Provided by: youtube-dl_2018.03.14-1ubuntu18.04.1_all bug


       youtube-dl - download videos from or other video platforms


       youtube-dl [OPTIONS] URL [URL...]


       youtube-dl  is  a  command-line program to download videos from and a few more
       sites.  It requires the Python interpreter, version 2.6, 2.7,  or  3.2+,  and  it  is  not
       platform  specific.   It  should  work  on  your  Unix box, on Windows or on macOS.  It is
       released to the public domain, which means you can modify it, redistribute it  or  use  it
       however you like.


       -h, --help
              Print this help text and exit

              Print program version and exit

       -i, --ignore-errors
              Continue on download errors, for example to skip unavailable videos in a playlist

              Abort  downloading  of  further  videos (in the playlist or the command line) if an
              error occurs

              Display the current browser identification

              List all supported extractors

              Output descriptions of all supported extractors

              Force extraction to use the generic extractor

       --default-search PREFIX
              Use this prefix for unqualified  URLs.   For  example  "gvsearch2:"  downloads  two
              videos  from  google  videos for youtube-dl "large apple".  Use the value "auto" to
              let youtube-dl guess ("auto_warning" to emit a  warning  when  guessing).   "error"
              just  throws  an  error.   The default value "fixup_error" repairs broken URLs, but
              emits an error if this is not possible instead of searching.

              Do not read configuration files.  When  given  in  the  global  configuration  file
              /etc/youtube-dl.conf:  Do  not  read  the  user configuration in ~/.config/youtube-
              dl/config (%APPDATA%/youtube-dl/config.txt on Windows)

       --config-location PATH
              Location of the configuration file; either the path to the config or its containing

              Do not extract the videos of a playlist, only list them.

              Mark videos watched (YouTube only)

              Do not mark videos watched (YouTube only)

              Do not emit color codes in output

   Network Options:
       --proxy URL
              Use  the  specified  HTTP/HTTPS/SOCKS  proxy.   To enable experimental SOCKS proxy,
              specify a proper scheme.  For example socks5://  Pass in  an  empty
              string (--proxy "") for direct connection

       --socket-timeout SECONDS
              Time to wait before giving up, in seconds

       --source-address IP
              Client-side IP address to bind to

       -4, --force-ipv4
              Make all connections via IPv4

       -6, --force-ipv6
              Make all connections via IPv6

   Geo Restriction:
       --geo-verification-proxy URL
              Use this proxy to verify the IP address for some geo-restricted sites.  The default
              proxy specified by --proxy (or none, if the options is not present) is used for the
              actual downloading.

              Bypass geographic restriction via faking X-Forwarded-For HTTP header (experimental)

              Do  not  bypass  geographic  restriction  via  faking  X-Forwarded-For  HTTP header

       --geo-bypass-country CODE
              Force bypass geographic restriction with explicitly provided two-letter ISO  3166-2
              country code (experimental)

   Video Selection:
       --playlist-start NUMBER
              Playlist video to start at (default is 1)

       --playlist-end NUMBER
              Playlist video to end at (default is last)

       --playlist-items ITEM_SPEC
              Playlist  video  items  to download.  Specify indices of the videos in the playlist
              separated by commas like: "--playlist-items 1,2,5,8" if you want to download videos
              indexed  1,  2,  5,  8  in  the playlist.  You can specify range: "--playlist-items
              1-3,7,10-13", it will download the videos at index 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 13.

       --match-title REGEX
              Download only matching titles (regex or caseless sub-string)

       --reject-title REGEX
              Skip download for matching titles (regex or caseless sub-string)

       --max-downloads NUMBER
              Abort after downloading NUMBER files

       --min-filesize SIZE
              Do not download any videos smaller than SIZE (e.g.  50k or 44.6m)

       --max-filesize SIZE
              Do not download any videos larger than SIZE (e.g.  50k or 44.6m)

       --date DATE
              Download only videos uploaded in this date

       --datebefore DATE
              Download only videos uploaded on or before this date (i.e.  inclusive)

       --dateafter DATE
              Download only videos uploaded on or after this date (i.e.  inclusive)

       --min-views COUNT
              Do not download any videos with less than COUNT views

       --max-views COUNT
              Do not download any videos with more than COUNT views

       --match-filter FILTER
              Generic video filter.  Specify any key (see the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE"  for  a  list  of
              available  keys)  to  match  if the key is present, !key to check if the key is not
              present, key > NUMBER (like "comment_count > 12", also works with >=, <, <=, !=, =)
              to  compare against a number, key = 'LITERAL' (like "uploader = 'Mike Smith'", also
              works with !=) to match against a string literal and & to require multiple matches.
              Values  which  are  not known are excluded unless you put a question mark (?) after
              the operator.  For example, to only match videos that have been liked more than 100
              times  and  disliked  less  than  50  times  (or  the  dislike functionality is not
              available  at  the  given  service),  but  who  also  have   a   description,   use
              --match-filter "like_count > 100 & dislike_count <?  50 & description" .

              Download only the video, if the URL refers to a video and a playlist.

              Download the playlist, if the URL refers to a video and a playlist.

       --age-limit YEARS
              Download only videos suitable for the given age

       --download-archive FILE
              Download  only  videos  not  listed  in  the  archive  file.  Record the IDs of all
              downloaded videos in it.

              Download advertisements as well (experimental)

   Download Options:
       -r, --limit-rate RATE
              Maximum download rate in bytes per second (e.g.  50K or 4.2M)

       -R, --retries RETRIES
              Number of retries (default is 10), or "infinite".

       --fragment-retries RETRIES
              Number of retries for a fragment (default is 10), or  "infinite"  (DASH,  hlsnative
              and ISM)

              Skip unavailable fragments (DASH, hlsnative and ISM)

              Abort downloading when some fragment is not available

              Keep  downloaded  fragments  on  disk  after downloading is finished; fragments are
              erased by default

       --buffer-size SIZE
              Size of download buffer (e.g.  1024 or 16K) (default is 1024)

              Do not automatically adjust the buffer  size.   By  default,  the  buffer  size  is
              automatically resized from an initial value of SIZE.

       --http-chunk-size SIZE
              Size  of  a chunk for chunk-based HTTP downloading (e.g.  10485760 or 10M) (default
              is disabled).  May be useful  for  bypassing  bandwidth  throttling  imposed  by  a
              webserver (experimental)

              Download playlist videos in reverse order

              Download playlist videos in random order

              Set file xattribute ytdl.filesize with expected file size (experimental)

              Use the native HLS downloader instead of ffmpeg

              Use ffmpeg instead of the native HLS downloader

              Use  the  mpegts  container  for  HLS  videos,  allowing  to  play  the video while
              downloading (some players may not be able to play it)

       --external-downloader COMMAND
              Use     the     specified     external     downloader.      Currently      supports

       --external-downloader-args ARGS
              Give these arguments to the external downloader

   Filesystem Options:
       -a, --batch-file FILE
              File containing URLs to download ('-' for stdin)

       --id   Use only video ID in file name

       -o, --output TEMPLATE
              Output filename template, see the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for all the info

       --autonumber-start NUMBER
              Specify the start value for %(autonumber)s (default is 1)

              Restrict filenames to only ASCII characters, and avoid "&" and spaces in filenames

       -w, --no-overwrites
              Do not overwrite files

       -c, --continue
              Force  resume  of  partially  downloaded files.  By default, youtube-dl will resume
              downloads if possible.

              Do not resume partially downloaded files (restart from beginning)

              Do not use .part files - write directly into output file

              Do not use the Last-modified header to set the file modification time

              Write video description to a .description file

              Write video metadata to a .info.json file

              Write video annotations to a .annotations.xml file

       --load-info-json FILE
              JSON file containing the video information (created  with  the  "--write-info-json"

       --cookies FILE
              File to read cookies from and dump cookie jar in

       --cache-dir DIR
              Location  in  the filesystem where youtube-dl can store some downloaded information
              permanently.  By default $XDG_CACHE_HOME/youtube-dl or  ~/.cache/youtube-dl  .   At
              the  moment,  only YouTube player files (for videos with obfuscated signatures) are
              cached, but that may change.

