Provided by: backintime-common_1.1.12-2_all bug


       backintime - a simple backup tool for Linux.

       This is the command line tool.  The graphical tool is backintime-qt4.


       backintime  [--checksum] [--config PATH] [--debug] [--delete] [--help | -h] [--keep-mount]
       [--license]  [--local-backup]  [--no-crontab]  [--no-local-backup]   [--profile   NAME   |
       --profile-id ID] [--quiet] [--version]

       {  backup  |  backup-job  |  benchmark-cipher [FILE-SIZE] | check-config | decode [PATH] |
       last-snapshot  |  last-snapshot-path  |  pw-cache   [start|stop|restart|reload|status]   |
       remove[-and-do-not-ask-again]  [SNAPSHOT_ID]  |  restore  [WHAT  [WHERE  [SNAPSHOT_ID]]] |
       snapshots-list | snapshots-list-path | snapshots-path | unmount }


       Back In Time is a simple backup tool for Linux. The backup is done by taking snapshots  of
       a specified set of folders.

       All you have to do is configure: where to save snapshots, what folders to backup.  You can
       also specify a backup schedule: disabled, every 5 minutes, every 10 minutes,  every  hour,
       every  day,  every  week, every month. To configure it use one of the graphical interfaces
       available (backintime-gnome or backintime-kde4).

       It acts as a 'user mode' backup tool. This means that you can backup/restore only  folders
       you have write access to (actually you can backup read-only folders, but you can't restore

       If you want to run it as root you need to use 'sudo -i backintime'.

       A new snapshot is created only if something changed since the last snapshot (if any).

       A snapshot contains all the files from the selected folders (except for exclude patterns).
       In  order  to  reduce  disk  space  it  use hard-links (if possible) between snapshots for
       unchanged files. This way a file of 10MiB, unchanged for 10 snapshots, will use only 10MiB
       on the disk.

       When you restore a file 'A', if it already exists on the file system it will be renamed to

       For automatic backup it use 'cron' so there is no need for a daemon, but  'cron'  must  be

           Store  snapshots  on local HDD's (internal or USB). The drive has to be mounted before
           creating a new snapshot.

       Local encrypted
           Store encrypted snapshots on local HDD's (internal or USB).  Back In Time uses 'encfs'
           with  standard  configuration  to  encrypt  all data.  Please take a look at A NOTE ON
           SECURITY.  You have to be member of group fuse to use this.  In  terminal  type  'sudo
           adduser <USER> fuse'. To apply changes you have to logout and login again.

           With  Mode  set  to  SSH  you  can  store  the  backup  on  a  remote  host  using the
           SecureShellHost protocol (ssh).  The remote path will be mount local  using  sshfs  to
           provide  file-access  for  the  graphical interface and the backup process.  Rsync and
           other processes called during backup process will run  directly  on  the  remote  host
           using ssh.

           To  prepare your user account for ssh-mode you have to add the user to group 'fuse' by
           typing 'sudo adduser <USER> fuse' in terminal.  To apply changes you  have  to  logout
           and login again.

           Next  you  have  to  create  a  password-less  login  to  the remote host (for further
           information  look  at   Type   in
           terminal 'ssh-keygen -t rsa' hit enter for default path and enter a passphrase for the
           private key.

           Finally type 'ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/ <REMOTE_USER>@<HOST>'  and  enter  your
           password on remote host.

           In  Settingsdialog  you  need to set the host and remote user. If you enter a relative
           path (no leading / ) it will start from remote users homedir. The password has  to  be
           the passphrase for your private key.

           Cipher (the algorithm used to encrypt the data during transfer)
           To  optimize  performance  you  can  choose  the cipher used by ssh. Depending on your
           environment you can have a massive speed increase compared to the default cipher.

           benchmark-cipher will give you an overview over which cipher is the  fastest  in  your

           If  the  bottleneck  of your environment is the hard-drive or the network you will not
           see a big difference between the ciphers. In this  case  you  should  rather  stay  on

           Please  read  security  information  about  the  cipher before using them in untrusted
           networks (Wifi, Internet). Some of them (Arcfour, 3DES, ...) should be handled as  not
           secure anymore.

