Provided by: msktutil_1.1-1_amd64 bug

NAME

       msktutil - fetches and manages kerberos keytabs in an Active Directory environment

SYNOPSIS

       msktutil [mode] [parameter 1] [parameter 2] ...

DESCRIPTION

       msktutil is a Unix/Linux keytab utility for Microsoft Active Directory environments.  This
       program is capable of creating accounts in Active Directory, adding service principals  to
       those  accounts,  and creating local keytab files so that kerberizied services can utilize
       Active Directory as a Kerberos infrastructure.  msktutil will create  and  manage  machine
       accounts  by  default.   The --use-service-account option lets msktutil operate on service
       accounts.  msktutil requires that the Kerberos client libraries are properly installed and
       configured to use Active Directory as a realm.

       Whenever  a  principal  is  added  or  a  keytab  is  updated, the secret password for the
       corresponding account is changed.  By default, the password is not stored, so it needs  to
       be  reset each time msktutil is executed.  All entries in the keytab will be automatically
       updated whenever the password is reset.  The previous entries will be left in the  keytab,
       so  sessions using the older key versions will not break.  This behavior is similar to the
       way Windows hosts handle machine password changes.

CREDENTIALS

       There are two common methods of  using  this  program.   The  first  is  to  "kinit"  with
       Administrator-like  credentials  which  have permission to create computer objects in your
       Active Directory server.  If you invoke the program with such credentials, you can  create
       a new computer account or service account from scratch.

       The  second  is to pre-create the accounts with such credentials, and then invoke msktutil
       on a machine without any special  permissions.   When  the  computer  account  or  service
       account exists already, msktutil will attempt to authenticate as that account using either
       the existing keytab, or if that fails, a default password.  When that default password  is
       not  specified  with  the  option  --old-account-password,  msktutil  will use the default
       machine password.  It will then change the password and update the  keytab  appropriately.
       This is usually the more convenient option when joining many computers to the domain.

       To  pre-create  a  computer  account, you may use the Active Directory Users and Computers
       GUI, select "new computer" from the right click menu, and type the short  DNS  name,  then
       right  click on the newly created object and select "Reset account" to set the password to
       the default value.  Another alternative is to run msktutil in the pre-create  mode.   Both
       methods accomplish the same thing.

       To pre-create a service account, you may use the Active Directory Users and Computers GUI,
       select "new user" from the right click menu, fill in all required data, set  the  password
       to  a  specific  value and use setspn.exe to set the desired servicePrincipalName(s).  You
       may also select "must change password at next logon".

MODES

       create Creates a keytab for the current host or a given service  account.   Equivalent  to
              update --service host.

       update Forces a password change and updates all related service principal entries from the
              servicePrincipalName and userPrincipalName  attributes.   Updates  dNSHostName  for
              machine  accounts  and always updates msDS-supportedEncryptionTypes attributes with
              current values, and applies other changes as specified.

       auto-update
              Checks if the password is at least 30 days old  (from  pwdLastSet  attribute),  and
              that  the  account does not have password expiry disabled.  If those conditions are
              met, acts just like msktutil update. Will also  update  if  the  keytab  failed  to
              authenticate  but  the default password did work (e.g.  after resetting the account
              in AD).  Otherwise, exits without  doing  anything  (even  if  attribute  modifying
              options are given).  This option is intended for use from a daily crontab to ensure
              that the password is rotated regularly.

       pre-create
              Pre-create (or update) an account for the given host with default  password.   Does
              not  use or update local keytab.  Requires -h or --computer-name argument.  Implies
              --user-creds-only.  Generally requires administrator credentials.

       flush  Flushes out principals for the current  accountname  from  the  keytab,  and  makes
              corresponding changes to the machine or service account.

       cleanup
              Deletes entries from the keytab that are no longer needed.  delete Deletes the host
              or service account from Active Directory.

OPTIONS

   COMMON OPTIONS
       -v, --version
              Displays version information

       --help Displays a help message

       --verbose
              Enables verbose status messages.  May be specified  more  then  once  to  get  LDAP
              debugging.

   CONNECTION/SETUP OPTIONS
       -b, --base <base>
              Specifies  a  relative  LDAP  base  when  creating  a  new  account.   For example,
              specifying '-b OU=Unix' for a computer named SERVER in an Active  Directory  domain
              example.com    would    create    a    computer   account   in   the   LDAP   path:
              CN=SERVER,OU=Unix,DC=EXAMPLE,DC=COM.  This option can also be specified by  setting
              the MSKTUTIL_LDAP_BASE environment variable to the desired value.

