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       CMSG_ALIGN, CMSG_SPACE, CMSG_NXTHDR, CMSG_FIRSTHDR - access ancillary data


       #include <sys/socket.h>

       struct cmsghdr *CMSG_FIRSTHDR(struct msghdr *msgh);
       struct cmsghdr *CMSG_NXTHDR(struct msghdr *msgh, struct cmsghdr *cmsg);
       size_t CMSG_ALIGN(size_t length);
       size_t CMSG_SPACE(size_t length);
       size_t CMSG_LEN(size_t length);
       unsigned char *CMSG_DATA(struct cmsghdr *cmsg);


       These  macros  are used to create and access control messages (also called ancillary data)
       that are not a part of the socket payload.   This  control  information  may  include  the
       interface the packet was received on, various rarely used header fields, an extended error
       description, a set of  file  descriptors  or  UNIX  credentials.   For  instance,  control
       messages  can be used to send additional header fields such as IP options.  Ancillary data
       is sent by calling sendmsg(2) and received by calling recvmsg(2).  See their manual  pages
       for more information.

       Ancillary  data  is a sequence of cmsghdr structures with appended data.  See the specific
       protocol man pages for the available control message types.  The maximum ancillary  buffer
       size allowed per socket can be set using /proc/sys/net/core/optmem_max; see socket(7).

       The cmsghdr structure is defined as follows:

           struct cmsghdr {
               size_t cmsg_len;    /* Data byte count, including header
                                      (type is socklen_t in POSIX) */
               int    cmsg_level;  /* Originating protocol */
               int    cmsg_type;   /* Protocol-specific type */
           /* followed by
              unsigned char cmsg_data[]; */

       The  sequence  of cmsghdr structures should never be accessed directly.  Instead, use only
       the following macros:

       *  CMSG_FIRSTHDR() returns a pointer to the first cmsghdr in  the  ancillary  data  buffer
          associated with the passed msghdr.

       *  CMSG_NXTHDR() returns the next valid cmsghdr after the passed cmsghdr.  It returns NULL
          when there isn't enough space left in the buffer.

       *  CMSG_ALIGN(), given a length, returns it including the required alignment.  This  is  a
          constant expression.

       *  CMSG_SPACE()  returns  the  number  of  bytes  an ancillary element with payload of the
          passed data length occupies.  This is a constant expression.

       *  CMSG_DATA() returns a pointer to the data portion of a cmsghdr.

       *  CMSG_LEN() returns the value to store in the cmsg_len member of the cmsghdr  structure,
          taking  into account any necessary alignment.  It takes the data length as an argument.
          This is a constant expression.

       To create ancillary data, first initialize the msg_controllen member of  the  msghdr  with
       the  length  of  the control message buffer.  Use CMSG_FIRSTHDR() on the msghdr to get the
       first control message and CMSG_NXTHDR() to get  all  subsequent  ones.   In  each  control
       message,  initialize  cmsg_len (with CMSG_LEN()), the other cmsghdr header fields, and the
       data portion using CMSG_DATA().  Finally, the msg_controllen field of the msghdr should be
       set  to  the  sum of the CMSG_SPACE() of the length of all control messages in the buffer.
       For more information on the msghdr, see recvmsg(2).

       When the control message buffer is too short to store all messages, the MSG_CTRUNC flag is
       set in the msg_flags member of the msghdr.


       This  ancillary  data model conforms to the POSIX.1g draft, 4.4BSD-Lite, the IPv6 advanced
       API described in RFC 2292 and SUSv2.  CMSG_ALIGN() is a Linux extension.


       For portability, ancillary data should be accessed using only the macros  described  here.
       CMSG_ALIGN() is a Linux extension and should not be used in portable programs.

       In  Linux,  CMSG_LEN(),  CMSG_DATA(),  and CMSG_ALIGN() are constant expressions (assuming
       their argument is constant); this could be used to declare the size of  global  variables.
       This may not be portable, however.


       This code looks for the IP_TTL option in a received ancillary buffer:

           struct msghdr msgh;
           struct cmsghdr *cmsg;
           int *ttlptr;
           int received_ttl;

           /* Receive auxiliary data in msgh */

           for (cmsg = CMSG_FIRSTHDR(&msgh); cmsg != NULL;
                   cmsg = CMSG_NXTHDR(&msgh, cmsg)) {
               if (cmsg->cmsg_level == IPPROTO_IP
                       && cmsg->cmsg_type == IP_TTL) {
                   ttlptr = (int *) CMSG_DATA(cmsg);
                   received_ttl = *ttlptr;

           if (cmsg == NULL) {
               /* Error: IP_TTL not enabled or small buffer or I/O error */

       The  code  below  passes  an  array  of  file  descriptors over a UNIX domain socket using

           struct msghdr msg = { 0 };
           struct cmsghdr *cmsg;
           int myfds[NUM_FD];  /* Contains the file descriptors to pass */
           int *fdptr;
           char iobuf[1];
           struct iovec io = {
               .iov_base = iobuf,
               .iov_len = sizeof(iobuf)
           union {         /* Ancillary data buffer, wrapped in a union
                              in order to ensure it is suitably aligned */
               char buf[CMSG_SPACE(sizeof(myfds))];
               struct cmsghdr align;
           } u;

           msg.msg_iov = &io;
           msg.msg_iovlen = 1;
           msg.msg_control = u.buf;
           msg.msg_controllen = sizeof(u.buf);
           cmsg = CMSG_FIRSTHDR(&msg);
           cmsg->cmsg_level = SOL_SOCKET;
           cmsg->cmsg_type = SCM_RIGHTS;
           cmsg->cmsg_len = CMSG_LEN(sizeof(int) * NUM_FD);
           fdptr = (int *) CMSG_DATA(cmsg);    /* Initialize the payload */
           memcpy(fdptr, myfds, NUM_FD * sizeof(int));


       recvmsg(2), sendmsg(2)

       RFC 2292


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