              Disable filesystem caching

              Delete all filesystem cache files

   Thumbnail images:
              Write thumbnail image to disk

              Write all thumbnail image formats to disk

              Simulate and list all available thumbnail formats

   Verbosity / Simulation Options:
       -q, --quiet
              Activate quiet mode

              Ignore warnings

       -s, --simulate
              Do not download the video and do not write anything to disk

              Do not download the video

       -g, --get-url
              Simulate, quiet but print URL

       -e, --get-title
              Simulate, quiet but print title

              Simulate, quiet but print id

              Simulate, quiet but print thumbnail URL

              Simulate, quiet but print video description

              Simulate, quiet but print video length

              Simulate, quiet but print output filename

              Simulate, quiet but print output format

       -j, --dump-json
              Simulate, quiet but print JSON  information.   See  the  "OUTPUT  TEMPLATE"  for  a
              description of available keys.

       -J, --dump-single-json
              Simulate,  quiet but print JSON information for each command-line argument.  If the
              URL refers to a playlist, dump the whole playlist information in a single line.

              Be quiet and print the video information as JSON (video is still being downloaded).

              Output progress bar as new lines

              Do not print progress bar

              Display progress in console titlebar

       -v, --verbose
              Print various debugging information

              Print downloaded pages encoded using base64 to debug problems (very verbose)

              Write downloaded intermediary pages to files in  the  current  directory  to  debug

              Display sent and read HTTP traffic

       -C, --call-home
              Contact the youtube-dl server for debugging

              Do NOT contact the youtube-dl server for debugging

       --encoding ENCODING
              Force the specified encoding (experimental)

              Suppress HTTPS certificate validation

              Use  an unencrypted connection to retrieve information about the video.  (Currently
              supported only for YouTube)

       --user-agent UA
              Specify a custom user agent

       --referer URL
              Specify a custom referer, use if the video access is restricted to one domain

       --add-header FIELD:VALUE
              Specify a custom HTTP header and its value, separated by a colon ':'.  You can  use
              this option multiple times

              Work  around  terminals  that  lack  bidirectional text support.  Requires bidiv or
              fribidi executable in PATH

       --sleep-interval SECONDS
              Number of seconds to sleep before each download when used alone or a lower bound of
              a  range  for  randomized  sleep  before  each download (minimum possible number of
              seconds to sleep) when used along with --max-sleep-interval.

       --max-sleep-interval SECONDS
              Upper bound of a range for randomized sleep before each download (maximum  possible
              number of seconds to sleep).  Must only be used along with --min-sleep-interval.

   Video Format Options:
       -f, --format FORMAT
              Video format code, see the "FORMAT SELECTION" for all the info

              Download all available video formats

              Prefer free video formats unless a specific one is requested

       -F, --list-formats
              List all available formats of requested videos

              Do not download the DASH manifests and related data on YouTube videos

       --merge-output-format FORMAT
              If  a  merge  is  required  (e.g.   bestvideo+bestaudio), output to given container
              format.  One of mkv, mp4, ogg, webm, flv.  Ignored if no merge is required

   Subtitle Options:
              Write subtitle file

              Write automatically generated subtitle file (YouTube only)

              Download all the available subtitles of the video

              List all available subtitles for the video

       --sub-format FORMAT
              Subtitle format, accepts formats preference, for example: "srt" or "ass/srt/best"

       --sub-lang LANGS
              Languages of the subtitles to download (optional) separated by commas, use  --list-
              subs for available language tags

   Authentication Options:
       -u, --username USERNAME
              Login with this account ID

       -p, --password PASSWORD
              Account password.  If this option is left out, youtube-dl will ask interactively.

       -2, --twofactor TWOFACTOR
              Two-factor authentication code

       -n, --netrc
              Use .netrc authentication data

       --video-password PASSWORD
              Video password (vimeo, smotri, youku)

   Adobe Pass Options:
       --ap-mso MSO
              Adobe Pass multiple-system operator (TV provider) identifier, use --ap-list-mso for
              a list of available MSOs

       --ap-username USERNAME
              Multiple-system operator account login

       --ap-password PASSWORD
              Multiple-system operator account password.  If this option is left out,  youtube-dl
              will ask interactively.

              List all supported multiple-system operators

   Post-processing Options:
       -x, --extract-audio
              Convert  video  files to audio-only files (requires ffmpeg or avconv and ffprobe or

       --audio-format FORMAT
              Specify audio format: "best", "aac", "flac", "mp3",  "m4a",  "opus",  "vorbis",  or
              "wav"; "best" by default; No effect without -x

       --audio-quality QUALITY
              Specify  ffmpeg/avconv  audio  quality,  insert  a  value  between 0 (better) and 9
              (worse) for VBR or a specific bitrate like 128K (default 5)

       --recode-video FORMAT
              Encode  the  video  to  another   format   if   necessary   (currently   supported:

       --postprocessor-args ARGS
              Give these arguments to the postprocessor

       -k, --keep-video
              Keep  the  video  file  on  disk after the post- processing; the video is erased by

              Do not overwrite post-processed files; the post-processed files are overwritten  by

              Embed subtitles in the video (only for mp4, webm and mkv videos)

              Embed thumbnail in the audio as cover art

              Write metadata to the video file

       --metadata-from-title FORMAT
              Parse  additional  metadata  like  song  title  / artist from the video title.  The
              format syntax is the same as  --output.   Regular  expression  with  named  capture
              groups  may also be used.  The parsed parameters replace existing values.  Example:
              --metadata-from- title "%(artist)s - %(title)s" matches a title  like  "Coldplay  -
              Paradise".  Example (regex): --metadata-from-title "(?P.+?) - (?P

              Write metadata to the video file's xattrs (using dublin core and xdg standards)

       --fixup POLICY
              Automatically  correct  known  faults of the file.  One of never (do nothing), warn
              (only emit a warning), detect_or_warn (the  default;  fix  file  if  we  can,  warn

              Prefer avconv over ffmpeg for running the postprocessors (default)

              Prefer ffmpeg over avconv for running the postprocessors

       --ffmpeg-location PATH
              Location  of  the  ffmpeg/avconv  binary;  either  the  path  to  the binary or its
              containing directory.

       --exec CMD
              Execute a command on the file after downloading, similar to  find's  -exec  syntax.
              Example: --exec 'adb push {} /sdcard/Music/ && rm {}'

       --convert-subs FORMAT
              Convert the subtitles to other format (currently supported: srt|ass|vtt|lrc)


       You  can  configure  youtube-dl  by  placing  any  supported  command  line  option  to  a
       configuration file.  On Linux and OS X, the system wide configuration file is  located  at
       /etc/youtube-dl.conf  and the user wide configuration file at ~/.config/youtube-dl/config.
       On Windows, the user wide configuration file locations are %APPDATA%\youtube-dl\config.txt
       or  C:\Users\<user name>\youtube-dl.conf.  Note that by default configuration file may not
       exist so you may need to create it yourself.

       For example, with the following configuration file  youtube-dl  will  always  extract  the
       audio,  not copy the mtime, use a proxy and save all videos under Movies directory in your
       home directory:

              # Lines starting with # are comments

              # Always extract audio

              # Do not copy the mtime

              # Use this proxy

              # Save all videos under Movies directory in your home directory
              -o ~/Movies/%(title)s.%(ext)s

       Note that options in configuration file are just the same options  aka  switches  used  in
       regular  command  line  calls  thus there must be no whitespace after - or --, e.g.  -o or
       --proxy but not - o or -- proxy.

       You can use --ignore-config if you want to disable the configuration file for a particular
       youtube-dl run.

       You  can  also  use  --config-location  if you want to use custom configuration file for a
       particular youtube-dl run.

   Authentication with .netrc file
       You may also want to configure automatic credentials storage for extractors  that  support
       authentication  (by  providing login and password with --username and --password) in order
       not to pass credentials as command  line  arguments  on  every  youtube-dl  execution  and
       prevent  tracking plain text passwords in the shell command history.  You can achieve this
       using a .netrc file ( on a per extractor basis.
       For  that  you will need to create a .netrc file in your $HOME and restrict permissions to
       read/write by only you:

              touch $HOME/.netrc
              chmod a-rwx,u+rw $HOME/.netrc

       After that you can add credentials  for  an  extractor  in  the  following  format,  where
       extractor is the name of the extractor in lowercase:

              machine <extractor> login <login> password <password>

       For example:

              machine youtube login password my_youtube_password
              machine twitch login my_twitch_account_name password my_twitch_password

       To  activate  authentication with the .netrc file you should pass --netrc to youtube-dl or
       place it in the configuration file (#configuration).