              If  not specified, the default value is read from AD (and the default there, unless
              modified by an admin, is CN=Computers for machine accounts and CN=Users for service
              accounts).

       --computer-name <name>
              Specifies  that the new account should use <name> for the computer account name and
              the SAM Account Name.  Note that a '$' will be automatically appended  to  the  SAM
              Account  Name.   Defaults to the machine's hostname, excluding the realm, with dots
              replaced with dashes.

              That is: if the realm is EXAMPLE.COM, and  the  hostname  is  FOO.EXAMPLE.COM,  the
              default  computer name is FOO.  If the hostname is FOO.BAR.EXAMPLE.COM, the default
              computer name is FOO-BAR.

       --account-name <name>
              An alias for --computer-name that can be used when operating on  service  accounts.
              Note  that  a  '$'  will not be automatically appended to the SAM Account Name when
              using service accounts.

       --old-account-password <password>
              Use supplied account password for authentication.  This is  useful  if  the  keytab
              does  not  yet  exist  but  the  password  of  the computer account is known.  This
              password will be changed by msktutil in order to create or update the keytab

       --password <new_password>
              Specify the new account password instead of generating a random one.  Consider  the
              password policy settings when defining the string.

       --dont-change-password
              Do  not  create  a  new  password.  Try to use existing keys when performing keytab
              updates or the old password when creating a new keytab. This is useful  for  adding
              new  SPNs  to a machine or service account. This option is only available in update
              or create mode. In create mode the old password needs to be specified  with  --old-
              account-password

       -h, --hostname <name>
              Overrides  the current hostname to be used to be <name>.  If this is not specified,
              the local host name will be used.  Note that the local name lookup service will  be
              to  qualify  and  resolve  names  into  fully-qualified  names,  including a domain
              extension.  This affects the default hostname for other arguments, and the  default
              computer-name.  The hostname is also used to set the dNSHostName attribute.

       -k, --keytab <file>
              Specifies  to  use  <file>  for  the  keytab.  This option can also be specified by
              setting the MSKTUTIL_KEYTAB environment variable to the name of the desired  keytab
              file.   This  keytab  is  both  read  from,  in  order to authenticate as the given
              account,  and  written  to,  after  updating  the   account   password.    Default:
              /etc/krb5.keytab

       --keytab-auth-as <name>
              Specifies  which  principal  name we should try to use, when we authenticate from a
              keytab. Normally, msktutil will try to use the account name or the  host  principal
              for the current host. If this option is specified, instead msktutil will try to use
              the given principal name first, and only fall back to the default  behavior  if  we
              fail  to  authenticate with the given name. This option can be useful if you do not
              know the current password for the relevant account, do not have a keytab  with  the
              account  principal,  but  you  do have a keytab with a service principal associated
              with that account.

       --server <server>
              Specifies to use <server> as the domain controller.  This affects both kerberos and
              ldap  operations.   The server can also be specified by setting the MSKTUTIL_SERVER
              environment variable.  Default: looked up in DNS from the realm name.

       --server-behind-nat
              When the server is behind a firewall that  performs  Network  Address  Translation,
              KRB-PRIV messages fail validation.  This is because the IP address in the encrypted
              part of the message cannot be rewritten in the NAT process.   This  option  ignores
              the  resulting  error for the password change process, allowing systems outside the
              NAT firewall to join the domain managed by servers inside the NAT firewall.

       --realm <realm>
              Specifies to use <realm> as kerberos realm.  Default: use  the  default_realm  from
              [libdefaults] section of krb5.conf.

       --site <site>
              Find  and  use  domain  controller  in  specific AD site. This option is ignored if
              option --server is used.

       -N, --no-reverse-lookups
              Do not attempt to canonicalize the name of the domain controller  via  DNS  reverse
              lookups.  You may need to do this if your client cannot resolve the PTR records for
              a domain controller or your DNS servers store incorrect PTR records.  Default:  Use
              DNS reverse lookups to canonicalize DC names.

       -n, --no-canonical-name
              Do  not  attempt  to  canonicalize  the  hostname  while creating names of kerberos
              principals.  Instead use supplied hostname. This may be needed  for  systems  where
              forward  and  reverse DNS lookups do not return the same (an dynamic dns system for
              example where lookup for myhost.mydomain returns IP X.Y.Z.W ,  but  lookup  for  IP
              X.Y.Z.W returns a name different than myhost.mydomain).

