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       dnsmasq - A lightweight DHCP and caching DNS server.


       dnsmasq [OPTION]...


       dnsmasq  is  a  lightweight  DNS,  TFTP,  PXE, router advertisement and DHCP server. It is
       intended to provide coupled DNS and DHCP service to a LAN.

       Dnsmasq accepts DNS queries and either answers them from a small, local, cache or forwards
       them  to  a real, recursive, DNS server. It loads the contents of /etc/hosts so that local
       hostnames which do not appear in the global DNS can  be  resolved  and  also  answers  DNS
       queries for DHCP configured hosts. It can also act as the authoritative DNS server for one
       or more domains, allowing local names to appear in the global DNS. It can be configured to
       do DNSSEC validation.

       The  dnsmasq  DHCP  server  supports  static address assignments and multiple networks. It
       automatically sends a sensible default set of DHCP options, and can be configured to  send
       any  desired  set  of  DHCP  options, including vendor-encapsulated options. It includes a
       secure, read-only, TFTP server to allow net/PXE boot  of  DHCP  hosts  and  also  supports
       BOOTP.  The  PXE  support  is  full featured, and includes a proxy mode which supplies PXE
       information to clients whilst DHCP address allocation is done by another server.

       The dnsmasq DHCPv6 server provides the same set of features as the DHCPv4 server,  and  in
       addition,  it  includes  router  advertisements and a neat feature which allows naming for
       clients which use DHCPv4 and stateless  autoconfiguration  only  for  IPv6  configuration.
       There  is support for doing address allocation (both DHCPv6 and RA) from subnets which are
       dynamically delegated via DHCPv6 prefix delegation.

       Dnsmasq is coded with small embedded systems in mind. It aims for  the  smallest  possible
       memory  footprint  compatible with the supported functions,  and allows unneeded functions
       to be omitted from the compiled binary.


       Note that in general missing parameters are allowed and switch off functions, for instance
       "--pid-file" disables writing a PID file. On BSD, unless the GNU getopt library is linked,
       the long form of the options does not work on the command line; it is still recognised  in
       the configuration file.

       --test Read  and  syntax  check configuration file(s). Exit with code 0 if all is OK, or a
              non-zero code otherwise. Do not start up dnsmasq.

       -w, --help
              Display  all  command-line  options.   --help  dhcp  will  display   known   DHCPv4
              configuration options, and --help dhcp6 will display DHCPv6 options.

       -h, --no-hosts
              Don't read the hostnames in /etc/hosts.

       -H, --addn-hosts=<file>
              Additional hosts file. Read the specified file as well as /etc/hosts. If --no-hosts
              is given, read only the specified file. This option may be repeated for  more  than
              one  additional  hosts  file.  If  a  directory  is  given, then read all the files
              contained in that directory.

              Read all the hosts files contained in the directory. New or changed files are  read
              automatically. See --dhcp-hostsdir for details.

       -E, --expand-hosts
              Add  the domain to simple names (without a period) in /etc/hosts in the same way as
              for DHCP-derived names. Note that this does not apply to domain  names  in  cnames,
              PTR records, TXT records etc.

       -T, --local-ttl=<time>
              When  replying with information from /etc/hosts or configuration or the DHCP leases
              file dnsmasq by default sets the time-to-live  field  to  zero,  meaning  that  the
              requester  should not itself cache the information. This is the correct thing to do
              in almost all situations. This option allows a  time-to-live  (in  seconds)  to  be
              given  for these replies. This will reduce the load on the server at the expense of
              clients using stale data under some circumstances.

              As for --local-ttl, but affects only replies with information from DHCP leases.  If
              both  are  given,  --dhcp-ttl  applies  for  DHCP  information, and --local-ttl for
              others. Setting this to zero eliminates the effect of --local-ttl for DHCP.

              Negative replies from upstream servers normally contain time-to-live information in
              SOA  records  which  dnsmasq uses for caching. If the replies from upstream servers
              omit this information, dnsmasq does not  cache  the  reply.  This  option  gives  a
              default  value  for  time-to-live (in seconds) which dnsmasq uses to cache negative
              replies even in the absence of an SOA record.

              Set a maximum TTL value that will be handed out to clients. The  specified  maximum
              TTL will be given to clients instead of the true TTL value if it is lower. The true
              TTL value is however kept in the cache to avoid flooding the upstream DNS servers.

              Set a maximum TTL value for entries in the cache.

              Extend short TTL values to the time given when caching them. Note that artificially
              extending  TTL values is in general a bad idea, do not do it unless you have a good
              reason, and understand what you are doing.  Dnsmasq limits the value of this option
              to one hour, unless recompiled.

              Set the TTL value returned in answers from the authoritative server.

       -k, --keep-in-foreground
              Do  not  go  into  the  background  at startup but otherwise run as normal. This is
              intended for use when dnsmasq is run under daemontools or launchd.

       -d, --no-daemon
              Debug mode: don't fork to the background, don't write a pid file, don't change user
              id,  generate a complete cache dump on receipt on SIGUSR1, log to stderr as well as
              syslog, don't fork new processes to handle TCP queries. Note that  this  option  is
              for  use  in debugging only, to stop dnsmasq daemonising in production, use --keep-

       -q, --log-queries
              Log the results of DNS queries handled by dnsmasq. Enable  a  full  cache  dump  on
              receipt  of  SIGUSR1.  If  the argument "extra" is supplied, ie --log-queries=extra
              then the log has extra information at the start of each line.  This consists  of  a
              serial  number  which  ties  together  the  log lines associated with an individual
              query, and the IP address of the requestor.

       -8, --log-facility=<facility>
              Set the facility to which dnsmasq  will  send  syslog  entries,  this  defaults  to
              DAEMON,  and  to  LOCAL0  when  debug  mode  is in operation. If the facility given
              contains at least one '/' character, it is taken to be a filename, and dnsmasq logs
              to  the  given file, instead of syslog. If the facility is '-' then dnsmasq logs to
              stderr.  (Errors whilst reading configuration will still  go  to  syslog,  but  all
              output  from  a  successful  startup,  and  all  output  whilst  running,  will  go
              exclusively to the file.) When logging to a file, dnsmasq will close and reopen the
              file  when  it  receives  SIGUSR2.  This  allows the log file to be rotated without
              stopping dnsmasq.

              Enable asynchronous logging and optionally set the limit on  the  number  of  lines
              which  will  be  queued by dnsmasq when writing to the syslog is slow.  Dnsmasq can
              log asynchronously: this allows it to continue functioning without being blocked by
              syslog,  and allows syslog to use dnsmasq for DNS queries without risking deadlock.
              If the queue of log-lines becomes full, dnsmasq will  log  the  overflow,  and  the
              number  of  messages   lost.  The  default queue length is 5, a sane value would be
              5-25, and a maximum limit of 100 is imposed.

       -x, --pid-file=<path>
              Specify an alternate path  for  dnsmasq  to  record  its  process-id  in.  Normally

       -u, --user=<username>
              Specify  the  userid  to  which  dnsmasq  will  change  after startup. Dnsmasq must
              normally be started as root, but it will drop  root  privileges  after  startup  by
              changing  id  to another user. Normally this user is "nobody" but that can be over-
              ridden with this switch.

       -g, --group=<groupname>
              Specify the group which dnsmasq will run as. The default is "dip", if available, to
              facilitate access to /etc/ppp/resolv.conf which is not normally world readable.

       -v, --version
              Print the version number.

       -p, --port=<port>
              Listen  on  <port>  instead  of  the  standard  DNS port (53). Setting this to zero
              completely disables DNS function, leaving only DHCP and/or TFTP.

       -P, --edns-packet-max=<size>
              Specify the largest EDNS.0 UDP packet which is  supported  by  the  DNS  forwarder.
              Defaults to 1232, which is the recommended size following the DNS flag day in 2020.
              Only increase if you know what you are doing.

       -Q, --query-port=<query_port>
              Send outbound DNS queries from, and listen for their replies on, the  specific  UDP
              port  <query_port>  instead of using random ports. NOTE that using this option will
              make dnsmasq less secure against DNS spoofing attacks but it may be faster and  use
              less  resources.   Setting  this  option  to  zero  makes dnsmasq use a single port
              allocated to it by the OS: this was the default  behaviour  in  versions  prior  to

              Do  not  use ports less than that given as source for outbound DNS queries. Dnsmasq
              picks random ports as source for outbound queries: when this option is  given,  the
              ports  used  will  always  to larger than that specified. Useful for systems behind
              firewalls. If not specified, defaults to 1024.

              Use ports lower than that given as source for outbound DNS queries.  Dnsmasq  picks
              random  ports  as source for outbound queries: when this option is given, the ports
              used will always be lower than that specified. Useful for systems behind firewalls.

       -i, --interface=<interface name>
              Listen only on the specified interface(s). Dnsmasq automatically adds the  loopback
              (local)  interface to the list of interfaces to use when the --interface option  is
              used. If no --interface or --listen-address options are given  dnsmasq  listens  on
              all  available interfaces except any given in --except-interface options. On Linux,
              when --bind-interfaces or --bind-dynamic are in effect, IP alias  interface  labels
              (eg "eth1:0") are checked, rather than interface names. In the degenerate case when
              an interface has one address, this amounts to the same thing but when an  interface
              has  multiple  addresses  it  allows  control  over  which  of  those addresses are
              accepted.  The same effect is achievable in default mode by using --listen-address.
              A  simple  wildcard,  consisting  of a trailing '*', can be used in --interface and
              --except-interface options.

       -I, --except-interface=<interface name>
              Do not listen on the specified interface. Note that the order  of  --listen-address
              --interface  and  --except-interface  options  does  not  matter and that --except-
              interface options always override the others. The comments about  interface  labels
              for --listen-address apply here.