       On Windows you may also need to setup  the  %HOME%  environment  variable  manually.   For

              set HOME=%USERPROFILE%


       The -o option allows users to indicate a template for the output file names.

       tl;dr: navigate me to examples (#output-template-examples).

       The  basic usage is not to set any template arguments when downloading a single file, like
       in youtube-dl -o funny_video.flv "https://some/video".  However, it  may  contain  special
       sequences that will be replaced when downloading each video.  The special sequences may be
       formatted      according      to      python      string       formatting       operations
       (      For     example,
       %(NAME)s or %(NAME)05d.  To clarify, that is a  percent  symbol  followed  by  a  name  in
       parentheses,  followed by a formatting operations.  Allowed names along with sequence type

       • id (string): Video identifier

       • title (string): Video title

       • url (string): Video URL

       • ext (string): Video filename extension

       • alt_title (string): A secondary title of the video

       • display_id (string): An alternative identifier for the video

       • uploader (string): Full name of the video uploader

       • license (string): License name the video is licensed under

       • creator (string): The creator of the video

       • release_date (string): The date (YYYYMMDD) when the video was released

       • timestamp (numeric): UNIX timestamp of the moment the video became available

       • upload_date (string): Video upload date (YYYYMMDD)

       • uploader_id (string): Nickname or id of the video uploader

       • location (string): Physical location where the video was filmed

       • duration (numeric): Length of the video in seconds

       • view_count (numeric): How many users have watched the video on the platform

       • like_count (numeric): Number of positive ratings of the video

       • dislike_count (numeric): Number of negative ratings of the video

       • repost_count (numeric): Number of reposts of the video

       • average_rating (numeric): Average rating give by users, the scale used  depends  on  the

       • comment_count (numeric): Number of comments on the video

       • age_limit (numeric): Age restriction for the video (years)

       • is_live (boolean): Whether this video is a live stream or a fixed-length video

       • start_time  (numeric): Time in seconds where the reproduction should start, as specified
         in the URL

       • end_time (numeric): Time in seconds where the reproduction should end, as  specified  in
         the URL

       • format (string): A human-readable description of the format

       • format_id (string): Format code specified by --format

       • format_note (string): Additional info about the format

       • width (numeric): Width of the video

       • height (numeric): Height of the video

       • resolution (string): Textual description of width and height

       • tbr (numeric): Average bitrate of audio and video in KBit/s

       • abr (numeric): Average audio bitrate in KBit/s

       • acodec (string): Name of the audio codec in use

       • asr (numeric): Audio sampling rate in Hertz

       • vbr (numeric): Average video bitrate in KBit/s

       • fps (numeric): Frame rate

       • vcodec (string): Name of the video codec in use

       • container (string): Name of the container format

       • filesize (numeric): The number of bytes, if known in advance

       • filesize_approx (numeric): An estimate for the number of bytes

       • protocol (string): The protocol that will be used for the actual download

       • extractor (string): Name of the extractor

       • extractor_key (string): Key name of the extractor

       • epoch (numeric): Unix epoch when creating the file

       • autonumber  (numeric):  Five-digit  number  that  will  be increased with each download,
         starting at zero

       • playlist (string): Name or id of the playlist that contains the video

       • playlist_index (numeric): Index of the video in the playlist padded with  leading  zeros
         according to the total length of the playlist

       • playlist_id (string): Playlist identifier

       • playlist_title (string): Playlist title

       • playlist_uploader (string): Full name of the playlist uploader

       • playlist_uploader_id (string): Nickname or id of the playlist uploader

       Available for the video that belongs to some logical chapter or section:

       • chapter (string): Name or title of the chapter the video belongs to

       • chapter_number (numeric): Number of the chapter the video belongs to

       • chapter_id (string): Id of the chapter the video belongs to

       Available for the video that is an episode of some series or programme:

       • series (string): Title of the series or programme the video episode belongs to

       • season (string): Title of the season the video episode belongs to

       • season_number (numeric): Number of the season the video episode belongs to

       • season_id (string): Id of the season the video episode belongs to

       • episode (string): Title of the video episode

       • episode_number (numeric): Number of the video episode within a season

       • episode_id (string): Id of the video episode

       Available for the media that is a track or a part of a music album:

       • track (string): Title of the track

       • track_number (numeric): Number of the track within an album or a disc

       • track_id (string): Id of the track

       • artist (string): Artist(s) of the track

       • genre (string): Genre(s) of the track

       • album (string): Title of the album the track belongs to

       • album_type (string): Type of the album

       • album_artist (string): List of all artists appeared on the album

       • disc_number (numeric): Number of the disc or other physical medium the track belongs to

       • release_year (numeric): Year (YYYY) when the album was released

       Each aforementioned sequence when referenced in an output template will be replaced by the
       actual value corresponding to the sequence name.  Note that some of the sequences are  not
       guaranteed  to  be  present  since  they  depend  on the metadata obtained by a particular
       extractor.  Such sequences will be replaced with NA.

       For   example   for   -o %(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s   and   an   mp4   video   with    title
       youtube-dl test video     and     id    BaW_jenozKcj,    this    will    result    in    a
       youtube-dl test video-BaW_jenozKcj.mp4 file created in the current directory.

       For  numeric  sequences  you  can   use   numeric   related   formatting,   for   example,
       %(view_count)05d  will  result  in  a  string  with  view  count padded with zeros up to 5
       characters, like in 00042.

       Output   templates    can    also    contain    arbitrary    hierarchical    path,    e.g.
       -o '%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s'  which will result in downloading
       each video in a directory corresponding to this path template.  Any missing directory will
       be automatically created for you.

       To use percent literals in an output template use %%.  To output to stdout use -o -.

       The current default template is %(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s.

       In  some  cases,  you don't want special characters such as 中, spaces, or &, such as when
       transferring the downloaded filename to a  Windows  system  or  the  filename  through  an
       8bit-unsafe  channel.   In these cases, add the --restrict-filenames flag to get a shorter

   Output template and Windows batch files
       If you are using an output template inside a Windows batch file then you must escape plain
       percent  characters  (%)  by doubling, so that -o "%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s" should become
       -o "%%(title)s-%%(id)s.%%(ext)s".  However you should not touch %'s  that  are  not  plain
       characters,    e.g.    environment   variables   for   expansion   should   stay   intact:
       -o "C:\%HOMEPATH%\Desktop\%%(title)s.%%(ext)s".

   Output template examples
       Note that on Windows you may need to use double quotes instead of single.

              $ youtube-dl --get-filename -o '%(title)s.%(ext)s' BaW_jenozKc
              youtube-dl test video ''_ä↭𝕐.mp4    # All kinds of weird characters

              $ youtube-dl --get-filename -o '%(title)s.%(ext)s' BaW_jenozKc --restrict-filenames
              youtube-dl_test_video_.mp4          # A simple file name

              # Download YouTube playlist videos in separate directory indexed by video order in a playlist
              $ youtube-dl -o '%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s'

              # Download all playlists of YouTube channel/user keeping each playlist in separate directory:
              $ youtube-dl -o '%(uploader)s/%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s'

              # Download Udemy course keeping each chapter in separate directory under MyVideos directory in your home
              $ youtube-dl -u user -p password -o '~/MyVideos/%(playlist)s/%(chapter_number)s - %(chapter)s/%(title)s.%(ext)s'

              # Download entire series season keeping each series and each season in separate directory under C:/MyVideos
              $ youtube-dl -o "C:/MyVideos/%(series)s/%(season_number)s - %(season)s/%(episode_number)s - %(episode)s.%(ext)s"

              # Stream the video being downloaded to stdout
              $ youtube-dl -o - BaW_jenozKc


       By default youtube-dl tries to download the best available quality, i.e.  if you want  the
       best  quality you don't need to pass any special options, youtube-dl will guess it for you
       by default.