       --user-creds-only
              Don't attempt to authenticate with a keytab: only use user's credentials (from e.g.
              kinit).  You may need  to  do  this  to  modify  certain  attributes  that  require
              Administrator credentials (description, userAccountControl, userPrincipalName, in a
              default AD setup).

       --auto-update-interval <days>
              Number of <days> when  msktutil  auto-update  will  change  the  account  password.
              Defaults to 30 days.

   OBJECT TYPE/ATTRIBUTE-SETTING OPTIONS
       --use-service-account
              Create and maintain service accounts instead of machine accounts.

       --delegation
              Enables  the account to be trusted for delegation.  This option can also be enabled
              by  setting  the  MSKTUTIL_DELEGATION  environment  variable.   This  modifies  the
              userAccountControl attribute.  Generally requires administrator credentials.

       --description <text>
              Sets  the  account's description attribute to the given text (or removes if text is
              '').  Generally requires administrator credentials.

       --disable-delegation
              Disables the  account  from  being  trusted  for  delegation.   This  modifies  the
              userAccountControl attribute.  Generally requires administrator credentials.

       --disable-no-pac
              Unsets the flag that disables the KDC's including of a PAC in the machine's service
              tickets.  This  modifies  the  userAccountControl  attribute.   Generally  requires
              administrator credentials.

       --dont-expire-password
              Sets  the  DONT_EXPIRE_PASSSWORD  bit  in  the  userAccountControl attribute, which
              disables password expiry for this  account.   If  you  don't  run  a  cron  job  to
              periodically rotate the keytab, you will want to set this flag.  Generally requires
              administrator credentials.

       --do-expire-password
              Unsets  the  DONT_EXPIRE_PASSWORD  flag  in   the   userAccountControl   attribute.
              Generally requires administrator credentials.

       --dont-update-dnshostname
              Do  not update dnsHostName attribute. In some AD installations modification of this
              attribute is not allowed  (unless  using  administrator  credentials),  using  this
              option will avoid constraint violation warning.

       --enable
              Unsets  the  UF_ACCOUNT_DISABLE  flag  in the userAccountControl attribute.  When a
              computer  leaves  the  domain  this  flag  is  normally  set.   Generally  requires
              administrator credentials.

       --enctypes <integer>
              Sets the supported encryption types in the msDs-supportedEncryptionTypes field.

              You may OR together the following values:
                0x1=des-cbc-crc
                0x2=des-cbc-md5
                0x4=rc4-hmac-md5
                0x8=aes128-cts-hmac-sha1
                0x10=aes256-cts-hmac-sha1

              This  value  is  used to determine which encryption types AD will offer to use, and
              which encryption types to put in the keytab.

              If the value is set to 0x3 (that is: only the two DES types), it also  attempts  to
              set the DES-only flag in userAccountControl.

              Note:  Windows  2008R2  refuses to use DES by default; you thus cannot use DES-only
              keys unless you have enabled DES encryption for your domain first.  Recent versions
              of MIT kerberos clients similarly refuse to use DES by default.

              Default: sets the value to 0x1C: that is, use anything but DES.

       --allow-weak-crypto
              Enables  the  usage  of  DES  keys  for authentication. This is equivalent to MIT's
              krb5.conf parameter allow_weak_crypto.

       --no-pac
              Specifies that service tickets for this account should not  contain  a  PAC.   This
              modifies  the  userAccountControl  attribute.  See Microsoft Knowledge Base article
              #832575  for  details.   This  option  can  also  be  specified  by   setting   the
              MSKTUTIL_NO_PAC    environment    variable.    Generally   requires   administrator
              credentials.

       -s, --service <principal>
              Specifies a  service  principal  to  add  to  the  account  (and  thus  keytab,  if
              appropriate).  The service is of the form <service>/<hostname>.  If the hostname is
              omitted, assumes current hostname.  May be specified multiple times.

       --remove-service <principal>
              Specifies  a  service  principal  to  remove  from  the  account  (and  keytab   if
              appropriate).

       --upn <principal>
              Sets  the userPrincipalName attribute of the computer account or service account to
              be <principal>.

              The  userPrincipalName  can  be  used  in  addition  to  the  sAMAccountName  (e.g.
              computername$ for computer accounts) for kinit.

