
       and ".screenrc" in the user's home directory. These are the "programmer's  defaults"  that
       can  be overridden in the following ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches for
       the environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature may be disabled  at  compile-
       time).  The  user  specific  screenrc file is searched in $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.
       The command line option -c takes precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands in these files  are  used  to  set  options,  bind  functions  to  keys,  and  to
       automatically  establish  one  or  more  windows  at the beginning of your screen session.
       Commands are listed one per line, with empty lines being ignored.  A  command's  arguments
       are  separated by tabs or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#'
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in  quotes.   Unintelligible  lines  are
       warned  about  and ignored.  Commands may contain references to environment variables. The
       syntax is the shell-like "$VAR " or "${VAR}". Note that this causes  incompatibility  with
       previous  screen  versions,  as  now  the '$'-character has to be protected with '\' if no
       variable substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is also protected from
       variable substitution.

       Two   configuration   files  are  shipped  as  examples  with  your  screen  distribution:
       "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number of useful examples for various

       Customization  can  also  be  done 'on-line'. To enter the command mode type `C-a :'. Note
       that commands starting with "def" change  default  values,  while  others  change  current

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]

       addacl usernames

       Enable  users  to  fully  access this screen session. Usernames can be one user or a comma
       separated list of users. This command enables to attach to the screen session and performs
       the  equivalent  of `aclchg usernames +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user with restricted
       access, use the `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter is  supplied,  it
       should  be  a  crypted  password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a synonym to `acladd'.
       Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list

       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits are represented as
       `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permission, `-' removes it. The third parameter
       is a comma separated list of commands  and/or  windows  (specified  either  by  number  or
       title).  The  special  list  `#'  refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if usernames
       consists of a single `*', all known users are affected.

       A command can be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The user can  type  input
       to  a  window  when  he has its `w' bit set and no other user obtains a writelock for this
       window.  Other bits are currently ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from another user in
       window  2:  `aclchg  username  -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access to the session: `aclchg
       username -w "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known to screen he can attach to the session
       and  (per  default) has full permissions for all command and windows. Execution permission
       for the acl commands, `at' and others should also be removed or the user may  be  able  to
       regain write permission.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the
       "su" command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently  attached,  all  the  user's
       displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates  groups  of  users  that  share common access rights. The name of the group is the
       username of the group leader. Each member of the group inherits the permissions  that  are
       granted to the group leader. That means, if a user fails an access check, another check is
       made for the group leader.  A user is removed from all groups the special value "none"  is
       used  for  groupname.   If  the  second parameter is omitted all groups the user is in are

       aclumask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       umask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be created by  the  caller
       of  the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma separated list of known usernames. If no
       users are specified, a list of  all  currently  known  users  is  assumed.   Bits  is  any
       combination  of access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The special
       username "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will be granted to any  window
       initially.   The  special username "??" predefines the access that not yet known users are
       granted to any command.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the
       "su" command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window that is being monitored, screen displays a
       notification in the message line.  The notification message can be re-defined by means  of
       the  "activity"  command.   Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of
       the window in which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by  the
       definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                        'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that  monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can be altered by use of the
       "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on window  change.   This  affects
       all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal lines. The previous setting of full/partial
       refresh for each window is restored with "allpartial off".  This is  a  global  flag  that
       immediately  takes  effect  on  all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It does not
       change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If set to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual  terminals,  just  like  in
       xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args  ]

       Execute  a  command  at  other  displays or windows as if it had been entered there.  "At"
       changes the context (the `current window' or `current display' setting) of the command. If
       the  first parameter describes a non-unique context, the command will be executed multiple
       times. If the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then  identifier  is  matched
       against  user  names.   The  command  is  executed  once  for each display of the selected
       user(s). If the first parameter is of the form `identifier%' identifier is matched against
       displays.  Displays are named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'
       may be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or  nothing  appended  it  is
       matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an identifier in front of the `#', `*'
       or `%'-character selects  all  users,  displays  or  windows  because  a  prefix-match  is
       performed.  Note  that  on  the  affected  display(s)  a  short message will describe what
       happened. Permission is checked for initiator of the "at" command, not for the  owners  of
       the  affected  display(s).  Note that the '#' character works as a comment introducer when
       it is preceded by whitespace. This can be escaped  by  prefixing  a  '\'.   Permission  is
       checked  for  the  initiator  of  the  "at"  command,  not  for the owners of the affected

       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least once  per  window.
       Commands  that  change  the  internal  arrangement of windows (like "other") may be called
       again. In shared windows the command will be repeated for each attached  display.  Beware,
       when  issuing toggle commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require that a
       display is associated with the target windows.  These  commands  may  not  work  correctly
       under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color of the text. If the
       attribute attrib is in use, the specified attribute/color modifier is also applied. If  no
       modifier  is  given,  the current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the
       syntax of the modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes,  "i"  stands  for  high-
       intensity foreground color and "I" for high-intensity background color.


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators do this already.

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets  whether  screen  will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves all your running
       programs until they are resumed with a screen -r  command.   When  turned  off,  a  hangup
       signal  will  terminate  screen  and  all  the  processes it contains. Autodetach is on by

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that has not been  written
       to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args…

       backtick id

       Program  the  backtick  command with the numerical id id.  The output of such a command is
       used for substitution of the "%`" string escape. The specified lifespan is the  number  of
       seconds  the  output  is  considered valid. After this time, the command is run again if a
       corresponding string  escape  is  encountered.   The  autorefresh  parameter  triggers  an
       automatic  refresh  for  caption  and  hardstatus  strings  after  the specified number of
       seconds. Only the last line of output is used for substitution.

       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are  zero,  the  backtick  program  is
       expected to stay in the background and generate output once in a while.  In this case, the
       command is executed right away and screen stores the last line of output. If  a  new  line
       gets printed screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.

       The second form of the command deletes the backtick command with the numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all characters cleared by an
       erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will be displayed in  the  current  background  color.
       Otherwise the default background color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When  a  bell  character is sent to a background window, screen displays a notification in
       the message line.  The notification message can  be  re-defined  by  this  command.   Each
       occurrence  of  `%' in message is replaced by the number of the window to which a bell has
       been sent, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the  definition  for  bell  in  your
       termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                               'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress output of a message
       line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       bind [class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by screen are bound to
       one  or  more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section, e.g. the command to
       create a new window is bound to "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be used to redefine
       the  key  bindings  and  to  define  new  bindings.   The  key argument is either a single
       character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed
       by  an  octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or a backslash followed
       by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The argument can  also  be  quoted,  if  you
       like.  If no further argument is given, any previously established binding for this key is
       removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in this section.

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound  for  the  specified
       class.  Use  the  "command"  command  to  activate a class. Command classes can be used to
       create multiple command keys or multi-character bindings.

       Some examples:

                        bind ' ' windows
                        bind ^k
                        bind k
                        bind K kill
                        bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                        bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a  list  of  windows  (so  that  the
       command  usually  invoked  by  "C-a C-w" would also be available as "C-a space"). The next
       three lines remove the default kill binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K"  is  then
       bound  to  the  kill  command.  Then it binds "C-f" to the command "create a window with a
       TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape" to the command that creates  an  non-login
       window  with  a.k.a.  "root" in slot #9, with a superuser shell and a scrollback buffer of
       1000 lines.

                        bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                        bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                        bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                        bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                        bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                        bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                        bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                        bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd-args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry in one of  the  tables
       tells  screen  how  to react if a certain sequence of characters is encountered. There are
       three tables: one that should contain actions programmed by the user, one for the  default
       actions  used for terminal emulation and one for screen's copy mode to do cursor movement.
       See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a list of default key bindings.

       If the -d option is given, bindkey modifies the default table, -m changes  the  copy  mode
       table  and  with  neither  option  the user table is selected.  The argument string is the
       sequence of characters to which an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a
       termcap keyboard capability name (selectable with the -k option).

       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if application mode is turned on
       (e.g the cursor keys).  Such keys have two entries  in  the  translation  table.  You  can
       select the application mode entry by specifying the -a option.

       The  -t  option  tells  screen  not  to do inter-character timing. One cannot turn off the
       timing if a termcap capability is used.

       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.  If cmd  is  omitted
       the key-binding is removed from the table.

       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make  "foo"  an  abbreviation  of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so that users can
       type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This key-binding makes "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If  you  did  the  above
       "stuff  barfoo"  binding,  you  can enter the word "foo" by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to
       insert a "^T" you have to press the key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).


       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-Posix  systems  the
       time  interval  may  be  rounded up to full seconds.  Most useful if a character device is
       attached to the window rather than a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").  The
       maximum duration of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate  the  screen  blanker.  First  the  screen  is  cleared. If no blanker program is
       defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is started and  it's  output  is
       written to the screen.  The screen blanker is killed with the first keypress, the read key
       is discarded.

       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program-args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if an  empty  argument  is  given.
       Shows the currently set blanker program if no arguments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the  available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices.
       This command should affect the current window only.  But it  still  behaves  identical  to
       "defbreaktype". This will be changed in the future.  Calling "breaktype" with no parameter
       displays the break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.  If  the  optional
       argument    to    the    "bufferfile"    command   is   omitted,   the   default   setting
       ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following example will  paste  the  system's
       password file into the screen window (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                        C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                        C-a < C-a ]
                        C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells screen to treat the input characters between 128
       and 159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit code is normally the same as ESC followed  by
       the  corresponding  7-bit  code.  The  default  setting  is to process c1 codes and can be
       changed with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters in the  c1
       positions may want to turn this off.

       caption [ top | bottom ] always|splitonly[string]

       caption string [string]

       This  command controls the display of the window captions. Normally a caption is only used
       if more than one window is shown on the display (split screen mode). But if  the  type  is
       set  to always screen shows a caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all  escapes  from  the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       You can have the caption displayed either at the top or bottom of the window.  The default
       is bottom.

       charset set

       Change the current character set slot designation and charset  mapping.   The  first  four
       character  of  set  are treated as charset designators while the fifth and sixth character
       must be in range '0' to '3' and set the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may
       be  used  to indicate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed (set is
       padded to six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New windows have "BBBB02" as
       default charset, unless a "encoding" command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified directory or, if called without an
       argument, to your home directory (the value  of  the  environment  variable  $HOME).   All
       windows  that  are  created by means of the "screen" command from within ".screenrc" or by
       means of "C-a : screen …" or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a chdir
       command, this would be the directory from which screen was invoked.