       But sometimes you may want to download in a different format, for example when you are  on
       a  slow  or  intermittent  connection.   The key mechanism for achieving this is so-called
       format selection based on which you can explicitly specify desired format, select  formats
       based on some criterion or criteria, setup precedence and much more.

       The  general  syntax  for  format  selection is --format FORMAT or shorter -f FORMAT where
       FORMAT is a selector expression, i.e.  an expression that describes format or formats  you
       would like to download.

       tl;dr: navigate me to examples (#format-selection-examples).

       The simplest case is requesting a specific format, for example with -f 22 you can download
       the format with format code equal to 22.  You can get the list of available  format  codes
       for  particular  video  using  --list-formats  or  -F.   Note  that these format codes are
       extractor specific.

       You can also use a file extension (currently 3gp, aac, flv, m4a, mp3, mp4, ogg, wav,  webm
       are  supported)  to download the best quality format of a particular file extension served
       as a single file, e.g.  -f webm will download  the  best  quality  format  with  the  webm
       extension served as a single file.

       You  can also use special names to select particular edge case formats: - best: Select the
       best quality format represented by a single file with video and audio.   -  worst:  Select
       the  worst quality format represented by a single file with video and audio.  - bestvideo:
       Select the best quality video-only format (e.g.  DASH video).  May not  be  available.   -
       worstvideo:  Select  the  worst  quality  video-only  format.   May  not  be available.  -
       bestaudio:  Select  the  best  quality  audio  only-format.   May  not  be  available.   -
       worstaudio: Select the worst quality audio only-format.  May not be available.

       For example, to download the worst quality video-only format you can use -f worstvideo.

       If  you  want  to download multiple videos and they don't have the same formats available,
       you  can  specify  the  order  of  preference  using  slashes.    Note   that   slash   is
       left-associative,  i.e.   formats  on  the  left  hand  side  are  preferred,  for example
       -f 22/17/18 will download format 22 if it's available, otherwise it will  download  format
       17 if it's available, otherwise it will download format 18 if it's available, otherwise it
       will complain that no suitable formats are available for download.

       If you want to download several formats of the same video use a comma as a separator, e.g.
       -f 22,17,18  will download all these three formats, of course if they are available.  Or a
       more    sophisticated    example     combined     with     the     precedence     feature:
       -f 136/137/mp4/bestvideo,140/m4a/bestaudio.

       You  can  also  filter  the  video  formats  by  putting  a  condition  in brackets, as in
       -f "best[height=720]" (or -f "[filesize>10M]").

       The following numeric meta fields can be used with comparisons <, <=, >, >=,  =  (equals),
       !=  (not  equals):  - filesize: The number of bytes, if known in advance - width: Width of
       the video, if known - height: Height of the video, if known  -  tbr:  Average  bitrate  of
       audio  and  video  in  KBit/s  - abr: Average audio bitrate in KBit/s - vbr: Average video
       bitrate in KBit/s - asr: Audio sampling rate in Hertz - fps: Frame rate

       Also filtering work for comparisons = (equals), != (not  equals),  ^=  (begins  with),  $=
       (ends  with),  *=  (contains)  and  following  string meta fields: - ext: File extension -
       acodec: Name of the audio codec in use -  vcodec:  Name  of  the  video  codec  in  use  -
       container: Name of the container format - protocol: The protocol that will be used for the
       actual  download,  lower-case  (http,  https,  rtsp,   rtmp,   rtmpe,   mms,   f4m,   ism,
       http_dash_segments, m3u8, or m3u8_native) - format_id: A short description of the format

       Note  that  none of the aforementioned meta fields are guaranteed to be present since this
       solely depends on the metadata  obtained  by  particular  extractor,  i.e.   the  metadata
       offered by the video hoster.

       Formats  for  which the value is not known are excluded unless you put a question mark (?)
       after the operator.  You can combine  format  filters,  so  -f "[height <=? 720][tbr>500]"
       selects  up  to 720p videos (or videos where the height is not known) with a bitrate of at
       least 500 KBit/s.

       You  can  merge  the  video  and  audio  of  two  formats  into  a   single   file   using
       -f <video-format>+<audio-format>  (requires  ffmpeg  or  avconv  installed),  for  example
       -f bestvideo+bestaudio will download the  best  video-only  format,  the  best  audio-only
       format and mux them together with ffmpeg/avconv.

       Format  selectors  can  also  be  grouped  using  parentheses,  for example if you want to
       download the best mp4 and  webm  formats  with  a  height  lower  than  480  you  can  use
       -f '(mp4,webm)[height<480]'.

       Since    the    end    of   April   2015   and   version   2015.04.26,   youtube-dl   uses
       -f bestvideo+bestaudio/best   as    the    default    format    selection    (see    #5447
       (,   #5456  (
       dl/issues/5456)).  If ffmpeg or avconv are installed this results in downloading bestvideo
       and  bestaudio  separately  and  muxing  them  together into a single file giving the best
       overall quality available.  Otherwise it falls back to best and results in downloading the
       best available quality served as a single file.  best is also needed for videos that don't
       come from YouTube because they don't provide the audio and video in two  different  files.
       If  you  want to only download some DASH formats (for example if you are not interested in
       getting   videos   with   a   resolution    higher    than    1080p),    you    can    add
       -f bestvideo[height<=?1080]+bestaudio/best  to  your configuration file.  Note that if you
       use youtube-dl to stream to stdout (and most likely to pipe it to your media player then),
       i.e.  you explicitly specify output template as -o -, youtube-dl still uses -f best format
       selection in order to start content delivery immediately to your player and  not  to  wait
       until bestvideo and bestaudio are downloaded and muxed.

       If  you  want  to  preserve  the  old  format  selection  behavior  (prior  to  youtube-dl
       2015.04.26), i.e.  you want to download the best  available  quality  media  served  as  a
       single  file, you should explicitly specify your choice with -f best.  You may want to add
       it to the configuration file (#configuration) in order not to type it every time  you  run

   Format selection examples
       Note that on Windows you may need to use double quotes instead of single.

              # Download best mp4 format available or any other best if no mp4 available
              $ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo[ext=mp4]+bestaudio[ext=m4a]/best[ext=mp4]/best'

              # Download best format available but not better that 480p
              $ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo[height<=480]+bestaudio/best[height<=480]'

              # Download best video only format but no bigger than 50 MB
              $ youtube-dl -f 'best[filesize<50M]'

              # Download best format available via direct link over HTTP/HTTPS protocol
              $ youtube-dl -f '(bestvideo+bestaudio/best)[protocol^=http]'

              # Download the best video format and the best audio format without merging them
              $ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo,bestaudio' -o '%(title)s.f%(format_id)s.%(ext)s'

       Note  that  in  the  last  example,  an  output  template  is recommended as bestvideo and
       bestaudio may have the same file name.


       Videos can be filtered by their upload date using  the  options  --date,  --datebefore  or
       --dateafter.  They accept dates in two formats:

       • Absolute dates: Dates in the format YYYYMMDD.

       • Relative dates: Dates in the format (now|today)[+-][0-9](day|week|month|year)(s)?


              # Download only the videos uploaded in the last 6 months
              $ youtube-dl --dateafter now-6months

              # Download only the videos uploaded on January 1, 1970
              $ youtube-dl --date 19700101

              $ # Download only the videos uploaded in the 200x decade
              $ youtube-dl --dateafter 20000101 --datebefore 20091231


   How do I update youtube-dl?
       If  you've  followed  our manual installation instructions (
       dl/download.html), you can simply run youtube-dl -U (or, on Linux, sudo youtube-dl -U).

       If you have used pip, a simple sudo pip install -U youtube-dl is sufficient to update.

       If you have installed youtube-dl using a package manager like  apt-get  or  yum,  use  the
       standard  system  update  mechanism  to update.  Note that distribution packages are often
       outdated.  As a rule of thumb, youtube-dl releases at least once a month, and often weekly
       or  even  daily.   Simply  go  to  to  find  out  the  current version.
       Unfortunately, there is nothing we youtube-dl  developers  can  do  if  your  distribution
       serves  a  really outdated version.  You can (and should) complain to your distribution in
       their bugtracker or support forum.