              <principal>  can  be  provided in short form (e.g. host/hostname.example.com) or in
              long form (e.g. host/hostname.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM). In short form  the  default
              realm will automatically be appended.

              This operation requires administrator privileges.

       --set-samba-secret
              Use  Samba's net changesecretpw command to locally set the machine account password
              in Samba's secrets.tdb.  $PATH need to include Samba's net command.  Samba needs to
              be configured appropriately.

       --check-replication
              Wait  until  the  password change is reflected in LDAP.  By default, msktutil exits
              once a password update is successful and the new keytab is written.   However,  due
              to replication delays, LDAP queries might still return an older key version number.
              If --check-replication is given, msktutil waits until the  key  version  number  is
              updated on the queried LDAP server as well.  Note that this is just a sanity check:
              The new password is supposed to be accepted on  all  domain  controllers  once  the
              update  succeeds,  even  if  LDAP is not yet in sync.  Turning on this option might
              substantially increase  the  runtime  of  msktutil  in  some  environments  due  to
              replication  delays  (eg.  15  to  30  minutes  for common AD configurations).  The
              default is not to check LDAP replication.

   CLEANUP OPTIONS
       --remove-old <number>
              Removes entries from the keytab that are  older  than  <number>  days.  The  newest
              keytab  entries will be kept to prevent a total cleanup. I.e. it is not possible to
              produce an empty keytab with the --remove-old option.

       --remove-enctype <int>
              Removes entries from the keytab with given encryption  type.  (See  --enctypes  for
              supported encryption types.)  Warning: it is possible to produce empty keytabs with
              the --remove-empty option by successively removing all encryption types.  Supported
              enctype strings are: des-cbc-crc,des-cbc-md5, arcfour, aes128 and aes256.

NOTES

   PASSWORD EXPIRY
       Be  aware  that  Windows  machines  will,  by  default, automatically change their account
       password every 30 days, and thus many domains have a 90-day password expiry window,  after
       which your keytab will stop working.  There are two ways to deal with this:

       a)  (Preferred):  Make  sure  you're running a daily cron job to run msktutil auto-update,
       which will change the password automatically 30 days after it was last changed and  update
       the keytab.

       b) (Not preferred): disable password expiry for the account via the --dont-expire-password
       option (or otherwise setting DONT_EXPIRE_PASSWORD flag in userAccountControl in AD).

   PASSWORD POLICY ISSUES
       This section only applies to msktutil --use-service-account.

       While machine account passwords may be changed at any  time,  service  accounts  are  user
       accounts  and  your  Active  Directory domain may have special password policies for those
       user accounts.  E.g., "minimum password age" is typically set to 1 day, which  means  that
       you  will  have  to wait for that time to pass until you may invoke msktutil update --use-
       service-account.

   OTHER NOTES
       Unlike other kerberos implementations, Active Directory has only a single key for  all  of
       the  principals  associated  with  an  account.  So, if you create a HTTP/hostname service
       principal, it will share the same key as the host/hostname  principal.   If  you  want  to
       isolate  (security-wise)  different service principals, you may want to create a dedicated
       service account for them (with --use-service-account) and a  separate  keytab  file  (with
       --keytab).

       Also  note:  kinit -k 'host/computername' *will not work*, by default, even when that is a
       valid service principal existing in your keytab.  Active Directory does not allow  you  to
       authenticate  as  a service principal, so do not use that as a test of whether the service
       principal is working.  If you actually want to authenticate as the computer account  user,
       kinit -k 'computername$' instead.

       If you really need to be able to authenticate as 'host/computername', you can also use the
       --upn argument to set the userPrincipalName attribute  (generally  requires  administrator
       credentials,  not  computer  account  credentials).  Both 'computername$' and the value of
       userPrincipalName are treated as valid account names to kinit as.

       msktutil will use kerberized LDAP operations to talk to domain controllers.  To  obtain  a
       LDAP service ticket, the DNS service will be used to construct the domain controllers LDAP
       principal name.  If DNS is misconfigured, this construction may fail.  To work around this
       issue,   you  may  specify the fully qualified DNS name of your domain controller with the
       --server option and additionally use the --no-reverse-lookups option.

       Samba (www.samba.org) provides the net command that can be used to manage kerberos keytabs
       as well.  Using msktutil and commands like "net ads join" or "net ads keytab" together can
       lead to  trouble.   With  the  --set-samba-secret  option,  msktutil  can  be  used  as  a
       replacement for net.

