Provided by: debootstrap_1.0.118ubuntu1.11_all bug


       debootstrap - Bootstrap a basic Debian system


       debootstrap [OPTION...]  SUITE TARGET [MIRROR [SCRIPT]]

       debootstrap [OPTION...]  --second-stage


       debootstrap  bootstraps  a basic Debian system of SUITE into TARGET from MIRROR by running
       SCRIPT.  MIRROR can be an http:// or https:// URL, a file:/// URL, or an ssh:/// URL.

       The SUITE may be a release code name (eg, sid, stretch, jessie) or a  symbolic  name  (eg,
       unstable, testing, stable, oldstable)

       Notice that file:/ URLs are translated to file:/// (correct scheme as described in RFC1738
       for local filenames), and file:// will not work.  ssh://USER@HOST/PATH URLs are  retrieved
       using scp; use of ssh-agent or similar is strongly recommended.

       Debootstrap  can  be used to install Debian in a system without using an installation disk
       but can also be used to run a different Debian flavor in a chroot environment.   This  way
       you can create a full (minimal) Debian installation which can be used for testing purposes
       (see the EXAMPLES section).  If you are looking for a  chroot  system  to  build  packages
       please take a look at pbuilder.


              Set the target architecture (use if dpkg isn't installed).  See also --foreign.

              Comma separated list of packages which will be added to download and extract lists.

              Comma  separated  list  of packages which will be removed from download and extract
              lists.  WARNING: you can and probably will exclude essential packages,  be  careful
              using this option.

              Also use packages from the listed suites of the archive.

              Use packages from the listed components of the archive.

              By   default,  debootstrap  will  attempt  to  automatically  resolve  any  missing
              dependencies, warning if  any  are  found.   Note  that  this  is  not  a  complete
              dependency  resolve  in  the  sense  of  dpkg  or apt, and that it is far better to
              specify the entire base system than rely on this option.   With  this  option  set,
              this behaviour is disabled.

              If  you want to record additional dependencies when resolving package dependencies,
              set this option to track them through debootstrap.log.

              Name of the bootstrap script variant to use.  Currently, the variants supported are
              minbase,  which only includes required packages and apt; buildd, which installs the
              build-essential packages and fakechroot, which installs the packages  without  root
              privileges.   The default, with no --variant=X argument, is to create a base Debian
              installation with all packages of priority required and important, including apt.

              Create /{bin,sbin,lib}/ symlinks pointing to their counterparts in /usr/.  (Default
              for most variants.)

              Do  not  create  /{bin,sbin,lib}/ symlinks pointing to their counterparts in /usr/.
              (Default for the buildd variant.)

              Override the default keyring for  the  distribution  being  bootstrapped,  and  use
              KEYRING to check signatures of retrieved Release files.

              Disables checking gpg signatures of retrieved Release files.

              Forces  checking  Release file signatures, disabling automatic fallback to HTTPS in
              case of a missing keyring. Incompatible with the previous option.

              Produce more info about downloading.

              Print the packages to be installed, and exit.  Note that an empty  or  non-existing
              TARGET  directory must be specified so that debootstrap can download Packages files
              to determine which packages should be installed, and to resolve  dependencies.  The
              TARGET directory will be deleted unless --keep-debootstrap-dir is specified.

              Download packages, but don't perform installation.

              Do  the  initial  unpack  phase  of  bootstrapping  only, for example if the target
              architecture  does  not  match  the  host  architecture.   A  copy  of  debootstrap
              sufficient   for   completing   the   bootstrap   process   will  be  installed  as
              /debootstrap/debootstrap in the  target  filesystem.   You  can  run  it  with  the
              --second-stage option to complete the bootstrapping process.

              Complete the bootstrapping process.  Other arguments are generally not needed.

              Run  second  stage  in  a  subdirectory  instead  of root. (can be used to create a
              foreign chroot) (requires --second-stage)

              Don't delete  the  /debootstrap  directory  in  the  target  after  completing  the

              Cache .deb files under directory. It should be an absolute path.

              Acquire  .debs  from gzipped tarball FILE (specified with absolute path) instead of
              downloading via HTTP(S).

              Instead of  bootstrapping,  make  a  gzipped  tarball  (written  to  FILE)  of  the
              downloaded   packages.    The   resulting   tarball   may  be  passed  to  a  later
              --unpack-tarball.  Note that an empty or  non-existing  TARGET  directory  must  be
              specified  so  that  debootstrap  can download packages to prepare the tarball. The
              TARGET directory will be deleted unless --keep-debootstrap-dir is specified.

              Used for internal purposes by the debian-installer

              Override automatic .deb extractor selection to  TYPE.   Supported  extractors  are:
              dpkg-deb and ar.

              Do not check certificate against certificate authorities

              Use the client certificate stored in file (PEM)

              Read the private key from file


       To setup a stretch system:

            debootstrap stretch ./stretch-chroot

            debootstrap stretch ./stretch-chroot file:///LOCAL_MIRROR/debian

       Full process to create a complete Debian installation of sid (unstable) in a chroot:

            main # debootstrap sid sid-root
            [ ... watch it download the whole system ]
            main # echo "proc sid-root/proc proc defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
            main # mount proc sid-root/proc -t proc
            main # echo "sysfs sid-root/sys sysfs defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
            main # mount sysfs sid-root/sys -t sysfs
            main # cp /etc/hosts sid-root/etc/hosts
            main # chroot sid-root /bin/bash


       debootstrap  was  written  by Anthony Towns <>.  This manpage was written by
       Matt Kraai <>.