Provided by: btrfs-progs_4.15.1-1build1_amd64 bug


       btrfs-quota - control the global quota status of a btrfs filesystem


       btrfs quota <subcommand> <args>


       The commands under btrfs quota are used to affect the global status of quotas of a btrfs
       filesystem. The quota groups (qgroups) are managed by the subcommand btrfs qgroup(8).

           Qgroups are different than the traditional user quotas and designed to track shared
           and exclusive data per-subvolume. Please refer to the section HIERARCHICAL QUOTA GROUP
           CONCEPTS for a detailed description.

       When quotas are activated, they affect all extent processing, which takes a performance
       hit. Activation of qgroups is not recommended unless the user intends to actually use

       The qgroup implementation has turned out to be quite difficult as it affects the core of
       the filesystem operation. Qgroup users have hit various corner cases over time, such as
       incorrect accounting or system instability. The situation is gradually improving and
       issues found and fixed.


       The concept of quota has a long-standing tradition in the Unix world. Ever since computers
       allow multiple users to work simultaneously in one filesystem, there is the need to
       prevent one user from using up the entire space. Every user should get his fair share of
       the available resources.

       In case of files, the solution is quite straightforward. Each file has an owner recorded
       along with it, and it has a size. Traditional quota just restricts the total size of all
       files that are owned by a user. The concept is quite flexible: if a user hits his quota
       limit, the administrator can raise it on the fly.

       On the other hand, the traditional approach has only a poor solution to restrict
       directories. At installation time, the harddisk can be partitioned so that every directory
       (eg. /usr, /var/, ...) that needs a limit gets its own partition. The obvious problem is
       that those limits cannot be changed without a reinstallation. The btrfs subvolume feature
       builds a bridge. Subvolumes correspond in many ways to partitions, as every subvolume
       looks like its own filesystem. With subvolume quota, it is now possible to restrict each
       subvolume like a partition, but keep the flexibility of quota. The space for each
       subvolume can be expanded or restricted on the fly.

       As subvolumes are the basis for snapshots, interesting questions arise as to how to
       account used space in the presence of snapshots. If you have a file shared between a
       subvolume and a snapshot, whom to account the file to? The creator? Both? What if the file
       gets modified in the snapshot, should only these changes be accounted to it? But wait,
       both the snapshot and the subvolume belong to the same user home. I just want to limit the
       total space used by both! But somebody else might not want to charge the snapshots to the

       Btrfs subvolume quota solves these problems by introducing groups of subvolumes and let
       the user put limits on them. It is even possible to have groups of groups. In the
       following, we refer to them as qgroups.

       Each qgroup primarily tracks two numbers, the amount of total referenced space and the
       amount of exclusively referenced space.

           space is the amount of data that can be reached from any of the subvolumes contained
           in the qgroup, while

           is the amount of data where all references to this data can be reached from within
           this qgroup.

       The basic notion of the Subvolume Quota feature is the quota group, short qgroup. Qgroups
       are notated as level/id, eg. the qgroup 3/2 is a qgroup of level 3. For level 0, the
       leading 0/ can be omitted. Qgroups of level 0 get created automatically when a
       subvolume/snapshot gets created. The ID of the qgroup corresponds to the ID of the
       subvolume, so 0/5 is the qgroup for the root subvolume. For the btrfs qgroup command, the
       path to the subvolume can also be used instead of 0/ID. For all higher levels, the ID can
       be chosen freely.

       Each qgroup can contain a set of lower level qgroups, thus creating a hierarchy of
       qgroups. Figure 1 shows an example qgroup tree.

                                    /     \
                              +---+/       \+---+
                              |1/1|         |1/2|
                              +---+         +---+
                             /     \       /     \
                       +---+/       \+---+/       \+---+
           qgroups     |0/1|         |0/2|         |0/3|
                       +-+-+         +---+         +---+
                         |          /     \       /     \
                         |         /       \     /       \
                         |        /         \   /         \
           extents       1       2            3            4

       Figure1: Sample qgroup hierarchy

       At the bottom, some extents are depicted showing which qgroups reference which extents. It
       is important to understand the notion of referenced vs exclusive. In the example, qgroup
       0/2 references extents 2 and 3, while 1/2 references extents 2-4, 2/1 references all

       On the other hand, extent 1 is exclusive to 0/1, extent 2 is exclusive to 0/2, while
       extent 3 is neither exclusive to 0/2 nor to 0/3. But because both references can be
       reached from 1/2, extent 3 is exclusive to 1/2. All extents are exclusive to 2/1.

       So exclusive does not mean there is no other way to reach the extent, but it does mean
       that if you delete all subvolumes contained in a qgroup, the extent will get deleted.