       Hardcopy  and  log  files  are  always  written to the window's default directory, not the
       current directory of the process running in the window.  You can use this command multiple
       times in your .screenrc to start various windows in different default directories, but the
       last chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly modification  of  key
       bindings,  specific  window creation and changing settings. Note that the "set" keyword no
       longer exists! Usually commands affect the current window rather than default settings for
       future windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def…'.

       If  you  consider  this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard "C-a esc" (copy
       mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as  typing  the  screen  escape  character  (^A).  It  is
       probably  only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option is given, select the specified
       command class.  See also "bind" and "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells screen whether to suppress trailing blank lines when scrolling up text into the
       history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or  un-grabs  the  machines  console  output  to a window.  Note: Only the owner of
       /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is only available if  the  machine
       supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback  mode. This allows you to copy text from the current window and its
       history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-like `full screen editor' is active:
       The editor's movement keys are:

       │h, C-h,      │ move the cursor left.                            │
       │left arrow   │                                                  │
       │j, C-n,      │ move the cursor down.                            │
       │down arrow   │                                                  │
       │k, C-p,      │ move the cursor up.                              │
       │up arrow     │                                                  │
       │l ('el'),    │ move the cursor right.                           │
       │right arrow  │                                                  │
       │0 (zero) C-a │ move to the leftmost column.                     │
       │+ and -      │ positions one line up and down.                  │
       │H, M and L   │ move the cursor to the leftmost  column  of  the │
       │             │ top, center or bottom line of the window.        │
       │|            │ moves to the specified absolute column.          │
       │g or home    │ moves to the beginning of the buffer.            │
       │G or end     │ moves  to  the specified absolute line (default: │
       │             │ end of buffer).                                  │
       │%            │ jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer. │
       │^ or $       │ move to the leftmost column,  to  the  first  or │
       │             │ last non-whitespace character on the line.       │
       │w, b, and e  │ move the cursor word by word.                    │
       │B, E         │ move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).         │
       │f/F, t/T     │ move  the  cursor  forward/backward  to the next │
       │             │ occurrence of the target. (eg, '3fy'  will  move │
       │             │ the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the right.)         │
       │; and ,      │ Repeat   the   last   f/F/t/T   command  in  the │
       │             │ same/opposite direction.                         │
       │C-e and C-y  │ scroll the display up/down  by  one  line  while │
       │             │ preserving the cursor position.                  │
       │C-u and C-d  │ scroll  the  display  up/down  by  the specified │
       │             │ amount of  lines  while  preserving  the  cursor │
       │             │ position. (Default: half screen-full).           │
       │C-b and C-f  │ scroll the display up/down a full screen.        │

       Note:  Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.  (E.g. markkeys
       "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple  method  for  a  full  emacs-style  keymap,  as  this
       involves multi-character codes.

       Some keys are defined to do mark and replace operations.

       The  copy  range  is  specified by setting two marks. The text between these marks will be
       highlighted. Press:

              space or enter to set the first or second mark respectively. If mousetrack  is  set
              to `on', marks can also be set using left mouse click.

              Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.

              W marks exactly one word.

       Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by pressing digits

              0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.

       Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the paste buffer.

       The following search keys are defined:

              / Vi-like search forward.

              ? Vi-like search backward.

              C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.

              C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.

              n Find next search pattern.

              N Find previous search pattern.

       There  are  however  some  keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does not allow one to
       yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen does. Press: c or C to set the left  or  right
       margin  respectively.  If  no  repeat  count  is given, both default to the current cursor

       Example: Try this on a rather full text screen:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

       This moves one to the middle line of the screen, moves  in  20  columns  left,  marks  the
       beginning  of the paste buffer, sets the left column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right
       column, and then marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

       and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.

       J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline  character  (012),
       lines  glued  seamless,  lines separated by a single whitespace and comma separated lines.
       Note that you can prepend the newline character  with  a  carriage  return  character,  by
       issuing a "crlf on".

       v  or  V  is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles the left margin between
       column 9 and 1. Press

       a before the final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus  the  contents  of  the  paste
       buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.

       A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.

       >  sets  the  (second)  mark  and  writes  the contents of the paste buffer to the screen-
       exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once copy-mode is finished.

       This example demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer to that file: "C-A  [  g
       SPACE G $ >".

       C-g gives information about the current line and column.

       x  or  o  exchanges  the  first  mark and the current cursor position. You can use this to
       adjust an already placed mark.

       C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.

       @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.

       All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This affects the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If it is set  to  `on',
       lines  will  be  separated by the two character sequence `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default)
       only `LF' is used.  When no parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off.  If  screen  has  been  compiled  with  option  -DDEBUG
       debugging  available  and  is  turned  on per default. Note that this command only affects
       debugging output from the main "SCREEN" process  correctly.  Debug  output  from  attacher
       processes can only be turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same as the autonuke command except that the default setting for new displays is  changed.
       Initial  setting  is `off'.  Note that you can use the special `AN' terminal capability if
       you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the  default  setting  for  new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices. The
       preferred methods are tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.  The third, TCSBRK,  blocks  the  complete
       screen  session for the duration of the break, but it may be the only way to generate long
       breaks.  Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes  (e.g.  4
       per  second).  This  is  not only system-dependent, this also differs between serial board
       drivers.  Calling "defbreaktype" with no parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Shows
       current default if called without argument.

       defdynamictitle on|off

       Set  default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should change window title when
       seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (naming windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape" except that  it  is
       useful  multiuser  sessions  only.  In  a  multiuser  session "escape" changes the command
       character of the calling user, where "defescape" changes the  default  command  characters
       for users that will be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as  the  flow  command  except  that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying  "defflow  auto  interrupt"  is  the  same  as  the
       command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get is  set  to  status.   This  command  is
       useful  to  make  the hardstatus of every window display the window number or title or the
       like.  Status may contain the same directives as in the window messages, but the directive
       escape  character  is  '^E'  (octal  005)  instead  of  '%'.   This  was  done  to  make a
       misinterpretation of program generated hardstatus  lines  impossible.   If  the  parameter
       status  is  omitted,  the current default string is displayed.  Per default the hardstatus
       line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default setting for new windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is the encoding taken from the terminal.

       deflog on|off

       Same  as  the  log  command  except  that  the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. This
       is initialized with `on' as distributed (see

       defmode mode

       The  mode  of  each  newly  allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an octal number.
       When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same as the nonblock command except that the default  setting  for  displays  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can use the special 'OL' terminal  capability
       if you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec

       Same  as the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default  setting  for  new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `on' if screen was started with "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same  as  the  wrap  command  except  that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means
       of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same  as the writelock command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initially writelocks will off.

       detach [-h]

       Detach the  screen  session  (disconnect  it  from  the  terminal  and  put  it  into  the
       background).   This  returns you to the shell where you invoked screen.  A detached screen
       can be resumed by invoking screen with the  -r  option  (see  also  section  "COMMAND-LINE
       OPTIONS").  The -h option tells screen to immediately close the connection to the terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know why features  like
       color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows  a  tabular  listing of all currently connected user front-ends (displays).  This is
       most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following keys can be used in displays list:

       │k, C-p, or up         │ Move up one line.                │
       │j, C-n, or down       │ Move down one line.              │
       │C-a or home           │ Move to the first line.          │
       │C-e or end            │ Move to the last line.           │
       │C-u or C-d            │ Move one half page up or down.   │
       │C-b or C-f            │ Move one full page up or down.   │
       │mouseclick            │ Move  to  the   selected   line. │
       │                      │ Available  when  "mousetrack" is │
       │                      │ set to on.                       │
       │space                 │ Refresh the list                 │
       │d                     │ Detach that display              │
       │D                     │ Power detach that display        │
       │C-g, enter, or escape │ Exit the list                    │
       The following is an example of what "displays" could look like:
              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:

              (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.

       (B) Displays geometry as width x height.

       (C) Username who is logged in at the display.

       (D) Device name of the display or the attached device

       (E) Display is in blocking or nonblocking mode.  The available modes are "nb", "NB", "Z<",
       "Z>", and "BL".

       (F) Number of the window

       (G) Name/title of window

       (H) Whether the window is shared

       (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters:

                    (1st character)
                       ‘-’ : no read
                       ‘r’ : read
                       ‘R’ : read only due to foreign wlock
                    (2nd character)
                       ‘-’ : no write
                       ‘.’ : write suppressed by foreign wlock
                       ‘w’ : write
                       ‘W’ : own wlock
                    (3rd character)
                       ‘-’ : no execute
                       ‘x’ : execute
                     "Displays"  needs  a  region  size  of  at  least  10  characters wide and 5
                     characters high in order to display.

              digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

              This command prompts the user for a digraph sequence. The next two characters typed
              are  looked  up  in  a builtin table and the resulting character is inserted in the
              input stream. For example, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will  be  inserted.
              If  the  first  character  entered  is  a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following
              characters (up to three) as an octal number instead.  The optional argument  preset
              is  treated  as  user  input, thus one can create an "umlaut" key.  For example the
              command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user to generate an a-umlaut by typing
              CTRL-K  a.   When  a  non-zero unicode-value is specified, a new digraph is created
              with the specified preset. The digraph is unset if a zero value is provided for the


              Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the currently active
              window to the file ".termcap" in the user's "$HOME/.screen" directory (or  wherever
              screen  stores  its sockets. See the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry is
              identical to the value of the environment variable  $TERMCAP  that  is  set  up  by
              screen for each window. For terminfo based systems you will need to run a converter
              like captoinfo and then compile the entry with tic.

              dynamictitle on|off

              Change behaviour for windows regarding if screen should change  window  title  when
              seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (naming windows)" section.

              echo [-n] message

              The  echo  command  may  be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of the day'.
              Typically installed in a global /etc/screenrc.  The option  "-n"  may  be  used  to
              suppress the line feed.  See also "sleep".  Echo is also useful for online checking
              of environment variables.

              encoding enc [enc]

              Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets the encoding
              of  the  current window. Each window can emulate a different encoding. The optional
              second parameter overwrites the encoding of the connected terminal. It should never
              be  needed as screen uses the locale setting to detect the encoding.  There is also
              a way to select a terminal encoding depending on the terminal  type  by  using  the
              "KJ" termcap entry.

