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       This  manual  page  is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of
       this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux  manual  page  for  details  of
       Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.


       chmod, fchmodat — change mode of a file relative to directory file descriptor


       #include <sys/stat.h>

       int chmod(const char *path, mode_t mode);
       int fchmodat(int fd, const char *path, mode_t mode, int flag);


       The  chmod() function shall change S_ISUID, S_ISGID, S_ISVTX, and the file permission bits
       of the file named by the pathname pointed to by the path  argument  to  the  corresponding
       bits  in the mode argument. The application shall ensure that the effective user ID of the
       process matches the owner of the file or the process has appropriate privileges  in  order
       to do this.

       S_ISUID, S_ISGID, S_ISVTX, and the file permission bits are described in <sys/stat.h>.

       If  the  calling  process does not have appropriate privileges, and if the group ID of the
       file does not match the effective group ID or one of the supplementary group  IDs  and  if
       the  file  is  a  regular file, bit S_ISGID (set-group-ID on execution) in the file's mode
       shall be cleared upon successful return from chmod().

       Additional implementation-defined restrictions may cause the S_ISUID and S_ISGID  bits  in
       mode to be ignored.

       Upon  successful  completion,  chmod()  shall  mark for update the last file status change
       timestamp of the file.

       The fchmodat() function shall be equivalent to the chmod() function  except  in  the  case
       where  path  specifies  a relative path. In this case the file to be changed is determined
       relative to the directory associated with the file descriptor fd instead  of  the  current
       working  directory. If the file descriptor was opened without O_SEARCH, the function shall
       check whether directory searches are  permitted  using  the  current  permissions  of  the
       directory underlying the file descriptor. If the file descriptor was opened with O_SEARCH,
       the function shall not perform the check.

       Values for flag are constructed by a bitwise-inclusive OR  of  flags  from  the  following
       list, defined in <fcntl.h>:

             If path names a symbolic link, then the mode of the symbolic link is changed.

       If  fchmodat()  is  passed  the  special  value  AT_FDCWD in the fd parameter, the current
       working directory shall be used. If also flag is zero, the behavior shall be identical  to
       a call to chmod().


       Upon  successful  completion,  these functions shall return 0.  Otherwise, these functions
       shall return −1 and set errno to indicate the error. If −1 is returned, no change  to  the
       file mode occurs.


       These functions shall fail if:

       EACCES Search permission is denied on a component of the path prefix.

       ELOOP  A loop exists in symbolic links encountered during resolution of the path argument.

              The length of a component of a pathname is longer than {NAME_MAX}.

       ENOENT A component of path does not name an existing file or path is an empty string.

              A  component  of the path prefix names an existing file that is neither a directory
              nor a symbolic link to a directory, or the path  argument  contains  at  least  one
              non-<slash> character and ends with one or more trailing <slash> characters and the
              last pathname component names an existing file that is neither a  directory  nor  a
              symbolic link to a directory.

       EPERM  The effective user ID does not match the owner of the file and the process does not
              have appropriate privileges.

       EROFS  The named file resides on a read-only file system.

       The fchmodat() function shall fail if:

       EACCES fd was not opened with O_SEARCH and the permissions of the directory underlying  fd
              do not permit directory searches.

       EBADF  The  path argument does not specify an absolute path and the fd argument is neither
              AT_FDCWD nor a valid file descriptor open for reading or searching.

              The path argument is not an absolute path and fd is a  file  descriptor  associated
              with a non-directory file.

       These functions may fail if:

       EINTR  A signal was caught during execution of the function.

       EINVAL The value of the mode argument is invalid.

       ELOOP  More  than  {SYMLOOP_MAX}  symbolic links were encountered during resolution of the
              path argument.

              The length of a pathname exceeds {PATH_MAX}, or pathname resolution of  a  symbolic
              link produced an intermediate result with a length that exceeds {PATH_MAX}.

       The fchmodat() function may fail if:

       EINVAL The value of the flag argument is invalid.

              The  AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW  bit  is  set  in the flag argument, path names a symbolic
              link, and the system does not support changing the mode of a symbolic link.

       The following sections are informative.


   Setting Read Permissions for User, Group, and Others
       The following example sets read permissions for the owner, group, and others.

           #include <sys/stat.h>

           const char *path;
           chmod(path, S_IRUSR|S_IRGRP|S_IROTH);

   Setting Read, Write, and Execute Permissions for the Owner Only
       The following example sets read, write, and execute permissions  for  the  owner,  and  no
       permissions for group and others.

           #include <sys/stat.h>

           const char *path;
           chmod(path, S_IRWXU);

   Setting Different Permissions for Owner, Group, and Other
       The  following  example sets owner permissions for CHANGEFILE to read, write, and execute,
       group permissions to read and execute, and other permissions to read.

           #include <sys/stat.h>

           #define CHANGEFILE "/etc/myfile"

   Setting and Checking File Permissions
       The following example sets the file permission bits for a file named /home/cnd/mod1,  then
       calls the stat() function to verify the permissions.

           #include <sys/types.h>
           #include <sys/stat.h>

           int status;
           struct stat buffer
           chmod("home/cnd/mod1", S_IRWXU|S_IRWXG|S_IROTH|S_IWOTH);
           status = stat("home/cnd/mod1", &buffer;);


       In  order  to  ensure  that the S_ISUID and S_ISGID bits are set, an application requiring
       this should use stat() after a successful chmod() to verify this.

       Any file descriptors currently open by any process  on  the  file  could  possibly  become
       invalid  if  the  mode  of  the file is changed to a value which would deny access to that
       process. One situation where this could occur is on a stateless file system. This behavior
       will not occur in a conforming environment.


       This  volume  of  POSIX.1‐2008  specifies  that the S_ISGID bit is cleared by chmod() on a
       regular file under certain conditions. This is specified on the  assumption  that  regular
       files may be executed, and the system should prevent users from making executable setgid()
       files perform with privileges that the caller  does  not  have.  On  implementations  that
       support  execution  of  other file types, the S_ISGID bit should be cleared for those file
       types under the same circumstances.

       Implementations that use the S_ISUID bit to indicate some  other  function  (for  example,
       mandatory record locking) on non-executable files need not clear this bit on writing. They
       should clear the bit for executable files and any other cases where the bit grants special
       powers  to  processes that change the file contents. Similar comments apply to the S_ISGID

       The purpose of the fchmodat() function  is  to  enable  changing  the  mode  of  files  in
       directories  other than the current working directory without exposure to race conditions.
       Any part of the path of a file could  be  changed  in  parallel  to  a  call  to  chmod(),
       resulting  in  unspecified behavior. By opening a file descriptor for the target directory
       and using the fchmodat() function it can be guaranteed that the changed  file  is  located
       relative  to  the desired directory. Some implementations might allow changing the mode of
       symbolic links. This is not supported  by  the  interfaces  in  the  POSIX  specification.
       Systems  with  such  support  provide  an  interface  named  lchmod().   To  support  such
       implementations fchmodat() has a flag parameter.




       access(), chown(), exec, fstatat(), fstatvfs(), mkdir(), mkfifo(), mknod(), open()

       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, <fcntl.h>, <sys_stat.h>, <sys_types.h>


       Portions of this text are reprinted and  reproduced  in  electronic  form  from  IEEE  Std
       1003.1,  2013  Edition,  Standard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
       Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013  by  the
       Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics  Engineers,  Inc and The Open Group.  (This is
       POSIX.1-2008 with the  2013  Technical  Corrigendum  1  applied.)  In  the  event  of  any
       discrepancy  between  this  version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the
       original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The  original  Standard
       can be obtained online at .

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