       Active Directory includes authorization data (e.g. information about group memberships) in
       Kerberos tickets.  This information is called PAC and may lead to very large ticket sizes.
       Especially  HTTP  services  are  known  to  produce failures if that size exceeds the HTTP
       header size.  If your service does not make use of that PAC information (which is true for
       most Unix/Linux-services) you may just disable it with the --no-pac option.

EXAMPLES

       For unprivileged users the most common invocations are:

       msktutil create

       This  will create a computer account in Active Directory with a new password and write out
       a new keytab.

       msktutil update --service host --service HTTP

       This will update a computer account in Active Directory with a new password, write  out  a
       new keytab, and ensure that it has both "host" and "HTTP" service principals are on it for
       the hostname.

       msktutil update  --dont-change-password --service host --service HTTP

       This will do the same as the last example but without changing the password.

       msktutil auto-update

       This is useful in a daily cron job to check and rotate  the  password  automatically  when
       it's 30 days old.

       For users with admin privileges in AD, some common uses:

       msktutil create --service host --service HTTP

       This  will  create a computer account in Active Directory with a new password, write out a
       new keytab, and ensure that it has both "host" and "HTTP" service principals are on it for
       the hostname.

       msktutil pre-create --host computer1.example.com

       This  will  pre-create  an  account  for  computer1  with  the default password using your
       credentials.  This can be done on a central host, e.g. to  script  the  addition  of  many
       hosts.   You  can  then  use  msktutil  create  on  the  hosts themselves (without special
       credentials) to join them to the domain.

       msktutil create --host afs --service afs --enctypes 0x03

       This will create an afs/cell.name@REALM principal, and associate  that  principal  with  a
       computer  account  called  'afs'.   The  principal  will  be  marked as DES-only, which is
       required for AFS.

       msktutil create --use-service-account --service HTTP/hostname.example.com --keytab /etc/apache/krb5.keytab --account-name srv-http --no-pac

       This  will  create  an  HTTP/hostname.example.com@REALM  principal,  and  associate   that
       principal  with  a service account called 'srv-http'.  Corresponding Kerberos keys will be
       written to the keytab file /etc/apache/krb5.keytab.  The size of Kerberos tickets for that
       service will stay small because no PAC information will be included.

       msktutil create --keytab /etc/krb5/user/10123/client.keytab --use-service-account --account-name johndoe --dont-change-password --old-account-password <John Doe's Password>

       This will create a keytab for johndoe without changing John Doe's password

       msktutil create --service host/hostname --service host/hostname.example.com --set-samba-secret --enctypes 0x4

       This  will  create  a  computer account in Active Directory that is compatible with Samba.
       The command creates a new password, write out a new keytab, and ensure  that  it  includes
       both  "host/hostname"  and  "host/hostname.example.com"  as  service  principals (which is
       equivalent to what setspn.exe -R would do on windows).  The new computer password will  be
       stored  in  Samba's secrets.tdb database to provide interoperability with Samba.  As Samba
       (version 3) only supports arcfour encrypted Kerberos tickets the --enctypes option must be
       used to select only that encryption type.

       msktutil cleanup --remove-old 10

       Deletes all entries older than 10 days, keeping at least the last entry.

ENVIRONMENT

       MSKTUTIL_LDAP_BASE
              Specifies a relative LDAP base when creating a new account (see --base),

       MSKTUTIL_KEYTAB
                Specifies the keytab. Default: /etc/krb5.keytab (see --keytab),

       MSKTUTIL_SERVER
              Specifies the domain controller (see --server).

       MSKTUTIL_DELEGATION
              Enables the account to be trusted for delegation (see --delegation).

       MSKTUTIL_NO_PAC
              Specifies that service tickets for this account should not contain a PAC (see --no-
              pac).

AUTHORS

       (C) 2004-2006 Dan Perry <dperry at pppl.gov>

       (C) 2006 Brian Elliott Finley (finley at anl.gov)

       (C) 2009-2010 Doug Engert (deengert at anl.gov)

       (C) 2010 James Knight <foom at fuhm.net>

       (C) 2010-2013 Ken Dreyer <ktdreyer at ktdreyer.com>

       (C) 2012-2017 Mark Proehl <mark at mproehl.net>

       (C) 2012-2017 Olaf Flebbe <of at oflebbe.de>

       (C) 2013-2017 Daniel Kobras <d.kobras at science-computing.de>

                                               1.1                                    msktutil(1)