              Supported  encodings  are  eucJP,  SJIS,  eucKR,  eucCN, Big5, GBK, KOI8-R, KOI8-U,
              CP1251, UTF-8, ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4,  ISO8859-5,  ISO8859-6,  ISO8859-7,
              ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

              See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new window.

              escape xy

              Set  the  command  character  to  x  and the character generating a literal command
              character (by triggering the "meta" command) to y (similar to the -e option).  Each
              argument  is  either  a single character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"
              (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code
              of  the  character), or a backslash followed by a second character, such as "\^" or
              "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

              eval command1[command2 ]

              Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

              exec [[fdpat]newcommand [args ]]

              Run a unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcommand and its  optional
              arguments)   in   the   current  window.  The  flow  of  data  between  newcommands
              stdin/stdout/stderr, the process originally started in the window (let us  call  it
              "application-process")  and  screen  itself  (window)  is  controlled  by  the file
              descriptor pattern fdpat.  This pattern is basically  a  three  character  sequence
              representing  stdin,  stdout  and stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file
              descriptor to screen.  An exclamation mark (!) causes the  file  descriptor  to  be
              connected  to  the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.  User input will
              go to newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process' output (fdpats
              first  character  is  `!'  or  `:')  or  a  pipe  symbol  (|) is added (as a fourth
              character) to the end of fdpat.

              Invoking `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments of the currently running
              subprocess  in  this  window.  Only  one  subprocess  a time can be running in each

              When a subprocess is running the `kill' command  will  affect  it  instead  of  the
              windows process.

              Refer  to the postscript file `doc/' for a confusing illustration of all 21
              possible combinations. Each drawing shows the digits 2,1,0 representing  the  three
              file  descriptors  of  newcommand. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has the
              application-process on its slave side.  The box marked `P'  is  the  secondary  pty
              that now has screen at its master side.

              Abbreviations:  Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and the command can be
              omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omitted. A simple
              `|' is synonymous for the pattern `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can
              always be replaced by `!'.


                     exec … /bin/sh

                     exec /bin/sh


                            Creates another shell in the same window, while the original shell is
                            still  running.  Output of both shells is displayed and user input is
                            sent to the new /bin/sh.

                     exec !.. stty 19200

                     exec ! stty 19200

                     !!stty 19200

                            Set the speed of the window's tty. If your stty command  operates  on
                            stdout, then add another `!'.

                     exec !..| less


                            This  adds a pager to the window output. The special character `|' is
                            needed to give the user control over the pager although it  gets  its
                            input  from the window's process. This works, because less listens on
                            stderr (a behavior that screen would not expect without the `|') when
                            its  stdin is not a tty.  Less versions newer than 177 fail miserably
                            here; good old pg still works.

                     !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

                            Sends window output to both, the user and the sed  command.  The  sed
                            inserts  an additional bell character (oct. 007) to the window output
                            seen by screen.   This  will  cause  "Bell  in  window  x"  messages,
                            whenever the string "Error" appears in the window.


              Change  the  window  size to the size of the current region. This command is needed
              because screen doesn't adapt  the  window  size  automatically  if  the  window  is
              displayed more than once.

              flow   [on|off|auto]

              Sets  the  flow-control  mode  for  this  window.  Without parameters it cycles the
              current window's flow-control setting from "automatic" to "on" to "off".   See  the
              discussion  on  "FLOW-CONTROL" later on in this document for full details and note,
              that this is subject to change in future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

              focus [next|prev|up|down|left|right|top|bottom]

              Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic way so  that  the
              top  left  region  is selected after the bottom right one. If no option is given it
              defaults to `next'. The next region to be selected is determined by how the regions
              are  layered.   Normally,  the  next  region  in  the same layer would be selected.
              However, if that next region contains one or more layers, the first region  in  the
              highest  layer  is  selected  first.  If  you are at the last region of the current
              layer, `next' will move the focus to the next region in the lower layer  (if  there
              is  a  lower  layer).   `Prev'  cycles  in the opposite order. See "split" for more
              information about layers.

              The rest of the options (`up', `down', `left', `right', `top',  and  `bottom')  are
              more  indifferent  to  layers.  The  option  `up' will move the focus upward to the
              region that is touching the upper left corner of the current region.   `Down'  will
              move  downward  to the region that is touching the lower left corner of the current
              region. The option `left' will move the  focus  leftward  to  the  region  that  is
              touching  the  upper  left  corner  of  the current region, while `right' will move
              rightward to the region that is touching the upper  right  corner  of  the  current
              region.  Moving  left  from  a  left  most region or moving right from a right most
              region will result in no action.

              The option `top' will move the focus to the very first region  in  the  upper  list
              corner  of  the  screen,  and  `bottom' will move to the region in the bottom right
              corner of the screen. Moving up from a top most region or moving down from a bottom
              most region will result in no action.

              Useful bindings are (h, j, k, and l as in vi)
                  bind h focus left
                  bind j focus down
                  bind k focus up
                  bind l focus right
                  bind t focus top
                  bind b focus bottom
              Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

              focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

              This  forces  any  currently selected region to be automatically resized at least a
              certain width and height. All other surrounding regions will be resized in order to
              accommodate.   This  constraint  follows everytime the "focus" command is used. The
              "resize" command can be used to increase either dimension of a  region,  but  never
              below  what  is  set  with "focusminsize". The underscore `_' is a synonym for max.
              Setting a width and height of `0 0' (zero zero) will undo any constraints and allow
              for  manual  resizing.   Without  any  parameters,  the minimum width and height is

              gr [on|off]

              Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input character with  the
              8th  bit set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot and print the character
              with the 8th bit stripped. The default (see also "defgr")  is  not  to  process  GR
              switching because otherwise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

              group [grouptitle]

              Change or show the group the current window belongs to. Windows can be moved around
              between different groups by specifying the name of the destination  group.  Without
              specifying a group, the title of the current group is displayed.

              hardcopy [-h] [file]

              Writes  out  the  currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no filename is
              specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where n is  the  number  of  the
              current  window.   This  either  appends  or  overwrites the file if it exists. See
              below.  If the option -h is specified, dump also the  contents  of  the  scrollback

              hardcopy_append on|off

              If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by the command
              "C-a h", otherwise these files are overwritten each time.  Default is `off'.

              hardcopydir directory

              Defines a directory where hardcopy files will be placed. If  unset,  hardcopys  are
              dumped in screen's current working directory.

              hardstatus [on|off]

              hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore[string]

              hardstatus string[string]

              This  command  configures  the use and emulation of the terminal's hardstatus line.
              The first form toggles whether screen will use the hardware status line to  display
              messages. If the flag is set to `off', these messages are overlaid in reverse video
              mode at the display line. The default setting is `on'.

              The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have  a  hardstatus
              line  (i.e.  the  termcap/terminfo  capabilities  "hs", "ts", "fs" and "ds" are not
              set).  When "firstline/lastline" is used, screen will reserve the  first/last  line
              of  the  display  for the hardstatus. "message" uses screen's message mechanism and
              "ignore" tells screen never to display the hardstatus.  If  you  prepend  the  word
              "always" to the type (e.g., "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the
              terminal supports a hardstatus.

              The third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus  line.   '%h'  is  used  as
              default  string,  i.e.,  the  stored hardstatus of the current window (settable via
              "ESC]0;<string>^G" or "ESC_<string>ESC\") is displayed.  You can customize this  to
              any string you like including the escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you
              leave out the argument string, the current string is displayed.

              You can mix the second and  third  form  by  providing  the  string  as  additional

              height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

              Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument is given it
              toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also specify a width if  you  want
              to  change  both  values.   The  -w  option  tells screen to leave the display size
              unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.


              Not really a online help, but displays a  help  screen  showing  you  all  the  key
              bindings.  The first pages list all the internal commands followed by their current
              bindings.  Subsequent pages will display the custom commands, one command per  key.
              Press space when you're done reading each page, or return to exit early.  All other
              characters are ignored. If the "-c" option is given, display all bound commands for
              the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


              Usually  users work with a shell that allows easy access to previous commands.  For
              example csh has the command "!!" to  repeat  the  last  command  executed.   Screen
              allows  you to have a primitive way of re-calling "the command that started …": You
              just type the first letter of that command, then hit `C-a {' and  screen  tries  to
              find  a  previous  line that matches with the `prompt character' to the left of the
              cursor. This line is pasted into this window's input queue.  Thus you have a  crude
              command history (made up by the visible window and its scrollback buffer).

              hstatus status

              Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

              idle [timeout[cmd-args]]

              Sets  a  command  that  is  run after the specified number of seconds inactivity is
              reached. This command will normally be the "blanker" command  to  create  a  screen
              blanker,  but  it  can be any screen command.  If no command is specified, only the
              timeout is set. A timeout of zero (or the special timeout off) disables the  timer.
              If no arguments are given, the current settings are displayed.

              ignorecase [on|off]

              Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in searches. Default is `off'. Without
              any options, the state of ignorecase is toggled.


              Uses the message line to display some information about  the  current  window:  the
              cursor  position  in  the  form  "(column,row)" starting with "(1,1)", the terminal
              width and height plus  the  size  of  the  scrollback  buffer  in  lines,  like  in
              "(80,24)+50",  the current state of window XON/XOFF flow control is shown like this
              (See also section FLOW CONTROL):

                +flow     automatic flow control, currently on.
                -flow     automatic flow control, currently off.
                +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
                -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
                +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
                -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

              The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates  enabled,  `-wrap'  not)  is  also
              shown.  The  flags  `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon' or `nored' are displayed when
              the window is in insert mode, origin  mode,  application-keypad  mode,  has  output
              logging, activity monitoring or partial redraw enabled.

              The  currently  active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in square brackets the
              terminal character sets that are currently designated as G0 through G3 is shown. If
              the window is in UTF-8 mode, the string "UTF-8" is shown instead.

              Additional  modes  depending  on the type of the window are displayed at the end of
              the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").

              If the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-default state,  the  info
              line is started with a string identifying the current state.

              For system information use the "time" command.

              ins_reg [key]

              No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


              Kill current window.

              If  there  is  an  `exec'  command running then it is killed. Otherwise the process
              (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP condition, the window structure  is
              removed and screen (your display) switches to another window.  When the last window
              is destroyed, screen exits.   After  a  kill  screen  switches  to  the  previously
              displayed window.

              Note:  Emacs  users  should  keep this command in mind, when killing a line.  It is
              recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


              Redisplay the last contents of the message/status line.  Useful  if  you're  typing
              when a message appears, because  the message goes away when you press a key (unless
              your terminal has a hardware status line).  Refer to  the  commands  "msgwait"  and
              "msgminwait" for fine tuning.

              layout new [title]

              Create  a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region and be switched to
              the blank window. From here, you build the regions and the windows they show as you
              desire.  The  new  layout  will  be  numbered  with the smallest available integer,
              starting with zero. You can optionally give a title to your new layout.  Otherwise,
              it  will have a default title of "layout". You can always change the title later by
              using the command layout title.

              layout remove [n|title]

              Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the  number  or  the
              title  can  be  specified.  Without  either  specification,  screen will remove the
              current layout.

              Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

              layout next

              Switch to the next layout available

              layout prev

              Switch to the previous layout available

              layout select [n|title]

              Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be specified. Without
              either  specification,  screen  will prompt and ask which screen is desired. To see
              which layouts are available, use the layout show command.

              layout show

              List on the message line the number(s) and title(s) of the available layout(s). The
              current layout is flagged.

              layout title [title]

              Change  or  display the title of the current layout. A string given will be used to
              name the layout. Without any options, the current title and number is displayed  on
              the message line.

              layout number [n]

              Change  or  display the number of the current layout. An integer given will be used
              to number the layout.  Without  any  options,  the  current  number  and  title  is
              displayed on the message line.

              layout attach [title|:last]

              Change  or  display  which  layout to reattach back to. The default is :last, which
              tells screen to reattach back to the last used layout just  before  detachment.  By
              supplying  a  title,  You  can  instruct  screen to reattach to a particular layout
              regardless which one was used at the time of detachment. Without any  options,  the
              layout to reattach to will be shown in the message line.

              layout save [n|title]

              Remember  the  current  arrangement of regions. When used, screen will remember the
              arrangement of vertically and  horizontally  split  regions.  This  arrangement  is
              restored  when  a  screen  session  is reattached or switched back from a different
              layout. If the session ends or the screen process dies, the layout arrangements are
              lost.  The  layout dump command should help in this siutation. If a number or title
              is supplied, screen will  remember  the  arrangement  of  that  particular  layout.
              Without any options, screen will remember the current layout.

              Saving your regions can be done automatically by using the layout autosave command.

              layout autosave [on|off]

              Change  or  display  the  status of automatcally saving layouts. The default is on,
              meaning when screen is detached or changed to a different layout,  the  arrangement
              of  regions  and windows will be remembered at the time of change and restored upon
              return.  If autosave is set to off, that  arrangement  will  only  be  restored  to
              either  to the last manual save, using layout save, or to when the layout was first
              created, to a single region with a single window. Without either an on or off,  the
              current status is displayed on the message line.

              layout dump [filename]

              Write  to  a file the order of splits made in the current layout. This is useful to
              recreate the order of your regions used in your current layout.  Only  the  current
              layout is recorded. While the order of the regions are recorded, the sizes of those
              regions and which windows correspond to which regions are not. If  no  filename  is
              specified,  the  default  is  layout-dump,  saved  in the directory that the screen
              process was started in. If the file already exists, layout dump will append to that
              file. As an example:

                                    C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

              will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


              Display  the  disclaimer  page.  This  is  done  whenever screen is started without
              options, which should be often enough. See also the "startup_message" command.


              Lock this display.  Call a screenlock program (/local/bin/lck or /usr/bin/lock or a
              builtin  if  no  other is available). Screen does not accept any command keys until
              this program terminates. Meanwhile processes in the windows may  continue,  as  the
              windows  are in the `detached' state. The screenlock program may be changed through
              the environment variable $LOCKPRG (which must be set in the shell from which screen
              is started) and is executed with the user's uid and gid.

              Warning:  When  you  leave  other  shells  unlocked and you have no password set on
              screen, the lock is void: One could easily re-attach from an unlocked  shell.  This
              feature should rather be called `lockterminal'.

              log [on|off]

              Start/stop  writing  output  of  the  current window to a file "screenlog.n" in the
              window's default directory, where n is the  number  of  the  current  window.  This
              filename  can  be changed with the `logfile' command. If no parameter is given, the
              state of logging is toggled. The session log is appended to the  previous  contents
              of  the  file  if  it  already exists. The current contents and the contents of the
              scrollback history are not included in the session log.  Default is `off'.

              logfile filename

              logfile flush secs

              Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n". The  second
              form  changes  the  number  of seconds screen will wait before flushing the logfile
              buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10 seconds.

              login [on|off]

              Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the current  window.   This
              controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter is given, the login state
              of the window is toggled.  Additionally to that toggle, it is convenient  having  a
              `log  in'  and  a `log out' key. E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will
              map these keys to be C-a I and C-a O.  The default setting (in  should
              be  "on"  for  a  screen  that runs under suid-root.  Use the "deflogin" command to
              change the default login state for new windows. Both commands are only present when
              screen has been compiled with utmp support.

              logtstamp [on|off]

              logtstamp after [secs]

              logtstamp string

              This  command  controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-stamps are
              turned "on", screen adds a string containing the current time to the logfile  after
              two minutes of inactivity.  When output continues and more than another two minutes
              have passed, a second time-stamp is added to document the restart  of  the  output.
              You  can change this timeout with the second form of the command. The third form is
              used for customizing the time-stamp string (`-- %n:%t  --  time-stamp  --  %M/%d/%y
              %c:%s --\n' by default).


              Tell  screen  that the next input character should only be looked up in the default
              bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


              Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

              maptimeout [timeout]

              Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout of  timeout
              ms.  The  default  timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with no arguments shows the current
              setting.  See also "bindkey".

              markkeys string

              This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.  The string  is
              made  up  of  oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by `:'. Example: The string
              "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi  style  binding  (scroll
              up/down  fill  page).  This happens to be the default binding for `B' and `F'.  The
              command "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for  an  emacs-style  binding.
              If  your  terminal  sends  characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
              command may help by binding these characters to do nothing.  The no-op character is
              `@'  and  is  used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not want to use the `H' or
              `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this example, multiple keys can  be  assigned
              to one function in a single statement.

              maxwin num

              Set  the  maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect already existing
              windows. The number can be increased only when there are no existing windows.


              Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input stream.

              monitor [on|off]

              Toggles activity monitoring of windows.   When  monitoring  is  turned  on  and  an
              affected  window  is  switched  into  the background, you will receive the activity
              notification message in the status line at the first sign of output and the  window
              will  also  be  marked  with  an  `@'  in the window-status display.  Monitoring is
              initially off for all windows.

              mousetrack [on|off]

              This command determines whether screen will  watch  for  mouse  clicks.  When  this
              command is enabled, regions that have been split in various ways can be selected by
              pointing to them with a mouse and left-clicking them. Without specifying on or off,
              the   current   state  is  displayed.  The  default  state  is  determined  by  the
              "defmousetrack" command.

              msgminwait sec

              Defines the time screen  delays  a  new  message  when  one  message  is  currently
              displayed.  The default is 1 second.

              msgwait sec

              Defines  the  time  a  message  is  displayed  if  screen is not disturbed by other
              activity. The default is 5 seconds.

              multiuser on|off

              Switch  between  singleuser  and  multiuser  mode.  Standard  screen  operation  is
              singleuser.  In  multiuser  mode  the  commands  `acladd',  `aclchg',  `aclgrp' and
              `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable)  other  users  accessing  this  screen

              nethack on|off

              Changes  the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are familiar with the
              game "nethack", you may enjoy the nethack-style messages which will often blur  the
              facts  a little, but are much funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend
              to be unclear as well.
              This option is only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK flag defined.
              The  default setting is then determined by the presence of the environment variable
              $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if either one is present,  the  default
              is on.


              Switch  to  the  next window.  This command can be used repeatedly to cycle through
              the list of windows.


              Tell screen how to deal with  user  interfaces  (displays)  that  cease  to  accept
              output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem connection gets cut but
              no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this is the default) screen waits  until
              the  display  restarts  to accept the output. If nonblock is on, screen waits until
              the timeout is reached (on is treated as 1s). If the display still doesn't  receive
              characters, screen will consider it "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If
              at some time it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock the display  and
              redisplay the updated window contents.

              number [[+|-]n]

              Change  the  current  window's  number.  If  the  given number n is already used by
              another window, both windows exchange their numbers. If no argument  is  specified,
              the  current  window  number (and title) is shown. Using `+' or `-' will change the
              window's number by the relative amount specified.

              obuflimit [limit]

              If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified  limit,  no  more  data
              will be read from the windows. The default value is 256. If you have a fast display
              (like xterm), you can set it to some higher value. If no argument is specified, the
              current setting is displayed.


              Kill all regions but the current one.


              Switch  to  the  window  displayed previously. If this window does no longer exist,
              other has the same effect as next.

              partial on|off

              Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with redisplay) after switching
              to  the  current  window.  This  command  only  affects  the  current  window.   To
              immediately affect all windows use the allpartial command.  Default  is  `off',  of
              course.  This default is fixed, as there is currently no defpartial command.

              password [crypted_pw]

              Present  a  crypted  password  in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask for it,
              whenever someone attempts to  resume  a  detached.  This  is  useful  if  you  have
              privileged  programs running under screen and you want to protect your session from
              reattach attempts by another user masquerading as your uid  (i.e.  any  superuser.)
              If no crypted password is specified, screen prompts twice for typing a password and
              places its encryption in the  paste  buffer.   Default  is  `none',  this  disables
              password checking.

              paste [registers [dest_reg]]

              Write  the (concatenated) contents of the specified registers to the stdin queue of
              the current window. The register  '.'  is  treated  as  the  paste  buffer.  If  no
              parameter  is given the user is prompted for a single register to paste.  The paste
              buffer can be filled with the copy, history and readbuf commands.  Other  registers
              can  be  filled  with the register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called
              with a second argument, the contents of the specified registers is pasted into  the
              named  destination  register  rather  than the window. If '.' is used as the second
              argument, the displays paste buffer is the destination.  Note, that "paste" uses  a
              wide  variety  of  resources:  Whenever  a  second argument is specified no current
              window is needed. When the source specification only contains  registers  (not  the
              paste  buffer) then there need not be a current display (terminal attached), as the
              registers are a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

              pastefont [on|off]

              Tell screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The default is not  to
              do so. This command is especially useful for multi character fonts like kanji.


              Reopen the window's terminal line and send a break condition. See `break'.


              Power  detach.   Mainly  the  same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP signal to the
              parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will result in a logout, when  screen  was
              started from your login-shell.

              pow_detach_msg [message]

              The  message  specified  here is output whenever a `Power detach' was performed. It
              may be used as a replacement for a logout message  or  to  reset  baud  rate,  etc.
              Without parameter, the current message is shown.


              Switch  to  the  window  with  the  next  lower  number.   This command can be used
              repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

              printcmd [cmd]

              If cmd is not an empty string,  screen  will  not  use  the  terminal  capabilities
              "po/pf"  if  it  detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i, but pipe the output into
              cmd.  This should normally be a command like  "lpr"  or  "'cat  >  /tmp/scrprint'".
              printcmd  without  a command displays the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \
              ends printing and closes the pipe.

              Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user  have  write  access  to  your
              terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

              process [key]

              Stuff  the  contents  of  the  specified  register into screen's input queue. If no
              argument is given you are prompted for a register name. The text is parsed as if it
              had  been  typed  in  from  the  user's  keyboard. This command can be used to bind
              multiple actions to a single key.


              Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style terminals the keys
              C-4  and  C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bindings dangerous: Be careful
              not to type C-a C-4 when selecting window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in
              "bind '^\'") to remove a key binding.

              readbuf [encoding] [filename]

              Reads  the  contents  of  the  specified  file into the paste buffer.  You can tell
              screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no file  is  specified,  the
              screen-exchange filename is used.  See also "bufferfile" command.

              readreg [encoding] [register [filename]]

              Does  one  of  two  things,  dependent  on  number  of  arguments: with zero or one
              arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer contents into the register specified or
              entered  at  the prompt. With two arguments it reads the contents of the named file
              into the register, just as readbuf reads the screen-exchange file  into  the  paste
              buffer.   You  can  tell  screen  the  encoding of the file via the -e option.  The
              following example will paste the system's password  file  into  the  screen  window
              (using register p, where a copy remains):

                                    C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
              C-a : paste p


              Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in partial redraw

              register [-eencoding]key-string

              Save the specified string to the register key.  The encoding of the string  can  be
              specified via the -e option.  See also the "paste" command.


              Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


              Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf" and "readbuf".

              rendition bell | monitor | silence | so  attr  [ color ]

              Change the way screen renders the titles of windows that have monitor or bell flags
              set in caption or hardstatus or windowlist. See the "STRING  ESCAPES"  chapter  for
              the  syntax  of  the  modifiers.  The default for monitor is currently "=b " (bold,
              active colors), for bell "=ub " (underline, bold and active colors), and "=u "  for


              Reset  the  virtual terminal to its "power-on" values. Useful when strange settings
              (like scroll regions or graphics character set) are left over from an application.

              resize [-h|-v|-b|-l|-p] [[+|-] n[%] |=|max|min|_|0]

              Resize the current region.  The  space  will  be  removed  from  or  added  to  the
              surrounding  regions  depending  on the order of the splits.  The available options
              for  resizing  are  `-h'(horizontal),  `-v'(vertical),  `-b'(both),  `-l'(local  to
              layer),  and  `-p'(perpendicular). Horizontal resizes will add or remove width to a
              region, vertical will add or remove height, and both will add or remove  size  from
              both  dimensions.  Local  and perpendicular are similar to horizontal and vertical,
              but they take in account of how a region was split.  If a region's last  split  was
              horizontal,  a  local  resize  will work like a vertical resize. If a region's last
              split  was  vertical,  a  local  resize  will  work  like  a   horizontal   resize.
              Perpendicular resizes work in opposite of local resizes. If no option is specified,
              local is the default.

              The amount of lines to add or remove can be expressed a couple of  different  ways.
              By  specifying a number n by itself will resize the region by that absolute amount.
              You can specify a relative amount by prefixing a plus  `+'  or  minus  `-'  to  the
              amount,  such  as  adding  +n  lines  or  removing  -n  lines. Resizing can also be
              expressed as an absolute or relative percentage by postfixing a percent  sign  `%'.
              Using  zero `0' is a synonym for `min' and using an underscore `_' is a synonym for

              Some examples are:

              resize +N
                     increase current region by N

              resize -N
                     decrease current region by N

              resize  N
                     set current region to N

              resize 20%
                     set current region to 20% of original size

              resize +20%
                     increase current region by 20%

              resize -b =
                     make all windows equally

              resize  max
                     maximize current region

              resize  min
                     minimize current region

              Without any arguments, screen will prompt for how you  would  like  to  resize  the
              current region.

              See "focusminsize" if you want to restrict the minimum size a region can have.

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa), title (a.k.a.) option
       (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal type option (-T <term>),  the  all-capability-
       flag (-a) and scrollback option (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option
       (-M) turns monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns  output  logging  on  for
       this window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is given, the window number
       n is assigned to the newly created window (or, if this number is already in-use, the  next
       available number).  If a command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given
       arguments) is started in the window;  otherwise,  a  shell  is  created.   If  //group  is
       supplied,  a container-type window is created in which other windows may be created inside

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                             # example for .screenrc:
                             screen 1
                             screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET connection to  the
       machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title "foobar" in window #2) and will write
       a logfile ("screenlog.2") of the telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous  versions  of
       screen no additional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in your
       ".screenrc" file. When the initialization is completed, screen switches to the last window
       specified in your .screenrc file or, if none, opens a default window #0.

       Screen  has  built  in  some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See also chapter "WINDOW

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num  lines.  The  default
       scrollback  is 100 lines.  See also the "defscrollback" command and use "info" to view the
       current setting. To access and use the contents in the scrollback buffer, use  the  "copy"

       select [WindowID]

       Switch  to  the  window  identified  by  WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a window title
       (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The parameter is optional and if  omitted,
       you get prompted for an identifier.  When a new window is established, the first available
       number is assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by "select 0".
       The  number  of  windows  is limited at compile-time by the MAXWIN configuration parameter
       (which defaults to 40).  There are two special WindowIDs, "-" selects the  internal  blank
       window and "." selects the current window. The latter is useful if used with screen's "-X"

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that for "screen -list"  the  name  shows  up  with  the
       process-id  prepended.  If  the  argument  "name"  is omitted, the name of this session is
       displayed. Caution: The $STY environment variables will still reflect the old name in pre-
       existing  shells.  This  may  result  in  confusion.  Use  of  this  command  is generally
       discouraged. Use the "-S" command-line option if you want to  name  a  new  session.   The
       default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is specified, the user will
       be prompted to enter a value.  If no parameters are specified, the user will  be  prompted
       for  both  variable  and  value.  The  environment is inherited by all subsequently forked

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the windows. If  setsid  is
       turned  off, this is not done anymore and all windows will be in the same process group as
       the screen backend process. This also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The  default  is
       on, of course. This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set  the  command  to  be  used  to  create  a new shell.  This overrides the value of the
       environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like to run a tty-enhancer which  is
       expecting  to  execute  the program specified in $SHELL.  If the command begins with a '-'
       character, the shell will be started as a login-shell.  Typical  shells  do  only  minimal
       initialization  when  not  started  as  a  login-shell.   E.g.  Bash  will  not  read your
       "~/.bashrc" unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup  or  by  the  C-A  C-c  command.   For
       details about what a title is, see the discussion entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles  silence  monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and an affected window
       is switched into the background, you will receive the silence notification message in  the
       status  line  after a specified period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be
       changed with the `silencewait' command or by specifying a number  of  seconds  instead  of
       `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define  the  time  that  all windows monitored for silence should wait before displaying a
       message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of a  .screenrc  file  for  num  seconds.   Keyboard
       activity  will  end the sleep.  It may be used to give users a chance to read the messages
       output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed at which text is inserted into the current window by the paste ("C-a  ]")
       command.   If  the  slowpaste  value  is  nonzero  text is written character by character.
       screen will make a pause of msec milliseconds after each single character write  to  allow
       the application to process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands  may  be  nested  to  a  maximum
       recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path and screen is already processing a
       source command, the parent directory of the running source command file is used to  search
       for the new command file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only work at startup and reattach time, so
       they must be reached via the default screenrc files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr[color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the display are resized to make
       room  for  the new region. The blank window is displayed in the new region. The default is
       to create a horizontal split, putting the new regions on the top and bottom of each other.
       Using `-v' will create a vertical split, causing the new regions to appear side by side of
       each other.  Use the "remove" or the "only" command to delete  regions.   Use  "focus"  to
       toggle between regions.

       When  a  region  is  split opposite of how it was previously split (that is, vertical then
       horizontal or horizontal then vertical), a new layer is created.  The  layer  is  used  to
       group  together  the  regions that are split the same. Normally, as a user, you should not
       see nor have to worry about layers, but they will affect how some  commands  ("focus"  and
       "resize") behave.

       With  this  current  implementation of screen, scrolling data will appear much slower in a
       vertically split region than one that is not. This should be taken into  consideration  if
       you need to use system commands such as "cat" or "tail -f".

       startup_message on|off

       Select  whether  you want to see the copyright notice during startup.  Default is `on', as
       you probably noticed.

       status [top|up|down|bottom]

       The status window by default is in  bottom-left  corner.  This  command  can  move  status
       messages to any corner of the screen. top is the same as up, down is the same as bottom.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the  input buffer of the current window.  This is like the
       "paste" command but with much less overhead.  Without a parameter, screen will prompt  for
       a  string  to  stuff.  You cannot paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most
       useful for key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for all parameters that are omitted.
       If  passwords are specified as parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted. The first
       password is matched against the systems passwd database, the second  password  is  matched
       against  the screen password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su" may be
       useful for the screen administrator to test multiuser  setups.   When  the  identification
       fails, the user has access to the commands available for user nobody.  These are "detach",
       "license", "version", "help" and "displays".


       Suspend screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen is suspended.  This
       feature relies on the shell being able to do job control.

       term term

       In  each  window's  environment  screen  opens,  the  $TERM variable is set to "screen" by
       default.  But when no description for "screen"  is  installed  in  the  local  termcap  or
       terminfo  data  base, you set $TERM to - say - "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen
       is VT100/ANSI compatible.  The use of the "term" command is  discouraged  for  non-default
       purpose.   That  is,  one  may want to specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100) for the
       next "screen rlogin othermachine"  command.  Use  the  command  "screen  -T  vt100  rlogin
       othermachine" rather than setting and resetting the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       terminfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       Use  this  command  to  modify your terminal's termcap entry without going through all the
       hassles involved in creating a custom termcap entry.  Plus, you can  optionally  customize
       the  termcap  generated  for  the windows.  You have to place these commands in one of the
       screenrc startup files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.

       If your system  works  uses  the  terminfo  database  rather  than  termcap,  screen  will
       understand  the  `terminfo'  command, which has the same effects as the `termcap' command.
       Two separate commands are provided, as there are subtle syntactic differences,  e.g.  when
       parameter  interpolation  (using  `%')  is  required.  Note  that  termcap  names  of  the
       capabilities have to be used with the `terminfo' command.