       Exclusive of a qgroup conveys the useful information how much space will be freed in case
       all subvolumes of the qgroup get deleted.

       All data extents are accounted this way. Metadata that belongs to a specific subvolume
       (i.e. its filesystem tree) is also accounted. Checksums and extent allocation information
       are not accounted.

       In turn, the referenced count of a qgroup can be limited. All writes beyond this limit
       will lead to a Quota Exceeded error.

       Things get a bit more complicated when new subvolumes or snapshots are created. The case
       of (empty) subvolumes is still quite easy. If a subvolume should be part of a qgroup, it
       has to be added to the qgroup at creation time. To add it at a later time, it would be
       necessary to at least rescan the full subvolume for a proper accounting.

       Creation of a snapshot is the hard case. Obviously, the snapshot will reference the exact
       amount of space as its source, and both source and destination now have an exclusive count
       of 0 (the filesystem nodesize to be precise, as the roots of the trees are not shared).
       But what about qgroups of higher levels? If the qgroup contains both the source and the
       destination, nothing changes. If the qgroup contains only the source, it might lose some

       But how much? The tempting answer is, subtract all exclusive of the source from the
       qgroup, but that is wrong, or at least not enough. There could have been an extent that is
       referenced from the source and another subvolume from that qgroup. This extent would have
       been exclusive to the qgroup, but not to the source subvolume. With the creation of the
       snapshot, the qgroup would also lose this extent from its exclusive set.

       So how can this problem be solved? In the instant the snapshot gets created, we already
       have to know the correct exclusive count. We need to have a second qgroup that contains
       all the subvolumes as the first qgroup, except the subvolume we want to snapshot. The
       moment we create the snapshot, the exclusive count from the second qgroup needs to be
       copied to the first qgroup, as it represents the correct value. The second qgroup is
       called a tracking qgroup. It is only there in case a snapshot is needed.

       Below are some usecases that do not mean to be extensive. You can find your own way how to
       integrate qgroups.

           Replacement for partitions

           The simplest use case is to use qgroups as simple replacement for partitions. Btrfs
           takes the disk as a whole, and /, /usr, /var, etc. are created as subvolumes. As each
           subvolume gets it own qgroup automatically, they can simply be restricted. No
           hierarchy is needed for that.

           Track usage of snapshots

           When a snapshot is taken, a qgroup for it will automatically be created with the
           correct values. Referenced will show how much is in it, possibly shared with other
           subvolumes. Exclusive will be the amount of space that gets freed when the subvolume
           is deleted.

           Restricting homes

           When you have several users on a machine, with home directories probably under /home,
           you might want to restrict /home as a whole, while restricting every user to an
           individual limit as well. This is easily accomplished by creating a qgroup for /home ,
           eg. 1/1, and assigning all user subvolumes to it. Restricting this qgroup will limit
           /home, while every user subvolume can get its own (lower) limit.

           Accounting snapshots to the user

           Let’s say the user is allowed to create snapshots via some mechanism. It would only be
           fair to account space used by the snapshots to the user. This does not mean the user
           doubles his usage as soon as he takes a snapshot. Of course, files that are present in
           his home and the snapshot should only be accounted once. This can be accomplished by
           creating a qgroup for each user, say 1/UID. The user home and all snapshots are
           assigned to this qgroup. Limiting it will extend the limit to all snapshots, counting
           files only once. To limit /home as a whole, a higher level group 2/1 replacing 1/1
           from the previous example is needed, with all user qgroups assigned to it.

           Do not account snapshots

           On the other hand, when the snapshots get created automatically, the user has no
           chance to control them, so the space used by them should not be accounted to him. This
           is already the case when creating snapshots in the example from the previous section.

           Snapshots for backup purposes

           This scenario is a mixture of the previous two. The user can create snapshots, but
           some snapshots for backup purposes are being created by the system. The user’s
           snapshots should be accounted to the user, not the system. The solution is similar to
           the one from section Accounting snapshots to the user, but do not assign system
           snapshots to user’s qgroup.


       disable <path>
           Disable subvolume quota support for a filesystem.

       enable <path>
           Enable subvolume quota support for a filesystem.

       rescan [-s] <path>
           Trash all qgroup numbers and scan the metadata again with the current config.


               show status of a running rescan operation.

               wait for rescan operation to finish(can be already in progress).


       btrfs quota returns a zero exit status if it succeeds. Non zero is returned in case of


       btrfs is part of btrfs-progs. Please refer to the btrfs wiki
       for further details.


       mkfs.btrfs(8), btrfs-subvolume(8), btrfs-qgroup(8)