              Enable DNS authoritative mode for queries arriving at an interface or address. Note
              that the interface or address need not be mentioned  in  --interface  or  --listen-
              address  configuration,  indeed  --auth-server  will  override  these and provide a
              different DNS service on  the  specified  interface.  The  <domain>  is  the  "glue
              record".  It  should  resolve  in  the  global DNS to an A and/or AAAA record which
              points to the address dnsmasq is listening on. When an interface is  specified,  it
              may  be  qualified  with  "/4"  or  "/6" to specify only the IPv4 or IPv6 addresses
              associated with the interface. Since  any  defined  authoritative  zones  are  also
              available  as  part  of the normal recusive DNS service supplied by dnsmasq, it can
              make sense to have an --auth-server declaration with no interfaces or address,  but
              simply specifying the glue record.

              Accept  DNS queries only from hosts whose address is on a local subnet, ie a subnet
              for which an interface exists on the server. This option only has effect  if  there
              are  no --interface, --except-interface, --listen-address or --auth-server options.
              It is intended to be set as  a  default  on  installation,  to  allow  unconfigured
              installations  to  be  useful  but  also safe from being used for DNS amplification

       -2, --no-dhcp-interface=<interface name>
              Do not provide DHCP or TFTP on the specified interface, but do provide DNS service.

       -a, --listen-address=<ipaddr>
              Listen on the given IP address(es). Both --interface and  --listen-address  options
              may  be given, in which case the set of both interfaces and addresses is used. Note
              that if no --interface option is given, but --listen-address is, dnsmasq  will  not
              automatically  listen  on  the loopback interface. To achieve this, its IP address,
    , must be explicitly given as a --listen-address option.

       -z, --bind-interfaces
              On systems which support it, dnsmasq binds the wildcard address, even  when  it  is
              listening  on  only  some  interfaces.  It then discards requests that it shouldn't
              reply to. This has the advantage of working even when interfaces come  and  go  and
              change address. This option forces dnsmasq to really bind only the interfaces it is
              listening on. About the only time when this  is  useful  is  when  running  another
              nameserver  (or  another  instance  of  dnsmasq)  on the same machine. Setting this
              option also enables multiple instances of dnsmasq which provide DHCP service to run
              in the same machine.

              Enable  a network mode which is a hybrid between --bind-interfaces and the default.
              Dnsmasq binds the address  of  individual  interfaces,  allowing  multiple  dnsmasq
              instances,  but  if new interfaces or addresses appear, it automatically listens on
              those (subject to any access-control configuration). This makes dynamically created
              interfaces  work  in the same way as the default. Implementing this option requires
              non-standard networking APIs and  it  is  only  available  under  Linux.  On  other
              platforms it falls-back to --bind-interfaces mode.

       -y, --localise-queries
              Return  answers to DNS queries from /etc/hosts and --interface-name which depend on
              the interface over which the query was received.  If  a  name  has  more  than  one
              address  associated  with  it,  and  at least one of those addresses is on the same
              subnet as the interface  to  which  the  query  was  sent,  then  return  only  the
              address(es) on that subnet. This allows for a server  to have multiple addresses in
              /etc/hosts corresponding to each of its interfaces, and hosts will get the  correct
              address  based  on  which  network they are attached to. Currently this facility is
              limited to IPv4.

       -b, --bogus-priv
              Bogus private reverse lookups. All  reverse  lookups  for  private  IP  ranges  (ie
              192.168.x.x,  etc)  which  are  not found in /etc/hosts or the DHCP leases file are
              answered with "no such domain" rather than being forwarded  upstream.  The  set  of
              prefixes affected is the list given in RFC6303, for IPv4 and IPv6.

       -V, --alias=[<old-ip>]|[<start-ip>-<end-ip>],<new-ip>[,<mask>]
              Modify  IPv4  addresses  returned  from upstream nameservers; old-ip is replaced by
              new-ip. If the optional mask is given then any address  which  matches  the  masked
              old-ip  will  be re-written. So, for instance --alias=,,
              will map to and to  This  is  what  Cisco  PIX
              routers  call "DNS doctoring". If the old IP is given as range, then only addresses
              in   the   range,   rather   than   a   whole   subnet,    are    re-written.    So
              --alias=,,                       maps
    > to>

       -B, --bogus-nxdomain=<ipaddr>
              Transform replies which contain the IP address given into "No such domain" replies.
              This  is  intended  to counteract a devious move made by Verisign in September 2003
              when they started returning the address of an advertising web page in  response  to
              queries  for  unregistered  names,  instead  of the correct NXDOMAIN response. This
              option tells dnsmasq to fake the correct response when it sees this  behaviour.  As
              at Sept 2003 the IP address being returned by Verisign is

              Ignore  replies  to A-record queries which include the specified address.  No error
              is generated, dnsmasq simply continues to listen for another reply.  This is useful
              to  defeat blocking strategies which rely on quickly supplying a forged answer to a
              DNS request for certain domain, before the correct answer can arrive.

       -f, --filterwin2k
              Later versions of windows make periodic  DNS  requests  which  don't  get  sensible
              answers  from  the  public  DNS and can cause problems by triggering dial-on-demand
              links. This flag turns on an option to filter such requests. The  requests  blocked
              are  for  records  of  types SOA and SRV, and type ANY where the requested name has
              underscores, to catch LDAP requests.

       -r, --resolv-file=<file>
              Read the  IP  addresses  of  the  upstream  nameservers  from  <file>,  instead  of
              /etc/resolv.conf.  For  the format of this file see resolv.conf(5).  The only lines
              relevant to dnsmasq are nameserver ones. Dnsmasq can be told to poll more than  one
              resolv.conf  file, the first file name  specified overrides the default, subsequent
              ones add to the list. This  is  only  allowed  when  polling;  the  file  with  the
              currently latest modification time is the one used.

       -R, --no-resolv
              Don't read /etc/resolv.conf. Get upstream servers only from the command line or the
              dnsmasq configuration file.

       -1, --enable-dbus[=<service-name>]
              Allow dnsmasq configuration to be updated via DBus method calls. The  configuration
              which  can be changed is upstream DNS servers (and corresponding domains) and cache
              clear. Requires that dnsmasq has been built with DBus support. If the service  name
              is  given,  dnsmasq provides service at that name, rather than the default which is

              Enable dnsmasq UBus interface. It sends  notifications  via  UBus  on  DHCPACK  and
              DHCPRELEASE  events. Furthermore it offers metrics.  Requires that dnsmasq has been
              built with UBus support.

       -o, --strict-order
              By default, dnsmasq will send queries to any of the upstream servers it knows about
              and  tries  to  favour  servers  that  are known to be up. Setting this flag forces
              dnsmasq to try each query with each server strictly in the  order  they  appear  in

              By  default, when dnsmasq has more than one upstream server available, it will send
              queries to just one server. Setting this flag forces dnsmasq to send all queries to
              all  available  servers.  The  reply  from  the  server which answers first will be
              returned to the original requester.

              Enable code to detect DNS forwarding loops; ie the situation where a query sent  to
              one  of  the  upstream  server  eventually  returns  as  a new query to the dnsmasq
              instance. The process works by generating TXT queries of the  form  <hex>.test  and
              sending  them  to each upstream server. The hex is a UID which encodes the instance
              of dnsmasq sending the query and the upstream server to which it was sent.  If  the
              query  returns  to the server which sent it, then the upstream server through which
              it was sent is disabled and this event is logged. Each time  the  set  of  upstream
              servers  changes,  the  test  is  re-run  on all of them, including ones which were
              previously disabled.

              Reject (and log) addresses from upstream nameservers which are in  the  private  IP
              ranges.  This  blocks  an attack where a browser behind a firewall is used to probe
              machines on the local network.

              Exempt from  rebinding  checks.  This  address  range  is  returned  by
              realtime black hole servers, so blocking it may disable these services.

              Do not detect and block dns-rebind on queries to these domains. The argument may be
              either a single domain, or multiple domains surrounded by '/',  like  the  --server
              syntax, eg.  --rebind-domain-ok=/domain1/domain2/domain3/

       -n, --no-poll
              Don't poll /etc/resolv.conf for changes.

              Whenever  /etc/resolv.conf  is  re-read  or  the upstream servers are set via DBus,
              clear the DNS cache.  This is useful when new nameservers may have  different  data
              than that held in cache.

       -D, --domain-needed
              Tells  dnsmasq  to never forward A or AAAA queries for plain names, without dots or
              domain parts, to upstream nameservers. If the name is not known from /etc/hosts  or
              DHCP then a "not found" answer is returned.

       -S,   --local,  --server=[/[<domain>]/[domain/]][<ipaddr>[#<port>][@<interface>][@<source-
              Specify IP address of  upstream  servers  directly.  Setting  this  flag  does  not
              suppress  reading  of  /etc/resolv.conf, use --no-resolv to do that. If one or more
              optional domains are given, that server is used only for those domains and they are
              queried  only using the specified server. This is intended for private nameservers:
              if you have a nameserver on your  network  which  deals  with  names  of  the  form
        at    then    giving    the   flag
              --server=/ will send all queries for internal
              machines   to   that  nameserver,  everything  else  will  go  to  the  servers  in
              /etc/resolv.conf. DNSSEC validation is turned off  for  such  private  nameservers,
              UNLESS  a  --trust-anchor  is specified for the domain in question. An empty domain
              specification, // has the special meaning of  "unqualified  names  only"  ie  names
              without  any  dots  in them. A non-standard port may be specified as part of the IP
              address using a # character.  More than one --server flag is allowed, with repeated
              domain or ipaddr parts as required.

              More   specific   domains   take   precedence   over  less  specific  domains,  so:
              --server=/ --server=/ will send queries for
              * to, except *, which will go to

              The   special   server   address   '#'   means,  "use  the  standard  servers",  so
              --server=/  --server=/  will  send  queries   for
              * to, except * which will be forwarded as usual.