       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and termcap syntax, you  can
       use  the  command  `termcapinfo',  which  is  just a shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and
       `terminfo' commands with identical arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by this definition.  You
       can  specify  multiple  terminal names by separating them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all
       terminals and `vt*' to match all terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one or  more  termcap  defines  (separated  by  `:'s)  to  be
       inserted  at  the  start  of  the  appropriate  termcap  entry, enhancing it or overriding
       existing  values.   The  first  tweak  modifies  your  terminal's  termcap,  and  contains
       definitions  that  your terminal uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string
       to leave this unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies  all  the  window
       termcaps,  and  should  contain  definitions  that  screen  understands  (see the "VIRTUAL
       TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin with  `xterm'  have  firm  auto-margins  that
       allow  the  last  position  on the screen to be updated (LP), but they don't really have a
       status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP' for  all
       terminal  names  that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap command for
       that terminal.
              termcap vt*  LP

       termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP' capability for all terminals that begin  with  `vt',  and
       the  second  line  will  also add the escape-sequences to switch into (Z0) and back out of
       (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1
       in your termcap to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This  leaves  your  vt100  termcap alone and adds the function key labels to each window's
       termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables  the  insert  mode
       (im)  and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the `im' string is after the `=', so it
       is part of the string).  Having the `im' and `ei' definitions  put  into  your  terminal's
       termcap  will  cause  screen to automatically advertise the character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will also get  the  delete-character  capability  (dc)
       added  to  its  termcap,  which  screen will translate into a line-update for the terminal
       (we're pretending it doesn't support character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you should instead set the
       $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.  See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL"
       in this manual, and the termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time   [string]

       Uses the message line to display the time of day, the host name,  and  the  load  averages
       over  1,  5,  and  15  minutes (if this is available on your system).  For window specific
       information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like it is described in
       the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is specified, screen prompts
       for one. This command was known as `aka' in previous releases.

       truecolor [on|off]

       Enables truecolor support. Currently autodetection of truecolor  support  cannot  be  done
       reliably,  as  such it's left to user to enable. Default is off.  Known terminals that may
       support it are: iTerm2, Konsole, st.  Xterm includes support  for  truecolor  escapes  but
       converts them back to indexed 256 color space.


       Unbind  all  the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used solely for its detaching
       abilities, such as when letting a console application  run  as  a  daemon.  If,  for  some
       reason, it is necessary to bind commands after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off[on|off]]

       Change  the  encoding  used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the strings sent to
       the window will be UTF-8 encoded and  vice  versa.  Omitting  the  parameter  toggles  the
       setting.  If  a  second  parameter  is given, the display's encoding is also changed (this
       should rather be done with screen's "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which  changes  the
       default setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets  the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter toggles the setting.
       If vbell is switched on, but your terminal does not  support  a  visual  bell,  a  `vbell-
       message' is displayed in the status line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual
       bell support of a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').

       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if the window receives
       a  bell  character  (^G), vbell is set to "on", but the terminal does not support a visual
       bell.  The default message is "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the current message is

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a delay in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell message. The default
       is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a window  is  created  (or
       resurrected  from zombie state). Default is off.  Without a parameter, the current setting
       is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the terminal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns  or  set  it  to  cols  columns  if  an
       argument  is specified.  This requires a capable terminal and the termcap entries "Z0" and
       "Z1".  See the "termcap" command for more information. You can also specify a  new  height
       if  you  want to change both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the display size
       unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]

       windowlist string [string]

       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If screen  was  in  a  window
       group,  screen  will back out of the group and then display the windows in that group.  If
       the -b option is given, screen will switch to the blank window before presenting the list,
       so  that  the  current  window is also selectable.  The -m option changes the order of the
       windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its internal  most-recently-used
       list.  The -g option will show the windows inside any groups in that level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":

       │k, C-p, or up    │ Move up one line.                                 │
       │j, C-n, or down  │ Move down one line.                               │
       │C-g or escape    │ Exit windowlist.                                  │
       │C-a or home      │ Move to the first line.                           │
       │C-e or end       │ Move to the last line.                            │
       │C-u or C-d       │ Move one half page up or down.                    │
       │C-b or C-f       │ Move one full page up or down.                    │
       │0..9             │ Using the number keys, move to the selected line. │
       │mouseclick       │ Move   to   the  selected  line.  Available  when │
       │                 │ "mousetrack" is set to "on"                       │
       │/                │ Search.                                           │
       │n                │ Repeat search in the forward direction.           │
       │N                │ Repeat search in the backward direction.          │
       │m                │ Toggle MRU.                                       │
       │g                │ Toggle group nesting.                             │
       │a                │ All window view.                                  │
       │C-h or backspace │ Back out the group.                               │
       │,                │ Switch numbers with the previous window.          │
       │.                │ Switch numbers with the next window.              │
       │K                │ Kill that window.                                 │
       │space or enter   │ Select that window.                               │
       The table format can be changed with the string and title option, the title  is  displayed
       as  table  heading,  while  the  lines  are  made by using the string setting. The default
       setting is "Num Name%=Flags" for the title and  "%3n  %t%=%f"  for  the  lines.   See  the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist"  needs  a region size of at least 10 characters wide and 6 characters high in
       order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.   Each  window  is  listed  by
       number  with  the  name of process that has been started in the window (or its title); the
       current window is marked with a `*'; the previous window is marked with  a  `-';  all  the
       windows  that are "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a background window that has received
       a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that  is  being  monitored  and  has  had
       activity  occur  is  marked  with  an  `@'; a window which has output logging turned on is
       marked with `(L)'; windows occupied by other users are marked with  `&';  windows  in  the
       zombie  state  are  marked  with  `Z'.   If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's
       status line only the portion around the current window is displayed.  The optional  string
       parameter  follows the "STRING ESCAPES" format.  If string parameter is passed, the output
       size is unlimited.  The default command without any parameter is limited to a size of 1024

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the  line-wrap  setting  for  the  current window.  When line-wrap is on, the second
       consecutive printable character output at the last column of a line will wrap to the start
       of  the  following  line.   As an added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the
       left margin to the previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state of wrap
       is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents  of the paste buffer to the specified file, or the public accessible
       screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is thought of as a primitive  means  of
       communication between screen users on the same host. If an encoding is specified the paste
       buffer is recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename  can  be  set  with  the
       bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write to the same window
       at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto' mode and grants exclusive input permission to
       the  user  who is the first to switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window,
       other users may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current  window
       is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user issues the command "writelock on"
       he keeps the exclusive write permission while switching to other windows.



       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current window.

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]

       zmodem sendcmd [string]

       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for screen. Screen understands two different modes when it detects a
       zmodem  request:  "pass" and "catch".  If the mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all
       data to the attacher until the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen
       acts  as a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the mode is set
       to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty (e.g. a serial line),  otherwise
       it will use "pass".

       You  can  define  the  templates  screen uses in "catch" mode via the second and the third

       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g.  shell)  exits. When a string of two keys is specified to the zombie command, `dead'
       windows will remain in the list.  The kill command may be used to remove  such  a  window.
       Pressing  the  first  key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the second
       key, screen will attempt to resurrect the window. The process that was  initially  running
       in  the  window  will  be launched again. Calling zombie without parameters will clear the
       zombie setting, thus making windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is  manipulated  globally  for  all  windows,  this  command  should
       probably be called defzombie, but it isn't.

       Optionally  you  can  put  the  word  "onerror"  after the keys. This will cause screen to
       monitor exit status of the process running in the window. If it exits normally ('0'),  the
       window disappears. Any other exit value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g. shell) exits. If zombie keys are defined (compare with above zombie command), it  is
       possible  to also set a timeout when screen tries to automatically reconnect a dead screen


       Screen displays informational messages and other diagnostics in  a  message  line.   While
       this  line  is  distributed  to  appear  at the bottom of the screen, it can be defined to
       appear at the top of the screen during compilation.  If your terminal has  a  status  line
       defined in its termcap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily  overwritten  and  output  will  be  momentarily
       interrupted.  The  message line is automatically removed after a few seconds delay, but it
       can also be removed early (on terminals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The message line facility can be used by an application running in the current  window  by
       means  of the ANSI Privacy message control sequence.  For instance, from within the shell,
       try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where '<esc>' is an escape, '^' is a literal  up-arrow,  and  '\\'  turns  into  a  single


       Screen provides three different window types. New windows are created with screen's screen
       command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter to the screen
       command  defines  which  type  of  window  is  created. The different window types are all
       special cases of the normal type. They have been added in order to allow screen to be used
       efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       •  The  normal  window  contains  a shell (default, if no parameter is given) or any other
          system command that could be executed from a shell (e.g.  slogin, etc…)

       •  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is specified as  the  first
          parameter,  then  the window is directly connected to this device.  This window type is
          similar to "screen cu -l /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on  the  device
          node,  an  exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark the connection line as busy.
          An optional parameter is allowed consisting of a comma separated list of flags  in  the
          notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually  300,  1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission as well as receive

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q) for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control for receiving data.

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You may want to specify as many of these options  as  applicable.  Unspecified  options
          cause  the  terminal  driver  to make up the parameter values of the connection.  These
          values are system dependent and may be in defaults or  values  saved  from  a  previous

          For  tty  windows, the info command shows some of the modem control lines in the status
          line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR', `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the
          available ioctl()'s and system header files as well as the on the physical capabilities
          of the serial board.  Signals that are logical low (inactive) have their name  preceded
          by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal is logical high (active).  Signals not
          supported by the hardware but available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of modem  signals  is  placed  inside
          curly  braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS'
          or `CD' are shown in parenthesis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line (TxD)  to  go  low
          for  a  specified period of time. This is expected to be interpreted as break signal on
          the other side.  No data is sent and no modem control line is changed when a  break  is

       •  If  the  first  parameter  is "//telnet", the second parameter is expected to be a host
          name, and an optional third parameter may specify a TCP port  number  (default  decimal
          23).   Screen  will connect to a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet
          protocol to communicate with that server.

       For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connection in square brackets
       ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

              b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

              e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

              c      SGA. The connection is in `character mode' (default: `line mode').

              t      TTYPE.  The  terminal  type  has  been requested by the remote host.  Screen
                     sends the name "screen" unless instructed otherwise (see  also  the  command

              w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

              f      LFLOW.  The remote host will send flow control information.  (Ignored at the

              Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and NEWENV).

              For telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code IAC BREAK (decimal 243)
              to the remote host.

              This  window  type  is only available if screen was compiled with the ENABLE_TELNET
              option defined.


       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert  information  like  the  current  time  into
       messages  or  file  names.  The  escape  character  is '%' with one exception: inside of a
       window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags of the window, see "windows" for meanings of the various flags

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      window size

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the  current  window;  with
              '+' qualifier: starting with the window after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape inside the part expands
              to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a number is specified,
              pad to the percentage of the window's width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat
              the number as absolute position.  You can specify  to  pad  relative  to  the  last
              absolute  pad  position  by  adding a '+' qualifier or to pad relative to the right
              margin by using '-'. The padding truncates the string  if  the  specified  position
              lies before the current position. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark  the  current  text  position for the next truncation. When screen needs to do
              truncation, it tries to do it in a way that the marked position gets moved  to  the
              specified  percentage  of  the output area. (The area starts from the last absolute
              pad position and ends with the position specified by the truncation operator.)  The
              'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated parts with '…'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command. The length qualifier is misused
              to identify one of the commands.

