Provided by: git-man_2.17.1-1ubuntu0.18_all bug


       git-commit - Record changes to the repository


       git commit [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
                  [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
                  [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
                  [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
                  [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
                  [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]


       Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along with a log message from the
       user describing the changes.

       The content to be added can be specified in several ways:

        1. by using git add to incrementally "add" changes to the index before using the commit
           command (Note: even modified files must be "added");

        2. by using git rm to remove files from the working tree and the index, again before
           using the commit command;

        3. by listing files as arguments to the commit command (without --interactive or --patch
           switch), in which case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
           record the current content of the listed files (which must already be known to Git);

        4. by using the -a switch with the commit command to automatically "add" changes from all
           known files (i.e. all files that are already listed in the index) and to automatically
           "rm" files in the index that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform
           the actual commit;

        5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the commit command to decide one
           by one which files or hunks should be part of the commit in addition to contents in
           the index, before finalizing the operation. See the “Interactive Mode” section of git-
           add(1) to learn how to operate these modes.

       The --dry-run option can be used to obtain a summary of what is included by any of the
       above for the next commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).

       If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after that, you can recover from
       it with git reset.


       -a, --all
           Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been modified and deleted, but
           new files you have not told Git about are not affected.

       -p, --patch
           Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose which changes to commit. See
           git-add(1) for details.

       -C <commit>, --reuse-message=<commit>
           Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message and the authorship
           information (including the timestamp) when creating the commit.

       -c <commit>, --reedit-message=<commit>
           Like -C, but with -c the editor is invoked, so that the user can further edit the
           commit message.

           Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The commit message will
           be the subject line from the specified commit with a prefix of "fixup! ". See git-
           rebase(1) for details.

           Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The commit message
           subject line is taken from the specified commit with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be
           used with additional commit message options (-m/-c/-C/-F). See git-rebase(1) for

           When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a conflicting
           cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the resulting commit now belongs to the
           committer. This also renews the author timestamp.

           When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See git-status(1) for
           details. Implies --dry-run.

           Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.

           When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready format. See git-status(1)
           for details. Implies --dry-run.

           When doing a dry-run, give the output in the long-format. Implies --dry-run.

       -z, --null
           When showing short or porcelain status output, print the filename verbatim and
           terminate the entries with NUL, instead of LF. If no format is given, implies the
           --porcelain output format. Without the -z option, filenames with "unusual" characters
           are quoted as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-

       -F <file>, --file=<file>
           Take the commit message from the given file. Use - to read the message from the
           standard input.

           Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the standard A U Thor
           <> format. Otherwise <author> is assumed to be a pattern and is used
           to search for an existing commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i
           --author=<author>); the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.

           Override the author date used in the commit.

       -m <msg>, --message=<msg>
           Use the given <msg> as the commit message. If multiple -m options are given, their
           values are concatenated as separate paragraphs.

           The -m option is mutually exclusive with -c, -C, and -F.

       -t <file>, --template=<file>
           When editing the commit message, start the editor with the contents in the given file.
           The commit.template configuration variable is often used to give this option
           implicitly to the command. This mechanism can be used by projects that want to guide
           participants with some hints on what to write in the message in what order. If the
           user exits the editor without editing the message, the commit is aborted. This has no
           effect when a message is given by other means, e.g. with the -m or -F options.

       -s, --signoff
           Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit log message. The
           meaning of a signoff depends on the project, but it typically certifies that committer
           has the rights to submit this work under the same license and agrees to a Developer
           Certificate of Origin (see for more information).

       -n, --no-verify
           This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks. See also githooks(5).

           Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its sole parent commit is a
           mistake, and the command prevents you from making such a commit. This option bypasses
           the safety, and is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.

           Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.
           It allows you to create a commit with an empty commit message without using plumbing
           commands like git-commit-tree(1).

           This option determines how the supplied commit message should be cleaned up before
           committing. The <mode> can be strip, whitespace, verbatim, scissors or default.

               Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace, commentary and
               collapse consecutive empty lines.

               Same as strip except #commentary is not removed.

               Do not change the message at all.

               Same as whitespace except that everything from (and including) the line found
               below is truncated, if the message is to be edited. "#" can be customized with

                   # ------------------------ >8 ------------------------

               Same as strip if the message is to be edited. Otherwise whitespace.

           The default can be changed by the commit.cleanup configuration variable (see git-

       -e, --edit
           The message taken from file with -F, command line with -m, and from commit object with
           -C are usually used as the commit log message unmodified. This option lets you further
           edit the message taken from these sources.

           Use the selected commit message without launching an editor. For example, git commit
           --amend --no-edit amends a commit without changing its commit message.

           Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new commit. The recorded tree is
           prepared as usual (including the effect of the -i and -o options and explicit
           pathspec), and the message from the original commit is used as the starting point,
           instead of an empty message, when no other message is specified from the command line
           via options such as -m, -F, -c, etc. The new commit has the same parents and author as
           the current one (the --reset-author option can countermand this).

           It is a rough equivalent for:

                       $ git reset --soft HEAD^
                       $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
                       $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD

           but can be used to amend a merge commit.

           You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you amend a commit that
           has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-

           Bypass the post-rewrite hook.

       -i, --include
           Before making a commit out of staged contents so far, stage the contents of paths
           given on the command line as well. This is usually not what you want unless you are
           concluding a conflicted merge.

       -o, --only
           Make a commit by taking the updated working tree contents of the paths specified on
           the command line, disregarding any contents that have been staged for other paths.
           This is the default mode of operation of git commit if any paths are given on the
           command line, in which case this option can be omitted. If this option is specified
           together with --amend, then no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
           the last commit without committing changes that have already been staged. If used
           together with --allow-empty paths are also not required, and an empty commit will be

       -u[<mode>], --untracked-files[=<mode>]
           Show untracked files.

           The mode parameter is optional (defaults to all), and is used to specify the handling
           of untracked files; when -u is not used, the default is normal, i.e. show untracked
           files and directories.

           The possible options are:

           •   no - Show no untracked files

           •   normal - Shows untracked files and directories

           •   all - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.

               The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles configuration
               variable documented in git-config(1).

       -v, --verbose
           Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would be committed at the bottom of
           the commit message template to help the user describe the commit by reminding what
           changes the commit has. Note that this diff output doesn’t have its lines prefixed
           with #. This diff will not be a part of the commit message. See the commit.verbose
           configuration variable in git-config(1).

           If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between what would be committed
           and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged changes to tracked files.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress commit summary message.

           Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are to be committed, paths with
           local changes that will be left uncommitted and paths that are untracked.

           Include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message template when using an
           editor to prepare the commit message. Defaults to on, but can be used to override
           configuration variable commit.status.

           Do not include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message template when using
           an editor to prepare the default commit message.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
           GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to the committer
           identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the option without a space.

           Countermand commit.gpgSign configuration variable that is set to force each and every
           commit to be signed.

           Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

           When files are given on the command line, the command commits the contents of the
           named files, without recording the changes already staged. The contents of these files
           are also staged for the next commit on top of what have been staged before.


       The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables and the --date option
       support the following date formats:

       Git internal format
           It is <unix timestamp> <time zone offset>, where <unix timestamp> is the number of
           seconds since the UNIX epoch.  <time zone offset> is a positive or negative offset
           from UTC. For example CET (which is 1 hour ahead of UTC) is +0100.

       RFC 2822
           The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example Thu, 07 Apr 2005
           22:13:13 +0200.

       ISO 8601
           Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example 2005-04-07T22:13:13. The
           parser accepts a space instead of the T character as well.

               In addition, the date part is accepted in the following formats: YYYY.MM.DD,
               MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.