       As a last resort, you can also uninstall the version installed by your package manager and
       follow our manual installation instructions.  For that, remove the distribution's package,
       with a line like

              sudo apt-get remove -y youtube-dl

       Afterwards,     simply     follow      our      manual      installation      instructions

              sudo wget -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
              sudo chmod a+x /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
              hash -r

       Again, from then on you'll be able to update with sudo youtube-dl -U.

   youtube-dl is extremely slow to start on Windows
       Add a file exclusion for youtube-dl.exe in Windows Defender settings.

   I'm getting an error
       Unable to extract OpenGraph title on YouTube playlists

       YouTube  changed their playlist format in March 2014 and later on, so you'll need at least
       youtube-dl 2014.07.25 to download all YouTube videos.

       If you have installed youtube-dl with a package  manager,  pip,  or  a  tarball,
       please  use that to update.  Note that Ubuntu packages do not seem to get updated anymore.
       Since we are not affiliated with Ubuntu, there is little we can do.  Feel free  to  report
       bugs   (   to   the   Ubuntu
       packaging                              people                              (mailto:ubuntu-  - all they have to do
       is update the package to a somewhat recent version.  See above for a way to update.

   I'm getting an error when trying to use output template:
       error: using output template conflicts with using title, video ID or auto number

       Make sure you are not using -o with  any  of  these  options  -t,  --title,  --id,  -A  or
       --auto-number set in command line or in a configuration file.  Remove the latter if any.

   Do I always have to pass -citw?
       By  default,  youtube-dl  intends  to  have  the best options (incidentally, if you have a
       convincing case that these should be different, please file an  issue  where  you  explain
       that (  Therefore, it is unnecessary and sometimes harmful to copy
       long option strings from webpages.  In particular, the only option out of  -citw  that  is
       regularly useful is -i.

   Can you please put the -b option back?
       Most people asking this question are not aware that youtube-dl now defaults to downloading
       the highest available quality as reported by YouTube, which will be 1080p or 720p in  some
       cases,  so you no longer need the -b option.  For some specific videos, maybe YouTube does
       not report them to be available in a specific high quality format  you're  interested  in.
       In that case, simply request it with the -f option and youtube-dl will try to download it.

   I get HTTP error 402 when trying to download a video. What's

       Apparently  YouTube  requires  you to pass a CAPTCHA test if you download too much.  We're
       considering to provide a way to let you solve the CAPTCHA (
       dl/issues/154), but at the moment, your best course of action is pointing a web browser to
       the youtube URL, solving the CAPTCHA, and restart youtube-dl.

   Do I need any other programs?
       youtube-dl works fine on its  own  on  most  sites.   However,  if  you  want  to  convert
       video/audio,  you'll need avconv ( or ffmpeg (
       On some sites - most notably YouTube - videos can be retrieved in a higher quality  format
       without  sound.  youtube-dl will detect whether avconv/ffmpeg is present and automatically
       pick the best option.

       Videos or video formats streamed via RTMP protocol can only be  downloaded  when  rtmpdump
       (  is  installed.  Downloading MMS and RTSP videos requires
       either mplayer ( or mpv ( to be installed.

   I have downloaded a video but how can I play it?
       Once the video is fully downloaded, use any video player, such as  mpv  (,
       vlc ( or mplayer (

   I extracted a video URL with -g, but it does not play on
       another machine / in my web browser.

       It  depends a lot on the service.  In many cases, requests for the video (to download/play
       it) must come from the same IP address and with the same cookies and/or HTTP headers.  Use
       the --cookies option to write the required cookies into a file, and advise your downloader
       to read cookies from that file.  Some sites also require a common user agent to  be  used,
       use  --dump-user-agent  to  see  the one in use by youtube-dl.  You can also get necessary
       cookies and HTTP headers from JSON output obtained with --dump-json.

       It may be beneficial to use IPv6; in some cases, the  restrictions  are  only  applied  to
       IPv4.  Some services (sometimes only for a subset of videos) do not restrict the video URL
       by IP address, cookie, or user-agent, but these are the exception rather than the rule.

       Please bear in mind that some URL protocols are not supported by browsers out of the  box,
       including RTMP.  If you are using -g, your own downloader must support these as well.

       If  you  want to play the video on a machine that is not running youtube-dl, you can relay
       the video content from the machine  that  runs  youtube-dl.   You  can  use  -o -  to  let
       youtube-dl  stream  a  video  to  stdout, or simply allow the player to download the files
       written by youtube-dl in turn.

   ERROR: no fmt_url_map or conn information found in video info
       YouTube has switched to a new video info format in July 2011 which is not supported by old
       versions  of  youtube-dl.   See  above  (#how-do-i-update-youtube-dl)  for  how  to update

   ERROR: unable to download video
       YouTube requires an additional signature since September 2012 which is  not  supported  by
       old  versions  of  youtube-dl.   See above (#how-do-i-update-youtube-dl) for how to update

   Video URL contains an ampersand and I'm getting some strange
       output [1] 2839 or 'v' is not recognized as an internal or external command

       That's actually the output from your shell.  Since ampersand is one of the  special  shell
       characters  it's  interpreted  by  the  shell preventing you from passing the whole URL to
       youtube-dl.  To disable your shell from interpreting the ampersands (or any other  special
       characters) you have to either put the whole URL in quotes or escape them with a backslash
       (which approach will work depends on your shell).

       For example if your URL is you should  end
       up with following command:

       youtube-dl ''



       For Windows you have to use the double quotes:

       youtube-dl ""

   ExtractorError: Could not find JS function u'OF'
       In  February  2015, the new YouTube player contained a character sequence in a string that
       was misinterpreted by old versions of youtube-dl.  See above (#how-do-i-update-youtube-dl)
       for how to update youtube-dl.

   HTTP Error 429: Too Many Requests or 402: Payment Required
       These  two  error  codes  indicate that the service is blocking your IP address because of
       overuse.  Contact the service and ask them to unblock your IP address, or -  if  you  have
       acquired  a  whitelisted  IP address already - use the --proxy or --source-address options
       (#network-options) to select another IP address.

   SyntaxError: Non-ASCII character
       The error

              File "youtube-dl", line 2
              SyntaxError: Non-ASCII character '\x93' ...

       means you're using an outdated version of Python.  Please update to Python 2.6 or 2.7.

   What is this binary file? Where has the code gone?
       Since June 2012 (#342 ( youtube-dl is packed
       as  an executable zipfile, simply unzip it (might need renaming to first on
       some systems) or clone the git repository, as laid out above.  If you modify the code, you
       can  run  it  by  executing  the  file.   To  recompile  the  executable, run
       make youtube-dl.

   The exe throws an error due to missing MSVCR100.dll
       To run the exe you need to install first the Microsoft  Visual  C++  2010  Redistributable
       Package (x86) (

   On Windows, how should I set up ffmpeg and youtube-dl? Where should
       I put the exe files?

       If  you  put  youtube-dl  and ffmpeg in the same directory that you're running the command
       from, it will work, but that's rather cumbersome.

       To make a different directory work - either for ffmpeg, or for youtube-dl, or for  both  -
       simply  create  the  directory  (say,  C:\bin,  or  C:\Users\<User name>\bin), put all the
       executables  directly  in  there,  and   then   set   your   PATH   environment   variable
       ( to include that directory.

       From  then on, after restarting your shell, you will be able to access both youtube-dl and
       ffmpeg (and youtube-dl will be able to find ffmpeg) by simply typing youtube-dl or ffmpeg,
       no matter what directory you're in.

   How do I put downloads into a specific folder?
       Use   the   -o   to   specify   an   output   template   (#output-template),  for  example
       -o "/home/user/videos/%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s".   If  you  want  this  for  all  of  your
       downloads, put the option into your configuration file (#configuration).

   How do I download a video starting with a -?
       Either  prepend or separate the ID from the options with

              youtube-dl -- -wNyEUrxzFU
              youtube-dl ""

   How do I pass cookies to youtube-dl?
       Use the --cookies option, for example --cookies /path/to/cookies/file.txt.

       In order to extract  cookies  from  browser  use  any  conforming  browser  extension  for
       exporting             cookies.              For            example,            cookies.txt
       (for  Chrome)  or  Export  Cookies (
       cookies/) (for Firefox).