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make  screen  use  zero  instead  of
       space  as  fill  character.  The  '0'  qualifier  also  makes  the '=' escape use absolute
       positions. The 'n' and '=' escapes understand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M'
       can be prefixed with 'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or the color settings. Its
       format  is  "[attribute  modifier]  [color  description]".  The attribute modifier must be
       prefixed by a change type indicator if it can be confused with a  color  description.  The
       following change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The  attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or a combination of the
       following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or  two  letters  specifying  the  desired
       background and foreground color (in that order). The following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can also use the pseudo-
       color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the color unchanged.
       A one digit/letter  color  description  is  treated  as  foreground  or  background  color
       dependent  on  the  current  attributes:  if  reverse mode is set, the background color is
       changed instead of the foreground color.  If you don't like this, prefix the color with  a
       ".".  If  you  want  the same behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them
       with a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that were set before the last
       change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default color on yellow background.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The available windows centered at the current window and truncated to the available
              width. The current window is displayed white  on  blue.   This  can  be  used  with
              "hardstatus alwayslastline".

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if one is set.  Also use a
              red background if this is the active focus. Useful for "caption string".


       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals with the  XON  and
       XOFF  characters  (and perhaps the interrupt character).  When flow-control is turned off,
       screen ignores the XON and XOFF characters, which allows the user  to  send  them  to  the
       current  program  by  simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor, for instance).  The
       trade-off is that it will take longer for output from  a  "normal"  program  to  pause  in
       response  to  an  XOFF.   With flow-control turned on, XON and XOFF characters are used to
       immediately pause the output of the current window.  You can still send  these  characters
       to  the  current  program,  but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).  The xon/xoff commands are also  useful  for
       typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts these characters.

       Each  window  has  an  initial  flow-control  value  set  with either the -f option or the
       "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows are set to automatic  flow-switching.
       It  can  then  be toggled between the three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic'
       interactively with the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with flow control using  the  TIOCPKT  mode  (like
       "rlogin"  does).  If the tty driver does not support TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the
       right mode based on the current setting of the application keypad - when  it  is  enabled,
       flow-control  is  turned  off  and  visa versa.  Of course, you can still manipulate flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and  find  that  pressing  the  interrupt  key
       (usually C-c) does not interrupt the display until another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try
       running screen with the "interrupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command
       in your .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output that screen
       has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.  One disadvantage is that  the
       virtual  terminal's  memory  contains the non-flushed version of the output, which in rare
       cases can cause minor inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if you switch screens  and
       return,  or  update  the  screen  with "C-a l" you would see the version of the output you
       would have gotten without "interrupt" being on.  Also, you might need to  turn  off  flow-
       control  (or  use auto-flow mode to turn it off automatically) when running a program that
       expects you to type the interrupt character as input, as it is possible to  interrupt  the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If
       this happens, a simple refresh of the screen with "C-a l" will restore it.  Give each mode
       a try, and use whichever mode you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)

       You  can  customize  each  window's  name in the window display (viewed with the "windows"
       command (C-a w)) by setting it  with  one  of  the  title  commands.   Normally  the  name
       displayed is the actual command name of the program created in the window.  However, it is
       sometimes useful to distinguish various programs of the same name or to  change  the  name
       on-the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The  default  name  for  all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle" command in the
       .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with a "screen" command and  thus  can
       have  their name set with the -t option.  Interactively, there is the title-string escape-
       sequence (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the "title" command (C-a A).  The  former  can  be  output
       from  an  application  to control the window's name under software control, and the latter
       will prompt for a name when typed.  You can also bind pre-defined names to keys  with  the
       "title"  command  to  set  things  quickly without prompting. Changing title bythis escape
       sequence can be controlled by defdynamictitle and dynamictitle commands.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled  by  setting  the  window's
       name  to "search|name" and arranging to have a null title escape-sequence output as a part
       of your prompt.  The search portion specifies an end-of-prompt search  string,  while  the
       name  portion  specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a `:'
       screen will add what it believes to be the current command running in the  window  to  the
       end  of  the  window's  shell  name (e.g. "name:cmd").  Otherwise the current command name
       supersedes the shell name while it is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell prompt to  output  a  null  title-escape-
       sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as  a part of your prompt.  The last part of your prompt must be
       the same as the string you specified for the search portion of the title.   Once  this  is
       set  up,  screen will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name and
       get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received from the shell, a search
       is  made  for  the  end  of  the  prompt.  If found, it will grab the first word after the
       matched string and use it as the command name.  If the command  name  begins  with  either
       '!',  '%',  or  '^'  screen  will  use  the first word on the following line (if found) in
       preference to the just-found name.  This helps csh users get  better  command  names  when
       using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this  line  to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the "top" command in
       window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                        shelltitle '> |csh'
                        screen 1

       These commands would start a shell with the given shelltitle.  The title specified  is  an
       auto-title  that  would expect the prompt and the typed command to look something like the

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the command name).  The window status  would  show  the  name
       "trn" while the command was running, and revert to "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having  this  command  in  your  .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a R" to the "su"
       command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".   For  this  auto-title  to  work,  the
       screen could look something like this:

                        % !em
                        emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previously entered "emacs"
       command.  The window status would show "root:emacs" during the execution of  the  command,
       and revert to simply "root:" at its completion.

                        bind o title
                        bind E title ""
                        bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you for a title. when you
       type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear an auto-title's  current  setting  (C-a  E).
       The third binding would set the current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One  thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to your prompt is that
       some shells (like the csh) count all the non-control characters as part  of  the  prompt's
       length.   If these invisible characters aren't a multiple of 8 then backspacing over a tab
       will result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a  prompt  like

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The  escape-sequence  "<esc>[0000m"  not only normalizes the character attributes, but all
       the zeros round the length of the invisible characters up to 8.  Bash users will  probably
       want to echo the escape sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "\134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).


       Each  window  in  a  screen  session  emulates a VT100 terminal, with some extra functions
       added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard  as  possible.  But  if
       your  terminal  lacks  certain  capabilities,  the emulation may not be complete. In these
       cases screen has to tell the applications that some of the features are missing.  This  is
       no  problem  on  machines  using  termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your  machine  supports  only  terminfo  this
       method  fails. Because of this, screen offers a way to deal with these cases.  Here is how
       it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first looks  for  an  entry
       named  "screen.<term>",  where  <term> is the contents of your $TERM variable.  If no such
       entry exists, screen tries "screen" (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide  (132  cols  or
       more)).  If even this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The  idea  is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an important feature (e.g.
       delete char or clear to EOS) you can build a new termcap/terminfo entry for screen  (named
       "screen.<dumbterm>")  in  which  this  capability  has  been  disabled.  If  this entry is
       installed on your machines you are able  to  do  a  rlogin  and  still  keep  the  correct
       termcap/terminfo  entry.   The  terminal  name  is  put  in  the $TERM variable of all new
       windows.  Screen also sets the  $TERMCAP  variable  reflecting  the  capabilities  of  the
       virtual  terminal  emulated. Notice that, however, on machines using the terminfo database
       this variable has no effect.  Furthermore, the variable  $WINDOW  is  set  to  the  window
       number of each window.

       The  actual  set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the  virtual  terminal  depends  on the
       capabilities supported by the physical terminal.  If, for instance, the physical  terminal
       does  not support underscore mode, screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities into
       the window's $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum  number  of  capabilities
       must  be  supported  by a terminal in order to run screen; namely scrolling, clear screen,
       and direct cursor addressing (in addition, screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on
       terminals that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the "termcap" .screenrc
       command, or by defining the variable $SCREENCAP prior to  startup.   When  the  is  latter
       defined, its value will be copied verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can
       either be the full terminal definition, or a filename where the terminal "screen"  (and/or
       "screen-w") is defined.

       Note  that  screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system uses the terminfo
       database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for the terminal on which
       screen has been called, the terminal emulation of screen supports multiple character sets.
       This allows an application to make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character  set
       or  national character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are supported:
       lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock shift G3, single shift G2, and
       single  shift G3.  When a virtual terminal is created or reset, the ASCII character set is
       designated as G0 through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present,  screen  evaluates  the
       capabilities  `S0',  `E0',  and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the terminal uses to
       enable and start the graphics character set rather than SI.   `E0'  is  the  corresponding
       replacement  for  SO.  `C0' gives a character by character translation string that is used
       during semi-graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capability.

       When the `po'  and  `pf'  capabilities  are  present  in  the  terminal's  termcap  entry,
       applications  running  in  a  screen  window  can  send  output to the printer port of the
       terminal.  This allows a user to have an application in one window  sending  output  to  a
       printer  connected  to the terminal, while all other windows are still active (the printer
       port is enabled and disabled again for each chunk of output).  As a side-effect,  programs
       running  in different windows can send output to the printer simultaneously.  Data sent to
       the printer is not displayed in the window.  The info command  displays  a  line  starting
       `PRIN' while the printer is active.

       Screen  maintains  a  hardstatus  line  for  every  window. If a window gets selected, the
       display's hardstatus will be updated to match the window's hardstatus line. If the display
       has no hardstatus the line will be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus
       line can be changed with the ANSI Application Program Command  (APC):  "ESC_<string>ESC\".
       As a convenience for xterm users the sequence "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some  capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the virtual terminal if they
       can be efficiently implemented by the physical terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line)
       is  only put into the $TERMCAP variable if the terminal supports either delete line itself
       or scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the session is reattached
       on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The  "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the altscreen .screenrc
       command to enable it.

       The following is a list of control  sequences  recognized  by  screen.   "(V)"  and  "(A)"
       indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific functions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

                                  Pn = 6                     Invisible

                                  Pn = 7                     Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device  Control  String.  Outputs a string directly to the host
                                  terminal without interpretation.