              Also  permitted  is  a  -S  flag which gives a domain but no IP address; this tells
              dnsmasq that a domain is local and it may answer queries from  /etc/hosts  or  DHCP
              but  should  never forward queries on that domain to any upstream servers.  --local
              is a synonym for --server to make configuration files clearer in this case.

              IPv6     addresses     may     include     an     %interface      scope-id,      eg

              The  optional  string  after the @ character tells dnsmasq how to set the source of
              the queries to this nameserver. It can either be an ip-address, an  interface  name
              or  both.  The ip-address should belong to the machine on which dnsmasq is running,
              otherwise this server line will be logged and then ignored. If an interface name is
              given,  then  queries  to  the  server will be forced via that interface; if an ip-
              address is given then the source address  of  the  queries  will  be  set  to  that
              address;  and if both are given then a combination of ip-address and interface name
              will be used to steer requests to the server.  The query-port flag is  ignored  for
              any  servers  which  have  a source address specified but the port may be specified
              directly as part of the source address. Forcing queries  to  an  interface  is  not
              implemented on all platforms supported by dnsmasq.

              This is functionally the same as --server, but provides  some  syntactic  sugar  to
              make    specifying    address-to-name    queries   easier.   For   example   --rev-
              server=,  is   exactly   equivalent   to   --server=/

       -A, --address=/<domain>[/<domain>...]/[<ipaddr>]
              Specify  an IP address to return for any host in the given domains.  Queries in the
              domains are never forwarded and always replied to with  the  specified  IP  address
              which  may  be IPv4 or IPv6. To give both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for a domain, use
              repeated --address flags.  To include multiple IP addresses for a single query, use
              --addn-hosts=<path>  instead.   Note  that /etc/hosts and DHCP leases override this
              for  individual  names.  A  common  use  of  this  is  to   redirect   the   entire
      domain  to some friendly local web server to avoid banner ads. The
              domain specification works in the same was as for  --server,  with  the  additional
              facility  that /#/ matches any domain. Thus --address=/#/ will always return
     for any query not answered from /etc/hosts or  DHCP  and  not  sent  to  an
              upstream  nameserver by a more specific --server directive. As for --server, one or
              more   domains   with   no   address   returns   a   no-such-domain   answer,    so
              --address=/   is   equivalent  to  --server=/  and  returns
              NXDOMAIN for and all  its  subdomains.  An  address  specified  as  '#'
              translates  to  the  NULL  address  of  and  its  IPv6 equivalent of :: so
              --address=/  will  return  NULL  addresses  for  and  its
              subdomains.  This  is partly syntactic sugar for --address=/ and
              --address=/ but  is  also  more  efficient  than  including  both  as
              seperate  configuration  lines.  Note that NULL addresses normally work in the same
              way as localhost, so beware that clients looking up these names are likely  to  end
              up talking to themselves.

              Places  the  resolved  IP  addresses  of  queries  for  one  or more domains in the
              specified Netfilter IP set. If multiple setnames are given, then the addresses  are
              placed  in  each  of  them, subject to the limitations of an IP set (IPv4 addresses
              cannot be stored in an IPv6 IP set and vice versa).   Domains  and  subdomains  are
              matched  in  the  same  way  as  --address.   These IP sets must already exist. See
              ipset(8) for more details.

       -m, --mx-host=<mx name>[[,<hostname>],<preference>]
              Return an MX record named <mx name> pointing to the given hostname (if  given),  or
              the  host  specified in the --mx-target switch or, if that switch is not given, the
              host on which dnsmasq is running. The default is useful  for  directing  mail  from
              systems  on  a  LAN  to  a  central  server.  The preference value is optional, and
              defaults to 1 if not given. More than one MX record may be given for a host.

       -t, --mx-target=<hostname>
              Specify the default target for the MX record returned by  dnsmasq.  See  --mx-host.
              If  --mx-target  is  given,  but  not  --mx-host,  then dnsmasq returns a MX record
              containing the MX target for MX queries on the hostname of  the  machine  on  which
              dnsmasq is running.

       -e, --selfmx
              Return  an  MX record pointing to itself for each local machine. Local machines are
              those in /etc/hosts or with DHCP leases.

       -L, --localmx
              Return an MX record pointing to the host given by --mx-target (or  the  machine  on
              which  dnsmasq  is  running)  for  each  local machine. Local machines are those in
              /etc/hosts or with DHCP leases.

       -W, --srv-host=<_service>.<_prot>.[<domain>],[<target>[,<port>[,<priority>[,<weight>]]]]
              Return a SRV DNS record. See RFC2782 for  details.  If  not  supplied,  the  domain
              defaults  to  that  given by --domain.  The default for the target domain is empty,
              and the default for port is one and the defaults for weight and priority are  zero.
              Be  careful if transposing data from BIND zone files: the port, weight and priority
              numbers  are  in  a  different  order.  More  than  one  SRV  record  for  a  given
              service/domain is allowed, all that match are returned.

              Add A, AAAA and PTR records to the DNS. This adds one or more names to the DNS with
              associated IPv4 (A) and IPv6 (AAAA) records. A name may appear  in  more  than  one
              --host-record  and  therefore  be  assigned  more  than one address. Only the first
              address creates a PTR record linking the address to the name. This is the same rule
              as  is  used  reading hosts-files.  --host-record options are considered to be read
              before host-files, so a name appearing there inhibits  PTR-record  creation  if  it
              appears  in  hosts-file also. Unlike hosts-files, names are not expanded, even when
              --expand-hosts is in effect. Short and long names may appear in  the  same  --host-
              record, eg.  --host-record=laptop,,,1234::100

              If  the time-to-live is given, it overrides the default, which is zero or the value
              of --local-ttl. The value is a positive  integer  and  gives  the  time-to-live  in

       -Y, --txt-record=<name>[[,<text>],<text>]
              Return  a  TXT  DNS  record.  The  value of TXT record is a set of strings, so  any
              number may be included, delimited by commas;  use  quotes  to  put  commas  into  a
              string.  Note  that the maximum length of a single string is 255 characters, longer
              strings are split into 255 character chunks.

              Return a PTR DNS record.

              Return an NAPTR DNS record, as specified in RFC3403.

              Return a CAA DNS record, as specified in RFC6844.

              Return a CNAME record which indicates that <cname> is really  <target>.  There  are
              significant  limitations  on  the  target;  it must be a DNS name which is known to
              dnsmasq from /etc/hosts (or additional hosts files), from DHCP,  from  --interface-
              name  or  from  another --cname.  If the target does not satisfy this criteria, the
              whole cname is ignored. The cname must be unique, but it  is  permissible  to  have
              more  than  one  cname pointing to the same target. Indeed it's possible to declare
              multiple cnames to a target in a single line, like so: --cname=cname1,cname2,target

              If the time-to-live is given, it overrides the default, which is zero or the  value
              of  --local-ttl.  The  value  is  a  positive integer and gives the time-to-live in

       --dns-rr=<name>,<RR-number>,[<hex data>]
              Return an arbitrary DNS Resource Record. The number  is  the  type  of  the  record
              (which  is  always  in the C_IN class). The value of the record is given by the hex
              data, which may be of the form 01:23:45 or 01 23 45 or 012345  or  any  mixture  of

              Return  DNS  records  associating  the  name  with  the  address(es)  of  the given
              interface. This flag specifies an A or AAAA record for the given name in  the  same
              way  as an /etc/hosts line, except that the address is not constant, but taken from
              the given interface. The interface may be followed by "/4" or "/6" to specify  that
              only  IPv4  or  IPv6 addresses of the interface should be used. If the interface is
              down, not configured or non-existent, an empty record is returned. The matching PTR
              record  is  also  created, mapping the interface address to the name. More than one
              name may be associated with an interface address by repeating  the  flag;  in  that
              case  the first instance is used for the reverse address-to-name mapping. Note that
              a name used in --interface-name may not appear in /etc/hosts.

       --synth-domain=<domain>,<address range>[,<prefix>[*]]
              Create artificial A/AAAA and PTR records for an address range. The  records  either
              seqential  numbers  or the address, with periods (or colons for IPv6) replaced with

              An  examples  should  make  this  clearer.  First  sequential  numbers.    --synth-
    ,,,internal-*  results  in the name
              returning  and so on. (note the *) The same principle applies to IPv6
              addresses (where the numbers may be very large). Reverse lookups  from  address  to
              name behave as expected.

              Second,,,internal-   (no  *)  will
              result   in   a   query   for   returning
      and  a  reverse  query vice versa. The same applies to IPv6, but IPv6
              addresses may start with '::' but DNS labels may not start with '-' so in this case
              if no prefix is configured a zero is added in front of the label. ::1 becomes 0--1.

              V4  mapped  IPv6  addresses,  which  have  a representation like ::ffff: are
              handled specially, and become like 0--ffff-1-2-3-4

              The  address  range  can  be  of  the  form  <ip  address>,<ip  address>   or   <ip
              address>/<netmask> in both forms of the option.

              Specify  the  location  of  a pcap-format file which dnsmasq uses to dump copies of
              network packets for debugging purposes. If the file exists when dnsmasq starts,  it
              is not deleted; new packets are added to the end.

              Specify which types of packets should be added to the dumpfile. The argument should
              be the OR of the bitmasks for each type of packet to be dumped: it can be specified
              in  hex  by  preceding the number with 0x in  the normal way. Each time a packet is
              written to the dumpfile, dnsmasq logs the packet sequence and the mask representing
              its  type.  The  current  types  are:  0x0001 - DNS queries from clients 0x0002 DNS
              replies to clients 0x0004 - DNS queries to  upstream  0x0008  -  DNS  replies  from
              upstream  0x0010  - queries send upstream for DNSSEC validation 0x0020 - replies to
              queries for DNSSEC validation 0x0040 - replies to client queries which fail  DNSSEC
              validation 0x0080 replies to queries for DNSSEC validation which fail validation.

