Provided by: coreutils_8.30-3ubuntu2_amd64 bug


       tail - output the last part of files


       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...


       Print the last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more than one FILE, precede
       each with a header giving the file name.

       With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -c, --bytes=[+]NUM
              output the last NUM bytes; or use -c +NUM to output starting with byte NUM of  each

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as the file grows;

              an absent option argument means 'descriptor'

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=[+]NUM
              output  the  last  NUM  lines,  instead  of  the  last 10; or use -n +NUM to output
              starting with line NUM

              with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not

              changed size after N (default 5) iterations to see  if  it  has  been  unlinked  or
              renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files); with inotify, this option is
              rarely useful

              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

              keep trying to open a file if it is inaccessible

       -s, --sleep-interval=N
              with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0) between  iterations;  with
              inotify and --pid=P, check process P at least once every N seconds

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       -z, --zero-terminated
              line delimiter is NUL, not newline

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       NUM  may  have  a multiplier suffix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB
       1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

       With --follow (-f), tail defaults to following the file descriptor, which means that  even
       if  a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will continue to track its end.  This default behavior
       is not desirable when you really want to track the actual name of the file, not  the  file
       descriptor  (e.g.,  log  rotation).   Use --follow=name in that case.  That causes tail to
       track the named file in a way that accommodates renaming, removal and creation.


       Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Meyering.


       GNU coreutils online help: <>
       Report tail translation bugs to <>


       Copyright © 2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+:  GNU  GPL  version  3  or
       later <>.
       This  is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY,
       to the extent permitted by law.



       Full documentation at: <>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) tail invocation'