           Remote Host
           If  your  remote  host  is  an  embedded  Linux  NAS  or any other device with limited
           functions, you could run into some problems  caused  by  feature-less  commands.   For
           example  some  devices may not have hardlink support for 'cp', 'chmod' and 'rsync'. In
           this case it may help to install so-called  Optware  or  Entware  on  your  device  if

           If  you don't know how to compile packages and how to modify a Linux system you should
           NOT try to do this. There is a significant chance to break your  device  and  make  it
           completely  unusable  with  the following procedure. We will not take any warranty for
           this. Make a backup of your device before proceed!  You have been warned!

           You should install at least packages called 'bash', 'coreutils' and 'rsync'.  You will
           have to change users default shell from '/bin/sh' to '/opt/bin/bash' in '/etc/passwd'.
           To add '/opt/bin:/opt/sbin:' to the start of the PATH environment  you  can  use  'Add
           prefix to SSH commands' in 'Expert Options' with 'PATH=/opt/bin:/opt/sbin:\ATH'.

           To  check  if  it  does  work  you  can  compare  the  output  of '/bin/cp --help' and
           '/opt/bin/cp --help'. If 'ssh <user>@<host> cp --help' called from your PC will  print
           the  same  as  '/opt/bin/cp  --help'  called  on  the remote host (via interactive ssh
           session) you are ready to go.

           If you have questions on how to install and configure the Optware please refer to  the
           community  of  your  device.  You  can  also take a look on Back In Time FAQ on GitHub

           If you successfully modified your device to be able to make backups over ssh, it would
           be nice if you write a 'How to' on Launchpad's Answers so we can add this to the FAQ.

       SSH encrypted
           Store encrypted snapshots on remote hosts using SSH. Backintime uses 'encfs --reverse'
           to mount the root filesystem '/'. Rsync will sync this encrypted  view  of  '/'  to  a
           remote  host over SSH. All encoding will be done on the local machine. So the password
           will never be exposed to the remote host and you can use the (normally) more  powerful
           processor  in you local machine for encryption instead of weak NAS CPU's. The downside
           on this  is  'encfs  --reverse'  does  not  support  'Filename  Initialization  Vector
           Chaining'  and 'Per-File Initialization Vectors' from the standard configuration (take
           a look at 'man encfs' for further information). Please  take  a  look  at  A  NOTE  ON

           Because of all data is transferred encrypted the log output shows encrypted filenames,
           too. In  the  Logview-Dialog  you  can  use  'decode'  option  to  decrypt  the  paths
           automatically  or  you  can use 'backintime decode' to manually decrypt paths. Back In
           Time will show all snapshots decoded so you can browse all files as normal.

           Exclude does not support wildcards ('foo*', '[fF]oo', 'fo?') because after encoding  a
           file  these  wildcards  can't match any more. Only separate asterisk that match a full
           file or folder will  work  ('foo/*',  'foo/**/bar').  All  other  excludes  that  have
           wildcards will be silently ignored.

           Please  refer  to  the  'SSH'  section  above  for  information  on setting up the SSH

       If 'Save Password to Keyring' is activated Back  In  Time  will  save  the  Password  into
       GnomeKeyring  (Seahorse)  or  KDE-KWallet. Both are secure password storages which encrypt
       the password with the users login-password. So they can only be accessed if  the  user  is
       logged in.

       A  backup  cronjob  during  the  user  isn't  logged  in can not collect the password from
       keyring. Also if the homedir is encrypted the keyring  is  not  accessible  from  cronjobs
       (even  if  the  user  is logged in). For these cases the password can be cached in RAM. If
       'Cache Password for Cron' is activated Back In Time will start a  small  daemon  in  user-
       space  which  will  collect  the password from keyring and provide them for cronjobs. They
       will never be written to the harddrive but a user with root permissions could  access  the
       daemon and read the password.

       During  backup  process the application can call a user callback at different steps.  This
       callback is "$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/backintime/user-callback" (by  default  $XDG_CONFIG_HOME  is

       The first argument is the profile id (1=Main Profile, ...).

       The second argument is the profile name.