              Add  the  MAC address of the requestor to DNS queries which are forwarded upstream.
              This may be used to DNS filtering by the upstream server. The MAC address can  only
              be  added  if  the requestor is on the same subnet as the dnsmasq server. Note that
              the mechanism used to achieve this (an EDNS0 option) is not  yet  standardised,  so
              this  should  be  considered experimental. Also note that exposing MAC addresses in
              this way may have security and privacy  implications.  The  warning  about  caching
              given  for  --add-subnet  applies  to --add-mac too. An alternative encoding of the
              MAC, as base64, is enabled by adding the "base64" parameter  and  a  human-readable
              encoding of hex-and-colons is enabled by added the "text" parameter.

              Add an arbitrary identifying string to o DNS queries which are forwarded upstream.

       --add-subnet[[=[<IPv4   address>/]<IPv4  prefix  length>][,[<IPv6  address>/]<IPv6  prefix
              Add a subnet address to the DNS queries which are forwarded upstream. If an address
              is  specified in the flag, it will be used, otherwise, the address of the requestor
              will be used. The amount of the address forwarded  depends  on  the  prefix  length
              parameter:  32  (128 for IPv6) forwards the whole address, zero forwards none of it
              but still marks the request so that no upstream nameserver will add client  address
              information  either. The default is zero for both IPv4 and IPv6. Note that upstream
              nameservers  may  be  configured  to  return  different  results  based   on   this
              information,  but  the  dnsmasq  cache  does not take account. Caching is therefore
              disabled for such replies, unless the subnet address being added is constant.

              For example, --add-subnet=24,96 will add the /24 and /96 subnets of  the  requestor
              for  IPv4  and  IPv6  requestors,  respectively.   --add-subnet= will add
      for  IPv4  requestors   and   ::/0   for   IPv6   requestors.    --add-
              subnet=, will add for both IPv4 and IPv6 requestors.

       -c, --cache-size=<cachesize>
              Set  the  size of dnsmasq's cache. The default is 150 names. Setting the cache size
              to zero disables caching. Note: huge cache size impacts performance.

       -N, --no-negcache
              Disable negative caching. Negative caching allows  dnsmasq  to  remember  "no  such
              domain"  answers  from  upstream  nameservers  and answer identical queries without
              forwarding them again.

       -0, --dns-forward-max=<queries>
              Set the maximum number of concurrent DNS queries. The default value is  150,  which
              should  be  fine  for  most setups. The only known situation where this needs to be
              increased is when using web-server log file resolvers,  which  can  generate  large
              numbers of concurrent queries.

              Validate  DNS  replies  and cache DNSSEC data. When forwarding DNS queries, dnsmasq
              requests the DNSSEC records  needed  to  validate  the  replies.  The  replies  are
              validated  and the result returned as the Authenticated Data bit in the DNS packet.
              In addition the DNSSEC records are  stored  in  the  cache,  making  validation  by
              clients  more  efficient. Note that validation by clients is the most secure DNSSEC
              mode, but for clients unable to do validation, use of the AD bit set by dnsmasq  is
              useful,  provided  that  the  network  between the dnsmasq server and the client is
              trusted. Dnsmasq must be  compiled  with  HAVE_DNSSEC  enabled,  and  DNSSEC  trust
              anchors  provided,  see --trust-anchor.  Because the DNSSEC validation process uses
              the cache, it is not permitted to reduce the cache  size  below  the  default  when
              DNSSEC  is  enabled. The nameservers upstream of dnsmasq must be DNSSEC-capable, ie
              capable of returning DNSSEC records with data. If they are not, then  dnsmasq  will
              not  be  able  to  determine  the trusted status of answers and this means that DNS
              service will be entirely broken.

              Provide DS records to act a trust anchors for DNSSEC  validation.  Typically  these
              will  be  the DS record(s) for Key Signing key(s) (KSK) of the root zone, but trust
              anchors for limited domains are also possible. The current root-zone trust  anchors
              may be downloaded from

              As a default, dnsmasq checks that unsigned DNS replies are legitimate: this entails
              possible extra queries even for the majority of DNS zones which  are  not,  at  the
              moment,  signed.  If  --dnssec-check-unsigned=no appears in the configuration, then
              such replies they are assumed to be valid and passed  on  (without  the  "authentic
              data"  bit  set,  of  course).  This  does  not protect against an attacker forging
              unsigned replies for signed DNS zones, but it is fast.

              Versions of dnsmasq prior to 2.80 defaulted to not checking unsigned  replies,  and
              used  --dnssec-check-unsigned  to switch this on. Such configurations will continue
              to work as before, but those which used the default of no checking will need to  be
              altered  to explicitly select no checking. The new default is because switching off
              checking for unsigned replies is inherently dangerous. Not only does  it  open  the
              possiblity of forged replies, but it allows everything to appear to be working even
              when the upstream namesevers do not support DNSSEC, and  in  this  case  no  DNSSEC
              validation at all is occuring.

              DNSSEC signatures are only valid for specified time windows, and should be rejected
              outside those windows. This generates an interesting  chicken-and-egg  problem  for
              machines  which  don't  have  a  hardware  real  time  clock. For these machines to
              determine the correct time typically requires use of NTP  and  therefore  DNS,  but
              validating  DNS  requires that the correct time is already known. Setting this flag
              removes the time-window checks (but not other DNSSEC validation.)  only  until  the
              dnsmasq  process  receives  SIGINT. The intention is that dnsmasq should be started
              with this flag when the platform determines that reliable  time  is  not  currently
              available.  As  soon  as  reliable  time is established, a SIGINT should be sent to
              dnsmasq, which enables time checking, and purges the cache  of  DNS  records  which
              have not been thoroughly checked.

              Earlier  versions  of dnsmasq overloaded SIGHUP (which re-reads much configuration)
              to also enable time validation.

              If dnsmasq is run in debug mode (--no-daemon flag) then SIGINT  retains  its  usual
              meaning of terminating the dnsmasq process.

              Enables  an  alternative way of checking the validity of the system time for DNSSEC
              (see --dnssec-no-timecheck). In this case, the system  time  is  considered  to  be
              valid  once  it becomes later than the timestamp on the specified file. The file is
              created and its timestamp set automatically by dnsmasq. The file must be stored  on
              a persistent filesystem, so that it and its mtime are carried over system restarts.
              The timestamp file is created after dnsmasq has dropped root, so it must  be  in  a
              location writable by the unprivileged user that dnsmasq runs as.

              Copy  the DNSSEC Authenticated Data bit from upstream servers to downstream clients
              and cache it.  This is an alternative to having dnsmasq  validate  DNSSEC,  but  it
              depends  on  the  security of the network between dnsmasq and the upstream servers,
              and the trustworthiness of the upstream servers.

              Set debugging mode for the DNSSEC validation, set  the  Checking  Disabled  bit  on
              upstream queries, and don't convert replies which do not validate to responses with
              a return code of SERVFAIL. Note that setting this may affect DNS behaviour  in  bad
              ways, it is not an extra-logging flag and should not be set in production.

       --auth-zone=<domain>[,<subnet>[/<prefix                        length>][,<subnet>[/<prefix
       length>].....][,exclude:<subnet>[/<prefix length>]].....]
              Define a DNS zone for which dnsmasq acts as authoritative server.  Locally  defined
              DNS  records  which are in the domain will be served. If subnet(s) are given, A and
              AAAA records must be in one of the specified subnets.

              As alternative to directly specifying the subnets, it's possible to give  the  name
              of  an  interface, in which case the subnets implied by that interface's configured
              addresses and netmask/prefix-length are used; this is useful when using constructed
              DHCP  ranges  as  the  actual  address  is  dynamic  and not known when configuring
              dnsmasq. The interface addresses may be  confined  to  only  IPv6  addresses  using
              <interface>/6 or to only IPv4 using <interface>/4. This is useful when an interface
              has dynamically determined global IPv6 addresses which should appear in  the  zone,
              but  RFC1918  IPv4  addresses which should not.  Interface-name and address-literal
              subnet specifications may be used freely in the same --auth-zone declaration.

              It's possible to exclude certain IP addresses from responses. It can  be  used,  to
              make  sure  that  answers  contain only global routeable IP addresses (by excluding
              loopback, RFC1918 and ULA addresses).

              The subnet(s) are also used to define and domains  which  are
              served  for reverse-DNS queries. If not specified, the prefix length defaults to 24
              for IPv4 and 64 for IPv6.  For IPv4 subnets, the prefix length should be  have  the
              value  8,  16 or 24 unless you are familiar with RFC 2317 and have arranged the in-
     delegation accordingly. Note that if no subnets are  specified,  then  no
              reverse queries are answered.

              Specify  fields  in  the  SOA record associated with authoritative zones. Note that
              this is optional, all the values are set to sane defaults.

              Specify any secondary servers for a zone for which dnsmasq is authoritative.  These
              servers  must  be  configured  to  get zone data from dnsmasq by zone transfer, and
              answer queries for the same authoritative zones as dnsmasq.

              Specify the addresses of secondary servers  which  are  allowed  to  initiate  zone
              transfer  (AXFR)  requests  for  zones  for which dnsmasq is authoritative. If this
              option is not given but --auth-sec-servers is, then AXFR requests will be  accepted
              from  any secondary. Specifying --auth-peer without --auth-sec-servers enables zone
              transfer but does not advertise the secondary in NS records returned by dnsmasq.

              Read the Linux connection track mark associated with incoming DNS queries  and  set
              the  same  mark value on upstream traffic used to answer those queries. This allows
              traffic generated by dnsmasq to be associated with  the  queries  which  cause  it,
              useful  for  bandwidth  accounting  and  firewalling.  Dnsmasq  must have conntrack
              support compiled in and  the  kernel  must  have  conntrack  support  included  and
              configured. This option cannot be combined with --query-port.