       Note that the cookies file must be in Mozilla/Netscape format and the first  line  of  the
       cookies  file must be either # HTTP Cookie File or # Netscape HTTP Cookie File.  Make sure
       you have correct newline format  (  in  the  cookies
       file  and convert newlines if necessary to correspond with your OS, namely CRLF (\r\n) for
       Windows  and  LF  (\n)  for   Unix   and   Unix-like   systems   (Linux,   macOS,   etc.).
       HTTP Error 400: Bad Request when using --cookies is a good sign of invalid newline format.

       Passing  cookies  to  youtube-dl  is  a  good  way  to  workaround login when a particular
       extractor does not implement it explicitly.  Another use case is  working  around  CAPTCHA
       (  some  websites require you to solve in particular
       cases in order to get access (e.g.  YouTube, CloudFlare).

   How do I stream directly to media player?
       You will first need to tell youtube-dl to stream media to stdout with -o -, and also  tell
       your  media  player to read from stdin (it must be capable of this for streaming) and then
       pipe former to latter.  For example, streaming to vlc (  can  be
       achieved with:

              youtube-dl -o - "" | vlc -

   How do I download only new videos from a playlist?
       Use  download-archive  feature.   With  this  feature  you  should  initially download the
       complete playlist  with  --download-archive /path/to/download/archive/file.txt  that  will
       record identifiers of all the videos in a special file.  Each subsequent run with the same
       --download-archive will download only new videos  and  skip  all  videos  that  have  been
       downloaded before.  Note that only successful downloads are recorded in the file.

       For example, at first,

              youtube-dl --download-archive archive.txt ""

       will  download  the complete PLwiyx1dc3P2JR9N8gQaQN_BCvlSlap7re playlist and create a file
       archive.txt.  Each subsequent run will only download new videos if any:

              youtube-dl --download-archive archive.txt ""

   Should I add --hls-prefer-native into my config?
       When youtube-dl detects an HLS  video,  it  can  download  it  either  with  the  built-in
       downloader  or  ffmpeg.  Since many HLS streams are slightly invalid and ffmpeg/youtube-dl
       each handle some invalid cases better than the other, there is an  option  to  switch  the
       downloader if needed.

       When  youtube-dl  knows  that  one particular downloader works better for a given website,
       that downloader will be picked.  Otherwise, youtube-dl will pick the best  downloader  for
       general  compatibility,  which at the moment happens to be ffmpeg.  This choice may change
       in future versions of youtube-dl, with improvements  of  the  built-in  downloader  and/or

       In  particular,  the  generic  extractor  (used  when  your  website is not in the list of
       supported  sites  by   youtube-dl   (
       cannot mandate one specific downloader.

       If  you  put  either --hls-prefer-native or --hls-prefer-ffmpeg into your configuration, a
       different subset of videos will fail to download correctly.  Instead, it is much better to
       file  an  issue  ( or a pull request which details why the native or
       the ffmpeg HLS downloader is a better choice for your use case.

   Can you add support for this anime video site, or site which shows
       current movies for free?

       As a matter of policy (as well as legality),  youtube-dl  does  not  include  support  for
       services  that  specialize  in  infringing  copyright.   As a rule of thumb, if you cannot
       easily find a video that the service is quite obviously allowed to distribute (i.e.   that
       has  been uploaded by the creator, the creator's distributor, or is published under a free
       license), the service is probably unfit for inclusion to youtube-dl.

       A note on the service that they don't host the infringing content, but just link to  those
       who  do,  is  evidence  that the service should not be included into youtube-dl.  The same
       goes for any DMCA note when the whole front page of the service is filled with videos they
       are  not  allowed to distribute.  A "fair use" note is equally unconvincing if the service
       shows copyright-protected videos in full without authorization.

       Support requests for services that do purchase the rights to distribute their content  are
       perfectly  fine  though.   If  in doubt, you can simply include a source that mentions the
       legitimate purchase of content.

   How can I speed up work on my issue?
       (Also known as: Help, my important issue not being solved!) The youtube-dl core  developer
       team  is quite small.  While we do our best to solve as many issues as possible, sometimes
       that can take quite a while.  To speed up your issue, here's what you can do:

       First of all, please do report the issue at our  issue  tracker  (
       That  allows us to coordinate all efforts by users and developers, and serves as a unified
       point.  Unfortunately, the youtube-dl project has grown too large to use personal email as
       an effective communication channel.

       Please  read  the  bug  reporting  instructions (#bugs) below.  A lot of bugs lack all the
       necessary information.  If you can, offer proxy, VPN, or shell access  to  the  youtube-dl
       developers.   If  you  are  able  to,  test  the issue from multiple computers in multiple
       countries to exclude local censorship or misconfiguration issues.

       If nobody is interested in solving your issue, you are welcome to take matters  into  your
       own hands and submit a pull request (or coerce/pay somebody else to do so).

       Feel  free to bump the issue from time to time by writing a small comment ("Issue is still
       present in youtube-dl version ...from France, but fixed from  Belgium"),  but  please  not
       more than once a month.  Please do not declare your issue as important or urgent.

   How can I detect whether a given URL is supported by youtube-dl?
       For  one,  have a look at the list of supported sites (docs/  Note that
       it  can  sometimes  happen  that  the   site   changes   its   URL   scheme   (say,   from   to  )  and  youtube-dl
       reports an URL of a service in that list as unsupported.  In that case,  simply  report  a

       It is not possible to detect whether a URL is supported or not.  That's because youtube-dl
       contains a generic extractor which matches all URLs.   You  may  be  tempted  to  disable,
       exclude,  or remove the generic extractor, but the generic extractor not only allows users
       to extract videos from lots of websites that embed a video from another service,  but  may
       also  be  used  to  extract  video from a service that it's hosting itself.  Therefore, we
       neither recommend nor support disabling, excluding, or removing the generic extractor.

       If you want to find out whether a given URL is supported, simply call youtube-dl with  it.
       If  you  get  no  videos  back,  chances are the URL is either not referring to a video or
       unsupported.  You can find out which by examining the output (if you run youtube-dl on the
       console) or catching an UnsupportedError exception if you run it from a Python program.

Why do I need to go through that much red tape when filing bugs?

       Before  we  had  the  issue  template,  despite  our  extensive bug reporting instructions
       (#bugs), about 80% of the issue reports we got were useless, for instance  because  people
       used ancient versions hundreds of releases old, because of simple syntactic errors (not in
       youtube-dl but in general shell usage), because the problem was already reported  multiple
       times  before,  because  people  did  not  actually read an error message, even if it said
       "please install ffmpeg", because people did not  mention  the  URL  they  were  trying  to
       download and many more simple, easy-to-avoid problems, many of whom were totally unrelated
       to youtube-dl.

       youtube-dl is an open-source project manned by too few volunteers, so  we'd  rather  spend
       time  fixing  bugs  where we are certain none of those simple problems apply, and where we
       can be reasonably confident to be able to reproduce the issue without asking the  reporter
       repeatedly.   As  such,  the  output  of  youtube-dl -v YOUR_URL_HERE is really all that's
       required to file an issue.  The issue template also guides you through  some  basic  steps
       you can do, such as checking that your version of youtube-dl is current.


       Most   users   do   not   need   to   build   youtube-dl   and  can  download  the  builds
       ( or get them from their distribution.

       To run youtube-dl as a developer, you don't need to build anything either.  Simply execute

              python -m youtube_dl

       To run the test, simply invoke your favorite test runner, or execute a test file directly;
       any of the following work:

              python -m unittest discover
              python test/

       See  item  6  of  new  extractor  tutorial (#adding-support-for-a-new-site) for how to run
       extractor specific test cases.

       If you want to create a build of youtube-dl yourself, you'll need

       • python

       • make (only GNU make is supported)

       • pandoc

       • zip

       • nosetests

   Adding support for a new site
       If you want to add support for a new site, first  of  all  make  sure  this  site  is  not
       dedicated  to  copyright infringement (
       site-or-site-which-shows-current-movies-for-free).  youtube-dl does not support such sites
       thus pull requests adding support for them will be rejected.