       The third argument is the reason:

              1      Backup process begins.

              2      Backup process ends.

              3      A  new  snapshot was taken. The extra arguments are snapshot ID and snapshot

              4      There was an error. The second argument is the error code.
                     Error codes:

                     1      The application is not configured.

                     2      A "take snapshot" process is already running.

                     3      Can't find snapshots folder (is it on a removable drive ?).

                     4      A snapshot for "now" already exist.

              5      On (graphical) App start.

              6      On (graphical) App close.

              7      Mount all necessary drives.

              8      Unmount all drives.


              Force to use checksum for checking if files have been changed. This is the same  as
              'Use  checksum  to detect changes' in Options. But you can use this to periodically
              run checksums from cronjobs. Only valid with backup, backup-job and restore.

       --config PATH
              Read config from PATH.

              Show debug messages.

              Restore and delete newer files which are not in the  snapshot.   WARNING:  deleting
              files in filesystem root could break your whole system!!!  Only valid with restore.

       -h, --help
              Display a short help

              Don't  unmount  on  exit.  Only  valid with snapshots-path, snapshots-list-path and

              Show license

              Create backup files before changing local files.  Only valid with restore.

              Do not install crontab entries.  Only valid with check-config.

              Temporary disable creation of backup files before changing local files.  Only valid
              with restore.

       --profile NAME
              Select profile by name

       --profile-id ID
              Select profile by id

              Suppress status messages on standard output.

       -v, --version
              Show version


       backup | -b | --backup
              Take a snapshot now (if needed)

       backup-job | --backup-job
              Take a snapshot (if needed) depending on schedule rules (used for cron jobs).  Back
              In Time will run in background for this.

       benchmark-cipher | --benchmark-cipher [FILE-SIZE]
              Show a benchmark of all ciphers for ssh transfer.

              Verify the profile in config, create snapshot path and crontab entries.

       decode | --decode [PATH]
              Decode encrypted PATH. If no PATH is given  Back  In  Time  will  read  paths  from
              standard input.

       last-snapshot | --last-snapshot
              Display last snapshot ID (if any)

       last-snapshot-path | --last-snapshot-path
              Display the path to the last snapshot (if any)

       pw-cache | --pw-cache [start|stop|restart|reload|status]
              Control  the Password Cache Daemon. If no argument is given the Password Cache will
              start in foreground.

       remove[-and-do-not-ask-again] | --remove[-and-do-not-ask-again] [SNAPSHOT_ID]
              Remove the snapshot. If SNAPSHOT_ID is missing it will be prompted. SNAPSHOT_ID can
              be  an  index  (starting  with 0 for the last snapshot) or the exact SnapshotID (19
              caracters like '20130606-230501-984').  remove-and-do-not-ask-again will remove the
              snapshot immediately.  Be careful with this!

       restore | --restore [WHAT [WHERE [SNAPSHOT_ID]]]
              Restore file WHAT to path WHERE from snapshot SNAPSHOT_ID. If arguments are missing
              they will be prompted. To restore to the original path WHERE can be an empty string
              ''  or just press Enter at the prompt. SNAPSHOT_ID can be an index (starting with 0
              for  the  last   snapshot)   or   the   exact   SnapshotID   (19   caracters   like

       snapshots-list | --snapshots-list
              Display the list of snapshot IDs (if any)

       snapshots-list-path | --snapshots-list-path
              Display the paths to snapshots (if any)

       snapshots-path | --snapshots-path
              Display path where is saves the snapshots (if configured)

       unmount | --unmount
              Unmount the profile.


       There  was  a  paid  security audit for EncFS in Feb 2014 which revealed several potential

              EncFS is probably safe as  long  as  the  adversary  only  gets  one  copy  of  the
              ciphertext and nothing more. EncFS is not safe if the adversary has the opportunity
              to see two or more snapshots of the ciphertext at different times.  EncFS  attempts
              to  protect  files from malicious modification, but there are serious problems with
              this feature.

       This might be a problem with Back In Time snapshots.


       backintime-qt4, backintime-config.

       Back In Time also has a website:


       This manual page was written by BIT Team(<>).