       -F,                   --dhcp-range=[tag:<tag>[,tag:<tag>],][set:<tag>,]<start-addr>[,<end-
       addr>|<mode>][,<netmask>[,<broadcast>]][,<lease time>]

       -F,               --dhcp-range=[tag:<tag>[,tag:<tag>],][set:<tag>,]<start-IPv6addr>[,<end-
       IPv6addr>|constructor:<interface>][,<mode>][,<prefix-len>][,<lease time>]

              Enable  the DHCP server. Addresses will be given out from the range <start-addr> to
              <end-addr> and from statically defined addresses given in --dhcp-host  options.  If
              the  lease  time  is  given, then leases will be given for that length of time. The
              lease time is in seconds, or minutes (eg 45m) or hours (eg 1h)  or  "infinite".  If
              not  given,  the  default  lease  time  is  one hour. The minimum lease time is two
              minutes. For IPv6  ranges,  the  lease  time  maybe  "deprecated";  this  sets  the
              preferred  lifetime  sent  in  a  DHCP lease or router advertisement to zero, which
              causes clients to use other addresses, if  available,  for  new  connections  as  a
              prelude to renumbering.

              This  option  may  be repeated, with different addresses, to enable DHCP service to
              more than one network. For directly connected networks (ie, networks on  which  the
              machine  running  dnsmasq  has  an interface) the netmask is optional: dnsmasq will
              determine it from the interface configuration.  For  networks  which  receive  DHCP
              service  via  a  relay  agent,  dnsmasq  cannot determine the netmask itself, so it
              should be specified, otherwise dnsmasq will have to guess, based on the class (A, B
              or  C)  of  the  network  address.  The broadcast address is always optional. It is
              always allowed to have more than one --dhcp-range in a single subnet.

              For IPv6, the parameters are slightly different: instead of netmask  and  broadcast
              address,  there  is an optional prefix length which must be equal to or larger then
              the prefix length on the local interface. If not given, this defaults to 64. Unlike
              the  IPv4  case,  the prefix length is not automatically derived from the interface
              configuration. The minimum size of the prefix length is 64.

              IPv6 (only) supports another type of range. In this, the start address and optional
              end  address  contain  only  the  network  part  (ie  ::1) and they are followed by
              constructor:<interface>.  This forms a  template  which  describes  how  to  create
              ranges, based on the addresses assigned to the interface. For instance


              will  look  for  addresses  on  eth0  and  then create a range from <network>::1 to
              <network>::400. If the interface is  assigned  more  than  one  network,  then  the
              corresponding ranges will be automatically created, and then deprecated and finally
              removed again as the address is deprecated and then deleted. The interface name may
              have  a final "*" wildcard. Note that just any address on eth0 will not do: it must
              not be an autoconfigured or privacy address, or be deprecated.

              If a --dhcp-range is only being used for stateless  DHCP  and/or  SLAAC,  then  the
              address can be simply ::


              The  optional set:<tag> sets an alphanumeric label which marks this network so that
              dhcp options may be specified on a per-network basis.  When  it  is  prefixed  with
              'tag:'  instead,  then  its meaning changes from setting a tag to matching it. Only
              one tag may be set, but more than one tag may be matched.

              The optional <mode> keyword may be static which tells dnsmasq to  enable  DHCP  for
              the  network  specified,  but  not to dynamically allocate IP addresses: only hosts
              which have static addresses given via  --dhcp-host  or  from  /etc/ethers  will  be
              served.  A  static-only  subnet with address all zeros may be used as a "catch-all"
              address to enable replies to all Information-request packets on a subnet  which  is
              provided with stateless DHCPv6, ie --dhcp-range=::,static

              For  IPv4, the <mode> may be proxy in which case dnsmasq will provide proxy-DHCP on
              the specified subnet. (See --pxe-prompt and --pxe-service for details.)

              For IPv6, the mode may  be  some  combination  of  ra-only,  slaac,  ra-names,  ra-
              stateless, ra-advrouter, off-link.

              ra-only  tells  dnsmasq  to offer Router Advertisement only on this subnet, and not

              slaac tells dnsmasq to offer Router Advertisement on this subnet and to set  the  A
              bit  in the router advertisement, so that the client will use SLAAC addresses. When
              used with a DHCP range or static DHCP address this results  in  the  client  having
              both a DHCP-assigned and a SLAAC address.

              ra-stateless  sends router advertisements with the O and A bits set, and provides a
              stateless DHCP service. The client will use a SLAAC address, and use DHCP for other
              configuration information.

              ra-names  enables  a  mode which gives DNS names to dual-stack hosts which do SLAAC
              for IPv6. Dnsmasq uses the host's IPv4 lease to derive the  name,  network  segment
              and MAC address and assumes that the host will also have an IPv6 address calculated
              using the SLAAC algorithm, on the same network segment. The address is pinged,  and
              if  a  reply is received, an AAAA record is added to the DNS for this IPv6 address.
              Note that this is only happens for directly-connected networks, (not one doing DHCP
              via  a relay) and it will not work if a host is using privacy extensions.  ra-names
              can be combined  with ra-stateless and slaac.

              ra-advrouter enables a mode where router address(es)  rather  than  prefix(es)  are
              included  in  the advertisements.  This is described in RFC-3775 section 7.2 and is
              used in mobile IPv6. In  this  mode  the  interval  option  is  also  included,  as
              described in RFC-3775 section 7.3.

              off-link tells dnsmasq to advertise the prefix without the on-link (aka L) bit set.

       -G,                                                                                --dhcp-
              Specify  per  host  parameters  for  the  DHCP server. This allows a machine with a
              particular hardware address to be always allocated the same  hostname,  IP  address
              and  lease  time. A hostname specified like this overrides any supplied by the DHCP
              client on the machine. It is also  allowable  to  omit  the  hardware  address  and
              include  the  hostname,  in which case the IP address and lease times will apply to
              any     machine     claiming     that      name.      For      example      --dhcp-
              host=00:20:e0:3b:13:af,wap,infinite tells dnsmasq to give the machine with hardware
              address 00:20:e0:3b:13:af the name  wap,  and  an  infinite  DHCP  lease.   --dhcp-
              host=lap,  tells  dnsmasq  to  always  allocate the machine lap the IP

              Addresses allocated like this are not constrained to be in the range given  by  the
              --dhcp-range  option, but they must be in the same subnet as some valid dhcp-range.
              For subnets which don't need a pool of dynamically  allocated  addresses,  use  the
              "static" keyword in the --dhcp-range declaration.

              It  is  allowed  to use client identifiers (called client DUID in IPv6-land) rather
              than hardware addresses to identify hosts by prefixing with  'id:'.  Thus:  --dhcp-
              host=id:01:02:03:04,.....   refers  to the host with client identifier 01:02:03:04.
              It is  also  allowed  to  specify  the  client  ID  as  text,  like  this:  --dhcp-

              A  single --dhcp-host may contain an IPv4 address or an IPv6 address, or both. IPv6
              addresses must be bracketed by square brackets thus:  --dhcp-host=laptop,[1234::56]
              IPv6 addresses may contain only the host-identifier part: --dhcp-host=laptop,[::56]
              in which  case  they  act  as  wildcards  in  constructed  dhcp  ranges,  with  the
              appropriate  network  part  inserted.  Note that in IPv6 DHCP, the hardware address
              may not be available, though  it  normally  is  for  direct-connected  clients,  or
              clients using DHCP relays which support RFC 6939.

              For  DHCPv4,  the   special  option  id:*  means  "ignore any client-id and use MAC
              addresses only." This is useful when a client presents a  client-id  sometimes  but
              not others.

              If  a name appears in /etc/hosts, the associated address can be allocated to a DHCP
              lease, but only if a --dhcp-host option specifying the name also exists.  Only  one
              hostname  can  be  given in a --dhcp-host option, but aliases are possible by using
              CNAMEs. (See --cname ).

              The special keyword "ignore" tells dnsmasq  to  never  offer  a  DHCP  lease  to  a
              machine.  The  machine can be specified by hardware address, client ID or hostname,
              for instance --dhcp-host=00:20:e0:3b:13:af,ignore This  is  useful  when  there  is
              another DHCP server on the network which should be used by some machines.

              The set:<tag> construct sets the tag whenever this --dhcp-host directive is in use.
              This can be used to selectively send DHCP options just for this host. More than one
              tag  can  be  set  in  a  --dhcp-host  directive  (but  not  in  other places where
              "set:<tag>" is allowed). When a host matches  any  --dhcp-host  directive  (or  one
              implied by /etc/ethers) then the special tag "known" is set. This allows dnsmasq to
              be  configured  to  ignore   requests   from   unknown   machines   using   --dhcp-
              ignore=tag:!known  If the host matches only a --dhcp-host directive which cannot be
              used because it specifies an address on different subnet, the tag  "known-othernet"
              is  set.   Ethernet  addresses (but not client-ids) may have wildcard bytes, so for
              example --dhcp-host=00:20:e0:3b:13:*,ignore will cause dnsmasq to ignore a range of
              hardware  addresses.  Note  that  the  "*"  will  need to be escaped or quoted on a
              command line, but not in the configuration file.

              Hardware addresses normally match any network (ARP) type, but  it  is  possible  to
              restrict them to a single ARP type by preceding them with the ARP-type (in HEX) and
              "-". so  --dhcp-host=06-00:20:e0:3b:13:af,  will  only  match  a  Token-Ring
              hardware address, since the ARP-address type for token ring is 6.