       After  you have ensured this site is distributing its content legally, you can follow this
       quick list (assuming your service is called yourextractor):

        1. Fork this repository (

        2. Check out the source code with:

                  git clone

        3. Start a new git branch with

                  cd youtube-dl
                  git checkout -b yourextractor

        4. Start with this simple template and save it to youtube_dl/extractor/

                  # coding: utf-8
                  from __future__ import unicode_literals

                  from .common import InfoExtractor

                  class YourExtractorIE(InfoExtractor):
                      _VALID_URL = r'https?://(?:www\.)?yourextractor\.com/watch/(?P<id>[0-9]+)'
                      _TEST = {
                          'url': '',
                          'md5': 'TODO: md5 sum of the first 10241 bytes of the video file (use --test)',
                          'info_dict': {
                              'id': '42',
                              'ext': 'mp4',
                              'title': 'Video title goes here',
                              'thumbnail': r're:^https?://.*\.jpg$',
                              # TODO more properties, either as:
                              # * A value
                              # * MD5 checksum; start the string with md5:
                              # * A regular expression; start the string with re:
                              # * Any Python type (for example int or float)

                      def _real_extract(self, url):
                          video_id = self._match_id(url)
                          webpage = self._download_webpage(url, video_id)

                          # TODO more code goes here, for example ...
                          title = self._html_search_regex(r'<h1>(.+?)</h1>', webpage, 'title')

                          return {
                              'id': video_id,
                              'title': title,
                              'description': self._og_search_description(webpage),
                              'uploader': self._search_regex(r'<div[^>]+id="uploader"[^>]*>([^<]+)<', webpage, 'uploader', fatal=False),
                              # TODO more properties (see youtube_dl/extractor/

        5. Add an import in  youtube_dl/extractor/  (

        6. Run python test/ TestDownload.test_YourExtractor.  This should fail at
           first, but you can continually re-run it until you're done.  If you decide to add more
           than  one  test,  then rename _TEST to _TESTS and make it into a list of dictionaries.
           The     tests     will     then     be     named      TestDownload.test_YourExtractor,
           TestDownload.test_YourExtractor_1,  TestDownload.test_YourExtractor_2, etc.  Note that
           tests with only_matching key in test's dict are not counted in.

        7. Have  a  look   at   youtube_dl/extractor/   (
           dl/blob/master/youtube_dl/extractor/  for  possible  helper  methods  and  a
           detailed   description   of   what   your   extractor   should    and    may    return
           dl/blob/master/youtube_dl/extractor/  Add tests and  code  for  as
           many as you want.

        8. Make  sure  your  code  follows  youtube-dl  coding  conventions  (#youtube-dl-coding-
           conventions) and check the  code  with  flake8  (
           Also  make  sure  your  code works under all Python ( versions
           claimed supported by youtube-dl, namely 2.6, 2.7, and 3.2+.

        9. When the tests pass, add ( the new files  and  commit
           (  them  and  push  (
           push) the result, like this:

                  $ git add youtube_dl/extractor/
                  $ git add youtube_dl/extractor/
                  $ git commit -m '[yourextractor] Add new extractor'
                  $ git push origin yourextractor

       10. Finally,  create  a  pull  request  (
           request).  We'll then review and merge it.

       In any case, thank you very much for your contributions!

   youtube-dl coding conventions
       This  section  introduces  a  guide  lines  for writing idiomatic, robust and future-proof
       extractor code.

       Extractors are very fragile by nature since they depend on the layout of the  source  data
       provided  by  3rd party media hosters out of your control and this layout tends to change.
       As an extractor implementer your task is not only to write code that  will  extract  media
       links  and  metadata  correctly but also to minimize dependency on the source's layout and
       even to make the code foresee potential future changes and be ready  for  that.   This  is
       important  because  it  will allow the extractor not to break on minor layout changes thus
       keeping old youtube-dl versions working.  Even though this breakage issue is easily  fixed
       by emitting a new version of youtube-dl with a fix incorporated, all the previous versions
       become broken in all repositories and distros' packages that  may  not  be  so  prompt  in
       fetching  the update from us.  Needless to say, some non rolling release distros may never
       receive an update at all.

   Mandatory and optional metafields
       For extraction to work youtube-dl relies on metadata your extractor extracts and  provides
       to  youtube-dl  expressed  by  an  information dictionary (
       dl/blob/master/youtube_dl/extractor/ or simply  info  dict.   Only  the
       following  meta  fields  in  the  info  dict  are  considered  mandatory  for a successful
       extraction process by youtube-dl:

       • id (media identifier)

       • title (media title)

       • url (media download URL) or formats

       In fact only the last option is technically mandatory (i.e.  if you can't figure  out  the
       download location of the media the extraction does not make any sense).  But by convention
       youtube-dl also treats id and title as mandatory.  Thus the aforementioned metafields  are
       the  critical  data that the extraction does not make any sense without and if any of them
       fail to be extracted then the extractor is considered completely broken.

       Any                         field                         (
       dl/blob/master/youtube_dl/extractor/  apart  from  the  aforementioned
       ones are considered optional.  That means that extraction should be tolerant to situations
       when  sources  for  these  fields  can potentially be unavailable (even if they are always
       available at the moment) and future-proof in order not to break the extraction of  general
       purpose mandatory fields.

       Say you have some source dictionary meta that you've fetched as JSON with HTTP request and
       it has a key summary:

              meta = self._download_json(url, video_id)

       Assume at this point meta's layout is:

                  "summary": "some fancy summary text",

       Assume you want to extract summary and put it into the resulting info dict as description.
       Since  description  is  an  optional  meta  field you should be ready that this key may be
       missing from the meta dict, so that you should extract it like:

              description = meta.get('summary')  # correct

       and not like:

              description = meta['summary']  # incorrect

       The latter will break extraction process with KeyError if summary disappears from meta  at
       some  later  time  but  with  the  former  approach  extraction  will  just  go ahead with
       description set to None which is perfectly  fine  (remember  None  is  equivalent  to  the
       absence of data).

       Similarly,  you  should pass fatal=False when extracting optional data from a webpage with
       _search_regex, _html_search_regex or similar methods, for instance:

              description = self._search_regex(
                  webpage, 'description', fatal=False)

       With fatal set to False if _search_regex fails to  extract  description  it  will  emit  a
       warning and continue extraction.

       You can also pass default=<some fallback value>, for example:

              description = self._search_regex(
                  webpage, 'description', default=None)

       On  failure  this code will silently continue the extraction with description set to None.
       That is useful for metafields that may or may not be present.

   Provide fallbacks
       When extracting metadata try to do so from multiple sources.   For  example  if  title  is
       present  in several places, try extracting from at least some of them.  This makes it more
       future-proof in case some of the sources become unavailable.

       Say meta from the previous example has a title and you are about  to  extract  it.   Since
       title is a mandatory meta field you should end up with something like:

              title = meta['title']

       If  title  disappears  from  meta  in  future due to some changes on the hoster's side the
       extraction would fail since title is mandatory.  That's expected.

       Assume that you have some another source you can extract title from, for example  og:title
       HTML meta of a webpage.  In this case you can provide a fallback scenario:

              title = meta.get('title') or self._og_search_title(webpage)

       This  code  will  try  to  extract  from meta first and if it fails it will try extracting
       og:title from a webpage.

   Make regular expressions flexible
       When using regular expressions try to write them fuzzy and flexible.

       Say you need to extract title from the following HTML code:

              <span style="position: absolute; left: 910px; width: 90px; float: right; z-index: 9999;" class="title">some fancy title</span>

       The code for that task should look similar to:

              title = self._search_regex(
                  r'<span[^>]+class="title"[^>]*>([^<]+)', webpage, 'title')

       Or even better:

              title = self._search_regex(
                  webpage, 'title', group='title')

       Note how you tolerate potential changes in the style  attribute's  value  or  switch  from
       using double quotes to single for class attribute:

       The code definitely should not look like:

              title = self._search_regex(
                  r'<span style="position: absolute; left: 910px; width: 90px; float: right; z-index: 9999;" class="title">(.*?)</span>',
                  webpage, 'title', group='title')

   Use safe conversion functions
       Wrap   all   extracted   numeric   data  into  safe  functions  from  utils:  int_or_none,
       float_or_none.  Use them for string to number conversions as well.


       youtube-dl makes the best effort to be a good command-line program,  and  thus  should  be
       callable from any programming language.  If you encounter any problems parsing its output,
       feel free to create a report (

       From a Python program, you can embed youtube-dl in a more powerful fashion, like this:

              from __future__ import unicode_literals
              import youtube_dl

              ydl_opts = {}
              with youtube_dl.YoutubeDL(ydl_opts) as ydl:

       Most likely, you'll want to use various options.  For a list of options available, have  a
       look          at          youtube_dl/         (
       dl/blob/3e4cedf9e8cd3157df2457df7274d0c842421945/youtube_dl/   For
       a start, if you want to intercept youtube-dl's output, set a logger object.