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus, xterm title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute screen command. This only works if  multi-user  support
                                  is  compiled into screen. The pseudo-user ":window:" is used to
                                  check the access control list. Use "addacl :window: -rwx #?" to
                                  create  a  user  with  no  rights  and  allow  only  the needed

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

                                  Pn = None or 0             From Cursor to End of Screen

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

                                  Pn = None or 0             From Cursor to End of Line

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of Line to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps m          Select Graphic Rendition

                                  Ps = None or 0             Default Rendition

                                  Ps = 1                     Bold

                                  Ps = 2                (A)  Faint

                                  Ps = 3                (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

                                  Ps = 4                     Underlined

                                  Ps = 5                     Blinking

                                  Ps = 7                     Negative Image

                                  Ps = 22               (A)  Normal Intensity

                                  Ps = 23               (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI:  Italicized

                                  Ps = 24               (A)  Not Underlined

                                  Ps = 25               (A)  Not Blinking

                                  Ps = 27               (A)  Positive Image

                                  Ps = 30               (A)  Foreground Black

                                  Ps = 31               (A)  Foreground Red

                                  Ps = 32               (A)  Foreground Green

                                  Ps = 33               (A)  Foreground Yellow

                                  Ps = 34               (A)  Foreground Blue

                                  Ps = 35               (A)  Foreground Magenta

                                  Ps = 36               (A)  Foreground Cyan

                                  Ps = 37               (A)  Foreground White

                                  Ps = 39               (A)  Foreground Default

                                  Ps = 40               (A)  Background Black

                                  Ps =                      …

                                  Ps = 49               (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

                                  Pn = None or 0             Clear Tab at Current Position

                                  Pn = 3                     Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps h          Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps l          Reset Mode

                                  Ps = 4                (A)  Insert Mode

                                  Ps = 20               (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

                                  Ps = 34                    Normal Cursor Visibility

                                  Ps = ?1               (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                                  Ps = ?3               (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

                                  Ps = ?5               (V)  Reverse Video

                                  Ps = ?6               (V)  Origin Mode

                                  Ps = ?7               (V)  Wrap Mode

                                  Ps = ?9                    X10 mouse tracking

                                  Ps = ?25              (V)  Visible Cursor

                                  Ps = ?47                   Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1000            (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

                                  Ps = ?1047                 Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1049                 Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize  the  window  to  `Ph'  lines  and `Pw' columns (SunView

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send VT220 Secondary Device Attributes String

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report


       In order to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a sequence  of  characters
       in  the  input  stream  was  generated by a keypress on the user's keyboard and insert the
       VT100 style escape sequence. Screen has a very flexible way of doing  this  by  making  it
       possible  to  map  arbitrary  commands  on arbitrary sequences of characters. For standard
       VT100 emulation the command will always insert a string in the input buffer of the  window
       (see  also  command  stuff  in  the  command table).  Because the sequences generated by a
       keypress can change after a reattach from a different terminal type,  it  is  possible  to
       bind  commands  to  the  termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the correct binding
       after each reattach. See the bindkey  command  for  further  details  on  the  syntax  and

       Here  is  the table of the default key bindings. The fourth is what command is executed if
       the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       │Key name        │ Termcap name │ Command  │ App mode │
       │Cursor up       │ ku           │ \033[A   │ \033OA   │
       │Cursor down     │ kd           │ \033[B   │ \033OB   │
       │Cursor right    │ kr           │ \033[C   │ \033OC   │
       │Cursor left     │ kl           │ \033[D   │ \033OD   │
       │Function key 0  │ k0           │ \033[10~ │          │
       │Function key 1  │ k1           │ \033OP   │          │
       │Function key 2  │ k2           │ \033OQ   │          │
       │Function key 3  │ k3           │ \033OR   │          │
       │Function key 4  │ k4           │ \033OS   │          │
       │Function key 5  │ k5           │ \033[15~ │          │
       │Function key 6  │ k6           │ \033[17~ │          │
       │Function key 7  │ k7           │ \033[18~ │          │
       │Function key 8  │ k8           │ \033[19~ │          │
       │Function key 9  │ k9           │ \033[20~ │          │
       │Function key 10 │ k;           │ \033[21~ │          │
       │Function key 11 │ F1           │ \033[23~ │          │
       │Function key 12 │ F2           │ \033[24~ │          │
       │Home            │ kh           │ \033[1~  │          │
       │End             │ kH           │ \033[4~  │          │
       │Insert          │ kI           │ \033[2~  │          │
       │Delete          │ kD           │ \033[3~  │          │
       │Page up         │ kP           │ \033[5~  │          │
       │Page down       │ kN           │ \033[6~  │          │
       │Keypad 0        │ f0           │ 0        │ \033Op   │
       │Keypad 1        │ f1           │ 1        │ \033Oq   │
       │Keypad 2        │ f2           │ 2        │ \033Or   │
       │Keypad 3        │ f3           │ 3        │ \033Os   │
       │Keypad 4        │ f4           │ 4        │ \033Ot   │
       │Keypad 5        │ f5           │ 5        │ \033Ou   │
       │Keypad 6        │ f6           │ 6        │ \033Ov   │
       │Keypad 7        │ f7           │ 7        │ \033Ow   │
       │Keypad 8        │ f8           │ 8        │ \033Ox   │
       │Keypad 9        │ f9           │ 9        │ \033Oy   │
       │Keypad +        │ f+           │ +        │ \033Ok   │
       │Keypad -        │ f-           │ -        │ \033Om   │
       │Keypad *        │ f*           │ *        │ \033Oj   │
       │Keypad /        │ f/           │ /        │ \033Oo   │
       │Keypad =        │ fq           ├──────────┤ \033OX   │
       │Keypad .        │ f.           │ .        │ \033On   │
       │Keypad ,        │ f,           │ ,        │ \033Ol   │
       │Keypad enter    │ fe           │ \015     │ \033OM   │


       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recognized by screen  and
       are  not  in  the  termcap(5)  manual.   You  can place these capabilities in your termcap
       entries (in `/etc/termcap') or use  them  with  the  commands  `termcap',  `terminfo'  and
       `termcapinfo' in your screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities
       in the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note that this capability
                    is obsolete because screen uses the standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display.  This  capability  has  the  desired  width  and  height  as
                    arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct to the application.
                    Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset. Default is '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset. Default is '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use  the  string  as a conversion table for font '0'. See the 'ac' capability
                    for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more details.

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the  terminal.  See  the  'encoding'  command  for  valid

       AF   (str)   Change  character  foreground  color  in an ANSI conform way. This capability
                    will almost always be set to '\E[3%dm' ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default fg/bg color (\E[39m / \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to  strings  depending  on  the  current
                    font. More details follow in the next section.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g. Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set by default).


       Screen  has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary strings depending on
       the current font and terminal type.  Use this feature if you want to work  with  a  common
       standard  character  set  (say  ISO8851-latin1)  even  on  terminals that scatter the more
       unusual characters over several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font <designator>  ('B':  Ascii,
       'A': UK, 'K': German, etc.)  to strings. Every <mapping> describes to what string a single
       character will be translated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the  codes
       have  a  lot  in  common (for example strings to switch to and from another charset). Each
       occurrence of '%'  in  <template>  gets  substituted  with  the  <template-arg>  specified
       together  with  the  character.  If your strings are not similar at all, then use '%' as a
       template and place the full string in <template-arg>. A quoting  mechanism  was  added  to
       make  it  possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the special characters '\',
       '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case umlaut characters on
       a  hp700  terminal that has a German charset. '\304' gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B' and so
       on.  Note that this line gets parsed *three* times before the  internal  lookup  table  is
       built, therefore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another  extension was added to allow more emulation: If a mapping translates the unquoted
       '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal whenever screen switches  to  the  corresponding
       <designator>.  In  this  special  case  the template is assumed to be just '%' because the
       charset switch sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If screen has to change
       to  the  'K'  charset, '\E(B' will be sent to the terminal, i.e. the ASCII charset is used
       instead. The template is just '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to  '\304',  '\'
       to '\326', and ']' to '\334'.


       COLUMNS        Number of columns on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of lines on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default  shell  program  for opening windows (default "/bin/sh").  See also
                      "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).


       …/screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc   Examples in the screen distribution package for  private
                                         and global initialization files.
       /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /run/screen/S-<login>             Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output function
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen `interprocess communication buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created by the log function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /run/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.


       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)


       Originally  created by Oliver Laumann. For a long time maintained and developed by Juergen
       Weigert, Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan and Sadrul Habib Chowdhury.  This  latest  version
       was   produced   by   Amadeusz   Slawinski   <>   and   Alexander   Naumov


       Copyright (c) 2015-2017
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
            Micah Cowan <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the  GNU  General  Public  License  as  published  by the Free Software Foundation; either
       version 3, or (at your option) any later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY  WARRANTY;
       without  even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this  program
       (see  the  file  COPYING);  if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple
       Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA


       Eric S. Raymond <>,
       Thomas Renninger <>,
       Axel Beckert <>,
       Ken Beal <>,
       Rudolf Koenig <>,
       Toerless Eckert <>,
       Wayne Davison <>,
       Patrick Wolfe <, kailand!pat>,
       Bart Schaefer <>,
       Nathan Glasser <>,
       Larry W. Virden <>,
       Howard Chu <>,
       Tim MacKenzie <>,
       Markku Jarvinen <mta@{cc,cs,ee}>,
       Marc Boucher <marc@CAM.ORG>,
       Doug Siebert <>,
       Ken Stillson <>,
       Ian Frechett <frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU>,
       Brian Koehmstedt <>,
       Don Smith <>,
       Frank van der Linden <>,
       Martin Schweikert <>,
       David Vrona <>,
       E. Tye McQueen <>,
       Matthew Green <>,
       Christopher Williams <>,
       Matt Mosley <>,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro <gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU>,
       Johannes Zellner <>,
       Pablo Averbuj <>.


       The   latest   official   release   of   screen   available   via   anonymous   ftp   from  or  any  other  GNU distribution site. The home site of screen is  If  you  want  to  help,  send  a  note   to   screen-


       •  `dm'  (delete  mode)  and  `xs'  are  not handled correctly (they are ignored). `xn' is
          treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       •  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But this is  the  only
          area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       •  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP when reattaching under a
          different terminal type.

       •  The support of terminfo based systems is very limited.  Adding  extra  capabilities  to
          $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       •  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       •  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most systems in order to be able
          to correctly change the owner  of  the  tty  device  file  for  each  window.   Special
          permission may also be required to write the file "/run/utmp".

       •  Entries  in  "/run/utmp" are not removed when screen is killed with SIGKILL.  This will
          cause some programs (like "w" or "rwho") to advertise that a  user  is  logged  on  who
          really isn't.

       •  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       •  When  the  modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach (or quit) unless
          the device driver is configured to send a HANGUP signal.  To detach  a  screen  session
          use the -D or -d command line option.

       •  If a password is set, the command line options -d and -D still detach a session without

       •  Both "breaktype" and "defbreaktype" change the break  generating  method  used  by  all
          terminal  devices.  The first should change a window specific setting, where the latter
          should change only the default for new windows.

       •  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file is not  sourced.  Each
          user's  personal  settings  have  to  be  included in the .screenrc file from which the
          session is booted, or have to be changed manually.

       •  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the features.

       •  Send bug-reports, fixes,  enhancements,  t-shirts,  money,  beer  &  pizza  to  screen-