              As  a  special  case,  in  DHCPv4, it is possible to include more than one hardware
              address.   eg:   --dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,12:34:56:78:90:12,   This
              allows  an  IP address to be associated with multiple hardware addresses, and gives
              dnsmasq permission to abandon a DHCP lease to one of the  hardware  addresses  when
              another  one asks for a lease. Beware that this is a dangerous thing to do, it will
              only work reliably if only one of the hardware addresses is active at any time  and
              there  is  no  way  for  dnsmasq  to  enforce  this. It is, for instance, useful to
              allocate a stable IP address  to  a  laptop  which  has  both  wired  and  wireless

              Read  DHCP  host information from the specified file. If a directory is given, then
              read all the files contained in that directory. The file contains information about
              one  host per line. The format of a line is the same as text to the right of '=' in
              --dhcp-host. The advantage of storing DHCP host information in this file is that it
              can  be  changed without re-starting dnsmasq: the file will be re-read when dnsmasq
              receives SIGHUP.

              Read DHCP option information from the specified file.  If  a  directory  is  given,
              then  read  all  the files contained in that directory. The advantage of using this
              option is the same as for --dhcp-hostsfile: the  --dhcp-optsfile  will  be  re-read
              when dnsmasq receives SIGHUP. Note that it is possible to encode the information in
              a --dhcp-boot flag as DHCP options, using the options names bootfile-name,  server-
              ip-address and tftp-server. This allows these to be included in a --dhcp-optsfile.

              This  is equivalent to --dhcp-hostsfile, except for the following. The path MUST be
              a directory, and not an individual file. Changed or new files within the  directory
              are  read  automatically, without the need to send SIGHUP.  If a file is deleted or
              changed after it has been read by dnsmasq, then the host record it  contained  will
              remain  until  dnsmasq receives a SIGHUP, or is restarted; ie host records are only
              added dynamically.

              This is equivalent to --dhcp-optsfile,  with  the  differences  noted  for  --dhcp-

       -Z, --read-ethers
              Read  /etc/ethers  for  information  about hosts for the DHCP server. The format of
              /etc/ethers is a hardware address, followed by either a hostname or dotted-quad  IP
              address.  When  read by dnsmasq these lines have exactly the same effect as --dhcp-
              host options containing the same information. /etc/ethers is re-read  when  dnsmasq
              receives SIGHUP. IPv6 addresses are NOT read from /etc/ethers.

       -O,                               --dhcp-option=[tag:<tag>,[tag:<tag>,]][encap:<opt>,][vi-
              Specify  different or extra options to DHCP clients. By default, dnsmasq sends some
              standard options to DHCP clients, the netmask and broadcast address are set to  the
              same  as  the host running dnsmasq, and the DNS server and default route are set to
              the address of the machine running dnsmasq. (Equivalent rules apply for  IPv6.)  If
              the domain name option has been set, that is sent.  This configuration allows these
              defaults to be overridden, or other options specified. The option, to be  sent  may
              be  given  as  a decimal number or as "option:<option-name>" The option numbers are
              specified in RFC2132 and subsequent RFCs. The set of option-names known by  dnsmasq
              can  be  discovered  by  running  "dnsmasq  --help  dhcp".  For example, to set the
              default route option to,  do  --dhcp-option=3,  or  --dhcp-
              option  =  option:router,  and  to  set  the  time-server  address  to
    , do --dhcp-option  =  42,  or  --dhcp-option  =  option:ntp-
              server,  The  special address is taken to mean "the address of
              the machine running dnsmasq".

              Data types allowed are comma separated dotted-quad IPv4 addresses, []-wrapped  IPv6
              addresses,  a  decimal number, colon-separated hex digits and a text string. If the
              optional tags are given then this option  is  only  sent  when  all  the  tags  are

              Special  processing  is done on a text argument for option 119, to conform with RFC
              3397. Text or dotted-quad IP addresses as arguments to option 120  are  handled  as
              per  RFC  3361.  Dotted-quad  IP addresses which are followed by a slash and then a
              netmask size are encoded as described in RFC 3442.

              IPv6 options are specified using the  option6:  keyword,  followed  by  the  option
              number  or option name. The IPv6 option name space is disjoint from the IPv4 option
              name space. IPv6 addresses in options must be bracketed with square  brackets,  eg.
              --dhcp-option=option6:ntp-server,[1234::56]   For  IPv6,  [::]  means  "the  global
              address of the machine running dnsmasq", whilst [fd00::] is replaced with the  ULA,
              if it exists, and [fe80::] with the link-local address.

              Be careful: no checking is done that the correct type of data for the option number
              is sent, it is quite possible to persuade dnsmasq to generate illegal DHCP  packets
              with injudicious use of this flag. When the value is a decimal number, dnsmasq must
              determine how large the data item is. It does this by examining the  option  number
              and/or  the  value,  but  can  be  overridden  by appending a single letter flag as
              follows: b = one byte, s = two bytes, i = four bytes. This is  mainly  useful  with
              encapsulated  vendor  class options (see below) where dnsmasq cannot determine data
              size from the  option number. Option data which  consists  solely  of  periods  and
              digits will be interpreted by dnsmasq as an IP address, and inserted into an option
              as such. To force a literal string, use quotes. For instance when using  option  66
              to  send  a  literal  IP address as TFTP server name, it is necessary to do --dhcp-

              Encapsulated Vendor-class options may also be specified (IPv4 only)  using  --dhcp-
              option:    for    instance   --dhcp-option=vendor:PXEClient,1,   sends   the
              encapsulated vendor class-specific  option  "mftp-address="  to  any  client
              whose  vendor-class  matches  "PXEClient".  The  vendor-class matching is substring
              based (see --dhcp-vendorclass for details). If a vendor-class option (number 60) is
              sent by dnsmasq, then that is used for selecting encapsulated options in preference
              to any sent by the client. It is  possible  to  omit  the  vendorclass  completely;
              --dhcp-option=vendor:,1,  in  which  case  the encapsulated option is always

              Options may be encapsulated (IPv4 only) within other options: for instance  --dhcp-
              option=encap:175,  190,  iscsi-client0  will  send  option 175, within which is the
              option 190. If multiple options are given which  are  encapsulated  with  the  same
              option  number  then  they will be correctly combined into one encapsulated option.
              encap: and vendor: are may not both be set in the same --dhcp-option.

              The final variant on encapsulated options is "Vendor-Identifying Vendor Options" as
              specified  by  RFC3925.  These are denoted like this: --dhcp-option=vi-encap:2, 10,
              text The number in the vi-encap: section is the  IANA  enterprise  number  used  to
              identify this option. This form of encapsulation is supported in IPv6.

              The address is not treated specially in encapsulated options.

              This works in exactly the same way as --dhcp-option except  that  the  option  will
              always  be  sent,  even  if the client does not ask for it in the parameter request
              list. This is sometimes needed, for example when sending options to PXELinux.

              (IPv4 only) Disable re-use of the DHCP servername  and  filename  fields  as  extra
              option  space.  If  it  can, dnsmasq moves the boot server and filename information
              (from --dhcp-boot) out of their dedicated fields into DHCP options. This make extra
              space  available  in  the  DHCP  packet for options but can, rarely, confuse old or
              broken clients. This flag forces "simple and safe" behaviour to avoid  problems  in
              such a case.

       --dhcp-relay=<local address>,<server address>[,<interface]
              Configure dnsmasq to do DHCP relay. The local address is an address allocated to an
              interface on the host running dnsmasq. All DHCP requests arriving on that interface
              will  we  relayed  to a remote DHCP server at the server address. It is possible to
              relay from a single local address to multiple  remote  servers  by  using  multiple
              --dhcp-relay  configs with the same local address and different server addresses. A
              server address must be an IP literal address, not a domain name.  In  the  case  of
              DHCPv6,  the server address may be the ALL_SERVERS multicast address, ff05::1:3. In
              this case the interface must be given, not be wildcard, and is used to  direct  the
              multicast to the correct interface to reach the DHCP server.

              Access  control  for  DHCP  clients  has the same rules as for the DHCP server, see
              --interface, --except-interface, etc. The optional interface name  in  the  --dhcp-
              relay  config has a different function: it controls on which interface DHCP replies
              from the server will be accepted. This is intended for  configurations  which  have
              three  interfaces: one being relayed from, a second connecting the DHCP server, and
              a third untrusted network, typically the wider internet. It avoids the  possibility
              of spoof replies arriving via this third interface.

              It  is  allowed  to  have dnsmasq act as a DHCP server on one set of interfaces and
              relay from a disjoint set of interfaces. Note that whilst it is quite  possible  to
              write  configurations  which  appear  to  act  as  a server and a relay on the same
              interface, this is not supported: the relay function will take precedence.

              Both DHCPv4 and DHCPv6 relay is supported. It's not possible to relay DHCPv4  to  a
              DHCPv6 server or vice-versa.

       -U, --dhcp-vendorclass=set:<tag>,[enterprise:<IANA-enterprise number>,]<vendor-class>
              Map from a vendor-class string to a tag. Most DHCP clients provide a "vendor class"
              which represents, in some sense, the type of host. This option maps vendor  classes
              to  tags, so that DHCP options may be selectively delivered to different classes of
              hosts. For example --dhcp-vendorclass=set:printers,Hewlett-Packard  JetDirect  will
              allow   options   to   be   set   only   for   HP   printers   like   so:   --dhcp-
              option=tag:printers,3, The  vendor-class  string  is  substring  matched
              against  the vendor-class supplied by the client, to allow fuzzy matching. The set:
              prefix is optional but allowed for consistency.

              Note that in  IPv6  only,  vendorclasses  are  namespaced  with  an  IANA-allocated
              enterprise  number.  This is given with enterprise: keyword and specifies that only
              vendorclasses matching the specified number should be searched.

       -j, --dhcp-userclass=set:<tag>,<user-class>
              Map from a user-class string  to  a  tag  (with  substring  matching,  like  vendor
              classes).  Most  DHCP  clients  provide  a "user class" which is configurable. This
              option maps user classes to tags, so that DHCP options may be selectively delivered
              to  different  classes  of hosts. It is possible, for instance to use this to set a
              different printer server for hosts in the class "accounts" than for  hosts  in  the
              class "engineering".