       When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in your working tree are
       temporarily stored to a staging area called the "index" with git add. A file can be
       reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree, to that of the last commit
       with git reset HEAD -- <file>, which effectively reverts git add and prevents the changes
       to this file from participating in the next commit. After building the state to be
       committed incrementally with these commands, git commit (without any pathname parameter)
       is used to record what has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the command.
       An example:

           $ edit hello.c
           $ git rm goodbye.c
           $ git add hello.c
           $ git commit

       Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can tell git commit to notice
       the changes to the files whose contents are tracked in your working tree and do
       corresponding git add and git rm for you. That is, this example does the same as the
       earlier example if there is no other change in your working tree:

           $ edit hello.c
           $ rm goodbye.c
           $ git commit -a

       The command git commit -a first looks at your working tree, notices that you have modified
       hello.c and removed goodbye.c, and performs necessary git add and git rm for you.

       After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the changes are recorded in,
       by giving pathnames to git commit. When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit
       that only records the changes made to the named paths:

           $ edit hello.c hello.h
           $ git add hello.c hello.h
           $ edit Makefile
           $ git commit Makefile

       This makes a commit that records the modification to Makefile. The changes staged for
       hello.c and hello.h are not included in the resulting commit. However, their changes are
       not lost — they are still staged and merely held back. After the above sequence, if you

           $ git commit

       this second commit would record the changes to hello.c and hello.h as expected.

       After a merge (initiated by git merge or git pull) stops because of conflicts, cleanly
       merged paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that conflicted are
       left in unmerged state. You would have to first check which paths are conflicting with git
       status and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would stage the result as
       usual with git add:

           $ git status | grep unmerged
           unmerged: hello.c
           $ edit hello.c
           $ git add hello.c

       After resolving conflicts and staging the result, git ls-files -u would stop mentioning
       the conflicted path. When you are done, run git commit to finally record the merge:

           $ git commit

       As with the case to record your own changes, you can use -a option to save typing. One
       difference is that during a merge resolution, you cannot use git commit with pathnames to
       alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge should be recorded as a
       single commit. In fact, the command refuses to run when given pathnames (but see -i


       Though not required, it’s a good idea to begin the commit message with a single short
       (less than 50 character) line summarizing the change, followed by a blank line and then a
       more thorough description. The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is
       treated as the commit title, and that title is used throughout Git. For example, git-
       format-patch(1) turns a commit into email, and it uses the title on the Subject line and
       the rest of the commit in the body.

       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       •   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of bytes. There is no
           encoding translation at the core level.

       •   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies to tree objects,
           the index file, ref names, as well as path names in command line arguments,
           environment variables and config files (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5),
           gitattributes(5) and gitmodules(5)).

           Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as sequences of non-NUL
           bytes, there are no path name encoding conversions (except on Mac and Windows).
           Therefore, using non-ASCII path names will mostly work even on platforms and file
           systems that use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created on
           such systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows)
           and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based tools simply assume path names to be
           UTF-8 and will fail to display other encodings correctly.

       •   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other extended ASCII encodings
           are also supported. This includes ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not
           UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8, both the core and
       Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a
       particular project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid
       it. However, there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log message given to it
           does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a
           legacy encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config
           file, like this:

                       commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of i18n.commitEncoding
           in its encoding header. This is to help other people who look at them later. Lack of
           this header implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding header of a commit
           object, and try to re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You
           can specify the desired output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config
           file, like this:

                       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of i18n.commitEncoding is
           used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message when a commit is
       made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not
       necessarily a reversible operation.


       The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the GIT_EDITOR
       environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the VISUAL environment
       variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that order). See git-var(1) for details.


       This command can run commit-msg, prepare-commit-msg, pre-commit, post-commit and
       post-rewrite hooks. See githooks(5) for more information.


           This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress. If git commit exits due
           to an error before creating a commit, any commit message that has been provided by the
           user (e.g., in an editor session) will be available in this file, but will be
           overwritten by the next invocation of git commit.


       git-add(1), git-rm(1), git-mv(1), git-merge(1), git-commit-tree(1)


       Part of the git(1) suite