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       htobe16,  htole16, be16toh, le16toh, htobe32, htole32, be32toh, le32toh, htobe64, htole64,
       be64toh, le64toh - convert values between host and big-/little-endian byte order


       #include <endian.h>

       uint16_t htobe16(uint16_t host_16bits);
       uint16_t htole16(uint16_t host_16bits);
       uint16_t be16toh(uint16_t big_endian_16bits);
       uint16_t le16toh(uint16_t little_endian_16bits);

       uint32_t htobe32(uint32_t host_32bits);
       uint32_t htole32(uint32_t host_32bits);
       uint32_t be32toh(uint32_t big_endian_32bits);
       uint32_t le32toh(uint32_t little_endian_32bits);

       uint64_t htobe64(uint64_t host_64bits);
       uint64_t htole64(uint64_t host_64bits);
       uint64_t be64toh(uint64_t big_endian_64bits);
       uint64_t le64toh(uint64_t little_endian_64bits);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       htobe16(), htole16(), be16toh(), le16toh(), htobe32(),  htole32(),  be32toh(),  le32toh(),
       htobe64(), htole64(), be64toh(), le64toh():
           Since glibc 2.19:
           In glibc up to and including 2.19:


       These  functions  convert the byte encoding of integer values from the byte order that the
       current CPU (the "host") uses, to and from little-endian and big-endian byte order.

       The number, nn, in the name of each function indicates the size of integer handled by  the
       function, either 16, 32, or 64 bits.

       The  functions with names of the form "htobenn" convert from host byte order to big-endian

       The functions with names of the form "htolenn" convert from host  byte  order  to  little-
       endian order.

       The  functions with names of the form "benntoh" convert from big-endian order to host byte

       The functions with names of the form "lenntoh" convert from little-endian  order  to  host
       byte order.


       These functions were added to glibc in version 2.9.


       These  functions  are  nonstandard.   Similar functions are present on the BSDs, where the
       required header file is <sys/endian.h>  instead  of  <endian.h>.   Unfortunately,  NetBSD,
       FreeBSD,  and  glibc  haven't  followed  the  original OpenBSD naming convention for these
       functions, whereby the nn component always appears at the end of the function name  (thus,
       for  example,  in  NetBSD,  FreeBSD,  and  glibc,  the equivalent of OpenBSDs "betoh32" is


       These functions are similar to the older byteorder(3) family of functions.   For  example,
       be32toh() is identical to ntohl().

       The  advantage of the byteorder(3) functions is that they are standard functions available
       on all UNIX systems.  On the other hand, the fact that they were designed for use  in  the
       context  of TCP/IP means that they lack the 64-bit and little-endian variants described in
       this page.


       The program below display the results of converting an integer from  host  byte  order  to
       both  little-endian  and  big-endian  byte order.  Since host byte order is either little-
       endian or big-endian, only one of these conversions will have an effect.  When we run this
       program on a little-endian system such as x86-32, we see the following:

           $ ./a.out
           x.u32 = 0x44332211
           htole32(x.u32) = 0x44332211
           htobe32(x.u32) = 0x11223344

   Program source

       #include <endian.h>
       #include <stdint.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
           union {
               uint32_t u32;
               uint8_t arr[4];
           } x;

           x.arr[0] = 0x11;     /* Lowest-address byte */
           x.arr[1] = 0x22;
           x.arr[2] = 0x33;
           x.arr[3] = 0x44;     /* Highest-address byte */

           printf("x.u32 = 0x%x\n", x.u32);
           printf("htole32(x.u32) = 0x%x\n", htole32(x.u32));
           printf("htobe32(x.u32) = 0x%x\n", htobe32(x.u32));



       bswap(3), byteorder(3)


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