       -4, --dhcp-mac=set:<tag>,<MAC address>
              Map from a MAC address to a tag. The MAC address may include wildcards. For example
              --dhcp-mac=set:3com,01:34:23:*:*:* will set the tag "3com" for any host  whose  MAC
              address matches the pattern.

       --dhcp-circuitid=set:<tag>,<circuit-id>, --dhcp-remoteid=set:<tag>,<remote-id>
              Map  from  RFC3046  relay  agent options to tags. This data may be provided by DHCP
              relay agents. The circuit-id or remote-id is normally given as colon-separated hex,
              but  is  also  allowed to be a simple string. If an exact match is achieved between
              the circuit or agent ID and one provided by a relay agent, the tag is set.

              --dhcp-remoteid (but not --dhcp-circuitid) is supported in IPv6.

              (IPv4 and IPv6) Map from RFC3993 subscriber-id relay agent options to tags.

       --dhcp-proxy[=<ip addr>]......
              (IPv4 only) A normal DHCP relay agent is only used to forward the initial parts  of
              a DHCP interaction to the DHCP server. Once a client is configured, it communicates
              directly with the server. This is undesirable if the relay agent  is  adding  extra
              information  to the DHCP packets, such as that used by --dhcp-circuitid and --dhcp-
              remoteid.  A full relay implementation  can  use  the  RFC  5107  serverid-override
              option  to force the DHCP server to use the relay as a full proxy, with all packets
              passing through it. This flag provides an alternative  method  of  doing  the  same
              thing,  for  relays  which  don't support RFC 5107. Given alone, it manipulates the
              server-id for all interactions via relays. If a list of IP addresses is given, only
              interactions via relays at those addresses are affected.

       --dhcp-match=set:<tag>,<option               number>|option:<option              name>|vi-
              Without a value, set the tag if the client sends a DHCP option of the given  number
              or  name. When a value is given, set the tag only if the option is sent and matches
              the value. The value may be of the form "01:ff:*:02" in which case the  value  must
              match  (apart  from wildcards) but the option sent may have unmatched data past the
              end of the value. The value may also be of the same form  as  in  --dhcp-option  in
              which  case  the option sent is treated as an array, and one element must match, so
              --dhcp-match=set:efi-ia32,option:client-arch,6 will set the tag "efi-ia32"  if  the
              the  number 6 appears in the list of architectures sent by the client in option 93.
              (See RFC 4578 for details.)  If the value is a string, substring matching is used.

              The  special  form  with  vi-encap:<enterprise  number>  matches  against   vendor-
              identifying  vendor  classes  for the specified enterprise. Please see RFC 3925 for
              more details of these rare and interesting beasts.

              Set the tag if the given name is supplied by a dhcp client. There may be  a  single
              trailing  wildcard  *,  which  has  the usual meaning. Combined with dhcp-ignore or
              dhcp-ignore-names this gives the ability to ignore  certain  clients  by  name,  or
              disallow certain hostnames from being claimed by a client.

              Perform  boolean  operations  on tags. Any tag appearing as set:<tag> is set if all
              the tags which appear as tag:<tag> are set, (or unset when tag:!<tag> is  used)  If
              no  tag:<tag>  appears  set:<tag> tags are set unconditionally.  Any number of set:
              and tag: forms may appear, in any order.  --tag-if lines are executed in order,  so
              if  the  tag in tag:<tag> is a tag set by another --tag-if, the line which sets the
              tag must precede the one which tests it.

       -J, --dhcp-ignore=tag:<tag>[,tag:<tag>]
              When all the given tags appear in the tag set ignore the host and do  not  allocate
              it a DHCP lease.

              When  all the given tags appear in the tag set, ignore any hostname provided by the
              host. Note that, unlike --dhcp-ignore, it is permissible  to  supply  no  tags,  in
              which  case  DHCP-client  supplied hostnames are always ignored, and DHCP hosts are
              added to the DNS using only --dhcp-host configuration in dnsmasq and  the  contents
              of /etc/hosts and /etc/ethers.

              (IPv4 only) Generate a name for DHCP clients which do not otherwise have one, using
              the MAC address expressed in hex, separated by dashes. Note that if a host provides
              a name, it will be used by preference to this, unless --dhcp-ignore-names is set.

              (IPv4  only) When all the given tags appear in the tag set, always use broadcast to
              communicate with the host when it is unconfigured. It is permissible to  supply  no
              tags,  in  which case this is unconditional. Most DHCP clients which need broadcast
              replies set a flag in their requests so that this happens automatically,  some  old
              BOOTP clients do not.

       -M, --dhcp-boot=[tag:<tag>,]<filename>,[<servername>[,<server address>|<tftp_servername>]]
              (IPv4  only)  Set  BOOTP options to be returned by the DHCP server. Server name and
              address are optional: if not provided, the name is left empty, and the address  set
              to  the  address  of  the  machine  running dnsmasq. If dnsmasq is providing a TFTP
              service (see --enable-tftp ) then only the filename  is  required  here  to  enable
              network  booting.   If  the  optional  tag(s)  are  given, they must match for this
              configuration to be sent.  Instead of an IP address, the TFTP server address can be
              given  as  a  domain  name  which  is  looked  up  in  /etc/hosts. This name can be
              associated in /etc/hosts with multiple IP addresses, which  are  used  round-robin.
              This facility can be used to load balance the tftp load among a set of servers.

              Dnsmasq  is  designed  to  choose IP addresses for DHCP clients using a hash of the
              client's MAC address. This normally allows a  client's  address  to  remain  stable
              long-term,  even  if the client  sometimes allows its DHCP lease to expire. In this
              default mode IP addresses are distributed pseudo-randomly over the entire available
              address  range.  There  are  sometimes  circumstances (typically server deployment)
              where it is more convenient to have IP addresses allocated  sequentially,  starting
              from  the  lowest  available address, and setting this flag enables this mode. Note
              that in the sequential mode, clients which allow a lease to expire  are  much  more
              likely to move IP address; for this reason it should not be generally used.

       --pxe-service=[tag:<tag>,]<CSA>,<menu        text>[,<basename>|<bootservicetype>][,<server
              Most uses of PXE boot-ROMS simply allow the PXE system to obtain an IP address  and
              then  download  the  file  specified by --dhcp-boot and execute it. However the PXE
              system is capable of more complex functions  when  supported  by  a  suitable  DHCP

              This  specifies  a boot option which may appear in a PXE boot menu. <CSA> is client
              system type, only services of the correct type will appear in  a  menu.  The  known
              types  are  x86PC,  PC98,  IA64_EFI,  Alpha,  Arc_x86, Intel_Lean_Client, IA32_EFI,
              X86-64_EFI, Xscale_EFI, BC_EFI, ARM32_EFI and ARM64_EFI; an integer may be used for
              other  types.  The  parameter after the menu text may be a file name, in which case
              dnsmasq acts as a boot server and directs the PXE client to download  the  file  by
              TFTP,  either  from itself ( --enable-tftp must be set for this to work) or another
              TFTP server if the final server address/name  is  given.   Note  that  the  "layer"
              suffix  (normally  ".0") is supplied by PXE, and need not be added to the basename.
              Alternatively, the basename may be a filename, complete with suffix, in which  case
              no  layer  suffix is added. If an integer boot service type, rather than a basename
              is given, then the PXE client will search for a suitable boot service for that type
              on  the network. This search may be done by broadcast, or direct to a server if its
              IP address/name is provided.  If no boot service type or filename is provided (or a
              boot  service  type  of 0 is specified) then the menu entry will abort the net boot
              procedure and continue booting from local media. The server address can be given as
              a  domain  name  which  is  looked up in /etc/hosts. This name can be associated in
              /etc/hosts with multiple IP addresses, which are used round-robin.

              Setting this provides a prompt to be displayed after PXE boot. If  the  timeout  is
              given  then  after  the  timeout  has  elapsed  with  no  keyboard input, the first
              available menu option will be automatically executed. If the timeout is  zero  then
              the  first  available  menu  item  will be executed immediately. If --pxe-prompt is
              omitted the system will wait for user input if there  are  multiple  items  in  the
              menu,  but  boot immediately if there is only one. See --pxe-service for details of
              menu items.

              Dnsmasq supports PXE "proxy-DHCP", in this case another DHCP server on the  network
              is  responsible  for  allocating  IP  addresses,  and  dnsmasq  simply provides the
              information given in --pxe-prompt and --pxe-service to allow netbooting. This  mode
              is enabled using the proxy keyword in --dhcp-range.

       -X, --dhcp-lease-max=<number>
              Limits dnsmasq to the specified maximum number of DHCP leases. The default is 1000.
              This limit is to prevent DoS attacks from hosts which create  thousands  of  leases
              and use lots of memory in the dnsmasq process.

       -K, --dhcp-authoritative
              Should  be  set  when dnsmasq is definitely the only DHCP server on a network.  For
              DHCPv4, it changes the behaviour from strict RFC compliance so that  DHCP  requests
              on  unknown leases from unknown hosts are not ignored. This allows new hosts to get
              a lease without a tedious timeout under all circumstances. It also  allows  dnsmasq
              to  rebuild its lease database without each client needing to reacquire a lease, if
              the database is lost. For DHCPv6 it sets  the  priority  in  replies  to  255  (the
              maximum) instead of 0 (the minimum).