       Here's  a more complete example of a program that outputs only errors (and a short message
       after the download is finished), and downloads/converts the video to an mp3 file:

              from __future__ import unicode_literals
              import youtube_dl

              class MyLogger(object):
                  def debug(self, msg):

                  def warning(self, msg):

                  def error(self, msg):

              def my_hook(d):
                  if d['status'] == 'finished':
                      print('Done downloading, now converting ...')

              ydl_opts = {
                  'format': 'bestaudio/best',
                  'postprocessors': [{
                      'key': 'FFmpegExtractAudio',
                      'preferredcodec': 'mp3',
                      'preferredquality': '192',
                  'logger': MyLogger(),
                  'progress_hooks': [my_hook],
              with youtube_dl.YoutubeDL(ydl_opts) as ydl:


       Bugs and suggestions should be  reported  at:  <>.
       Unless  you  were  prompted to or there is another pertinent reason (e.g.  GitHub fails to
       accept the bug  report),  please  do  not  send  bug  reports  via  personal  email.   For
       discussions,  join us in the IRC channel #youtube-dl (irc://
       on freenode (webchat (

       Please include the full output of youtube-dl when run with -v, i.e.  add -v flag  to  your
       command  line,  copy  the  whole  output  and post it in the issue body wrapped in ``` for
       better formatting.  It should look similar to this:

              $ youtube-dl -v <your command line>
              [debug] System config: []
              [debug] User config: []
              [debug] Command-line args: [u'-v', u'']
              [debug] Encodings: locale cp1251, fs mbcs, out cp866, pref cp1251
              [debug] youtube-dl version 2015.12.06
              [debug] Git HEAD: 135392e
              [debug] Python version 2.6.6 - Windows-2003Server-5.2.3790-SP2
              [debug] exe versions: ffmpeg N-75573-g1d0487f, ffprobe N-75573-g1d0487f, rtmpdump 2.4
              [debug] Proxy map: {}

       Do not post screenshots of verbose logs; only plain text is acceptable.

       The output (including the first lines) contains important debugging  information.   Issues
       without  the  full  output  are  often not reproducible and therefore do not get solved in
       short order, if ever.

       Please re-read your issue once again to avoid a couple of common  mistakes  (you  can  and
       should use this as a checklist):

   Is the description of the issue itself sufficient?
       We  often  get  issue  reports  that  we  cannot  really decipher.  While in most cases we
       eventually get the required information after asking back multiple times,  this  poses  an
       unnecessary  drain  on  our  resources.  Many contributors, including myself, are also not
       native speakers, so we may misread some parts.

       So please elaborate on what feature you are requesting, or what bug you want to be  fixed.
       Make sure that it's obvious

       • What the problem is

       • How it could be fixed

       • How your proposed solution would look like

       If  your  report  is shorter than two lines, it is almost certainly missing some of these,
       which makes it hard for us to respond to it.  We're often too polite to  close  the  issue
       outright,  but  the missing info makes misinterpretation likely.  As a committer myself, I
       often get frustrated by these issues, since the only possible way for me to  move  forward
       on them is to ask for clarification over and over.

       For  bug  reports,  this  means  that  your  report  should contain the complete output of
       youtube-dl when called with the -v flag.  The error message you get for (most)  bugs  even
       says  so,  but  you  would  not  believe  how  many of our bug reports do not contain this

       If your server has multiple IPs or you suspect censorship, adding  --call-home  may  be  a
       good  idea  to get more diagnostics.  If the error is ERROR: Unable to extract ... and you
       cannot reproduce it from multiple countries, add --dump-pages (warning: this will yield  a
       rather  large  output,  redirect  it  to  the file log.txt by adding >log.txt 2>&1 to your
       command-line) or upload the .dump files you  get  when  you  add  --write-pages  somewhere

       Site support requests must contain an example URL.  An example URL is a URL you might want
       to download, like  There should be an obvious
       video  present.  Except under very special circumstances, the main page of a video service
       (e.g. is not an example URL.

   Are you using the latest version?
       Before  reporting  any  issue,  type  youtube-dl -U.   This  should  report  that   you're
       up-to-date.   About  20% of the reports we receive are already fixed, but people are using
       outdated versions.  This goes for feature requests as well.

   Is the issue already documented?
       Make sure that someone has not already opened the issue you're trying to open.  Search  at
       the  top  of  the  window  or  browse  the  GitHub Issues (
       dl/search?type=Issues) of this repository.  If there is  an  issue,  feel  free  to  write
       something  along  the lines of "This affects me as well, with version 2015.01.01.  Here is
       some more information on the issue: ...".  While some issues may be old, a new  post  into
       them often spurs rapid activity.

   Why are existing options not enough?
       Before requesting a new feature, please have a quick peek at the list of supported options
       (  Many feature  requests
       are for features that actually exist already!  Please, absolutely do show off your work in
       the issue report and detail how the existing similar options do not solve your problem.

   Is there enough context in your bug report?
       People want to solve problems, and often think they do us a favor by breaking  down  their
       larger  problems  (e.g.   wanting  to skip already downloaded files) to a specific request
       (e.g.  requesting us to look whether the file exists before downloading  the  info  page).
       However,  what  often  happens  is  that  they  break down the problem into two steps: One
       simple, and one impossible (or extremely complicated one).

       We are then presented with a very complicated request when the original problem  could  be
       solved  far  easier,  e.g.   by recording the downloaded video IDs in a separate file.  To
       avoid this, you must include the greater context where it is non-obvious.  In  particular,
       every  feature  request  that  does  not  consist  of adding support for a new site should
       contain a use case scenario that explains in what situation the missing feature  would  be

   Does the issue involve one problem, and one problem only?
       Some of our users seem to think there is a limit of issues they can or should open.  There
       is no limit of issues they can or should open.  While it may seem appealing to be able  to
       dump  all  your  issues  into  one  ticket, that means that someone who solves one of your
       issues cannot mark the issue as closed.  Typically, reporting a bunch of issues  leads  to
       the  ticket lingering since nobody wants to attack that behemoth, until someone mercifully
       splits the issue into multiple ones.

       In particular, every site support request issue should only pertain  to  services  at  one
       site  (generally under a common domain, but always using the same backend technology).  Do
       not request support for vimeo user videos, White house podcasts, and Google Plus pages  in
       the  same  issue.   Also,  make  sure  that  you  don't post bug reports alongside feature
       requests.  As a rule of thumb, a feature request does not include  outputs  of  youtube-dl
       that are not immediately related to the feature at hand.  Do not post reports of a network
       error alongside the request for a new video service.

   Is anyone going to need the feature?
       Only post features that you (or an  incapacitated  friend  you  can  personally  talk  to)
       require.   Do  not  post  features because they seem like a good idea.  If they are really
       useful, they will be requested by someone who requires them.

   Is your question about youtube-dl?
       It may sound strange, but  some  bug  reports  we  receive  are  completely  unrelated  to
       youtube-dl  and  relate  to  a different, or even the reporter's own, application.  Please
       make sure that you are actually using youtube-dl.  If you are using a UI  for  youtube-dl,
       report the bug to the maintainer of the actual application providing the UI.  On the other
       hand, if your UI for youtube-dl fails in some way you believe is related to youtube-dl, by
       all means, go ahead and report the bug.


       youtube-dl is released into the public domain by the copyright holders.

       This README file was originally written by Daniel Bolton ( and
       is likewise released into the public domain.