              Enable DHCPv4 Rapid Commit Option specified in RFC 4039. When enabled, dnsmasq will
              respond to a DHCPDISCOVER message including a Rapid Commit option  with  a  DHCPACK
              including  a  Rapid  Commit  option  and  fully committed address and configuration
              information. Should only be enabled if either the server is  the  only  server  for
              the  subnet, or multiple servers are present and they each commit a binding for all

       --dhcp-alternate-port[=<server port>[,<client port>]]
              (IPv4 only) Change the ports used for DHCP from the  default.  If  this  option  is
              given  alone,  without arguments, it changes the ports used for DHCP from 67 and 68
              to 1067 and 1068. If a single argument is given, that port number is used  for  the
              server  and the port number plus one used for the client. Finally, two port numbers
              allows arbitrary specification of both server and client ports for DHCP.

       -3, --bootp-dynamic[=<network-id>[,<network-id>]]
              (IPv4 only) Enable dynamic allocation of IP addresses to BOOTP  clients.  Use  this
              with  care,  since  each address allocated to a BOOTP client is leased forever, and
              therefore becomes permanently unavailable for re-use by other  hosts.  if  this  is
              given  without tags, then it unconditionally enables dynamic allocation. With tags,
              only when the tags are all set. It may be repeated with different tag sets.

       -5, --no-ping
              (IPv4 only) By default, the DHCP server will attempt to ensure that an  address  is
              not  in  use  before  allocating it to a host. It does this by sending an ICMP echo
              request (aka "ping") to the address in question. If  it  gets  a  reply,  then  the
              address  must  already  be  in  use,  and another is tried. This flag disables this
              check. Use with caution.

              Extra logging for DHCP: log all the options sent to DHCP clients and the tags  used
              to determine them.

       --quiet-dhcp, --quiet-dhcp6, --quiet-ra
              Suppress  logging  of the routine operation of these protocols. Errors and problems
              will still be logged. --quiet-dhcp and quiet-dhcp6 are over-ridden by --log-dhcp.

       -l, --dhcp-leasefile=<path>
              Use the specified file to store DHCP lease information.

              (IPv6 only) Specify the server persistent UID which the  DHCPv6  server  will  use.
              This  option  is not normally required as dnsmasq creates a DUID automatically when
              it is first needed. When given, this option provides dnsmasq the data  required  to
              create  a  DUID-EN  type  DUID. Note that once set, the DUID is stored in the lease
              database, so to change between DUID-EN and automatically  created  DUIDs  or  vice-
              versa,  the lease database must be re-initialised. The enterprise-id is assigned by
              IANA, and the uid is a string of hex octets unique to a particular device.

       -6 --dhcp-script=<path>
              Whenever a new DHCP lease is created, or an old  one  destroyed,  or  a  TFTP  file
              transfer completes, the executable specified by this option is run.  <path> must be
              an absolute pathname, no PATH search occurs.  The  arguments  to  the  process  are
              "add",  "old"  or  "del",  the  MAC address of the host (or DUID for IPv6) , the IP
              address, and the hostname, if known. "add" means a lease has  been  created,  "del"
              means  it  has  been  destroyed,  "old" is a notification of an existing lease when
              dnsmasq starts or a change to MAC address or hostname of an existing  lease  (also,
              lease  length  or  expiry  and  client-id,  if  --leasefile-ro is set).  If the MAC
              address is from a network type other than ethernet, it will have the  network  type
              prepended,  eg  "06-01:23:45:67:89:ab"  for  token ring. The process is run as root
              (assuming that dnsmasq was originally run as root) even if dnsmasq is configured to
              change UID to an unprivileged user.

              The  environment  is inherited from the invoker of dnsmasq, with some or all of the
              following variables added

              For both IPv4 and IPv6:

              DNSMASQ_DOMAIN if the fully-qualified domain name of the host is known, this is set
              to the  domain part. (Note that the hostname passed to the script as an argument is
              never fully-qualified.)

              If the client provides a hostname, DNSMASQ_SUPPLIED_HOSTNAME

              If the client provides user-classes, DNSMASQ_USER_CLASS0..DNSMASQ_USER_CLASSn

              If dnsmasq was compiled with HAVE_BROKEN_RTC, then the  length  of  the  lease  (in
              seconds)  is  stored in DNSMASQ_LEASE_LENGTH, otherwise the time of lease expiry is
              stored in DNSMASQ_LEASE_EXPIRES. The number of seconds until lease expiry is always
              stored in DNSMASQ_TIME_REMAINING.

              If  a  lease used to have a hostname, which is removed, an "old" event is generated
              with the new state of the lease, ie no name, and the former name is provided in the
              environment variable DNSMASQ_OLD_HOSTNAME.

              DNSMASQ_INTERFACE  stores  the  name of the interface on which the request arrived;
              this is not set for "old" actions when dnsmasq restarts.

              DNSMASQ_RELAY_ADDRESS is set if the client used a DHCP relay to contact dnsmasq and
              the IP address of the relay is known.

              DNSMASQ_TAGS  contains  all  the tags set during the DHCP transaction, separated by

              DNSMASQ_LOG_DHCP is set if --log-dhcp is in effect.

              For IPv4 only:

              DNSMASQ_CLIENT_ID if the host provided a client-id.

              added any of these options.

              If the client provides vendor-class, DNSMASQ_VENDOR_CLASS.

              DNSMASQ_REQUESTED_OPTIONS  a  string containing the decimal values in the Parameter
              Request List option, comma separated, if  the  parameter  request  list  option  is
              provided by the client.

              For IPv6 only:

              If  the  client provides vendor-class, DNSMASQ_VENDOR_CLASS_ID, containing the IANA
              enterprise id for the class, and  DNSMASQ_VENDOR_CLASS0..DNSMASQ_VENDOR_CLASSn  for
              the data.

              DNSMASQ_SERVER_DUID  containing  the DUID of the server: this is the same for every
              call to the script.

              DNSMASQ_IAID containing the IAID for  the  lease.  If  the  lease  is  a  temporary
              allocation, this is prefixed to 'T'.

              DNSMASQ_MAC containing the MAC address of the client, if known.

              Note  that  the supplied hostname, vendorclass and userclass data is only  supplied
              for "add" actions or "old" actions when a host resumes  an  existing  lease,  since
              these data are not held in dnsmasq's lease database.

              All  file  descriptors  are  closed  except  stdin, which is open to /dev/null, and
              stdout and stderr which capture output for logging by  dnsmasq.   (In  debug  mode,
              stdio,  stdout  and  stderr  file  are  left as those inherited from the invoker of

              The script is not invoked concurrently: at most one instance of the script is  ever
              running  (dnsmasq waits for an instance of script to exit before running the next).
              Changes to the lease database are which require the script to be invoked are queued
              awaiting  exit  of  a  running  instance.   If  this queueing allows multiple state
              changes occur to a single lease before the script can be run  then  earlier  states
              are  discarded  and  the  current  state of that lease is reflected when the script
              finally runs.

              At dnsmasq startup, the script will be invoked for all existing leases as they  are
              read  from the lease file. Expired leases will be called with "del" and others with
              "old". When dnsmasq receives a HUP signal, the script will be invoked for  existing
              leases with an "old" event.

              There  are  four  further  actions  which  may  appear as the first argument to the
              script, "init", "arp-add", "arp-del" and "tftp". More may be added in  the  future,
              so  scripts  should be written to ignore unknown actions. "init" is described below
              in --leasefile-ro The "tftp" action is invoked when a TFTP file transfer completes:
              the  arguments  are the file size in bytes, the address to which the file was sent,
              and the complete pathname of the file.

              The "arp-add" and "arp-del" actions are only called if  enabled  with  --script-arp
              They  are  are  supplied  with a MAC address and IP address as arguments. "arp-add"
              indicates the arrival of a new entry in the ARP or neighbour table,  and  "arp-del"
              indicates the deletion of same.

              Specify  a  script  written in Lua, to be run when leases are created, destroyed or
              changed. To use this option, dnsmasq must be compiled with the correct support. The
              Lua  interpreter is initialised once, when dnsmasq starts, so that global variables
              persist between lease events. The Lua code must define a lease  function,  and  may
              provide  init  and  shutdown  functions,  which  are called, without arguments when
              dnsmasq starts up and terminates. It may also provide a tftp function.

              The lease function receives the information detailed in --dhcp-script.  It gets two
              arguments, firstly the action, which is a string containing, "add", "old" or "del",
              and secondly a table of  tag  value  pairs.  The  tags  mostly  correspond  to  the
              environment  variables detailed above, for instance the tag "domain" holds the same
              data as the environment variable DNSMASQ_DOMAIN. There are a few extra  tags  which
              hold  the  data  supplied  as  arguments  to --dhcp-script.  These are mac_address,
              ip_address and hostname for IPv4, and  client_duid,  ip_address  and  hostname  for

              The  tftp  function  is called in the same way as the lease function, and the table
              holds the tags destination_address, file_name and file_size.

              The arp and arp-old functions are called only when enabled  with  --script-arp  and
              have a table which holds the tags mac_address and client_address.

              Specify  the  user  as  which  to  run  the lease-change script or Lua script. This
              defaults to root, but can be changed to another user using this flag.

              Enable the "arp" and "arp-old" functions in the --dhcp-script and --dhcp-luascript.

       -9, --leasefile-ro
              Completely suppress use of the lease database file. The file will not  be  created,
              read,  or  written.  Change the way the lease-change script (if one is provided) is
              called, so that the lease database may be maintained in  external  storage  by  the
              script.  In  addition  to  the invocations  given in --dhcp-script the lease-change
              script is called once, at dnsmasq startup, with the single  argument  "init".  When
              called  like this the script should write the saved state of the lease database, in
              dnsmasq leasefile format, to stdout and exit with  zero  exit  code.  Setting  this
              option  also forces the leasechange script to be called on changes to the client-id
              and lease length and expiry time.

              Treat DHCP (v4 and v6) requests and IPv6 Router Solicit packets arriving at any  of
              the  <alias>  interfaces as if they had arrived at <interface>.  This option allows
              dnsmasq to provide DHCP and RA service  over  unaddressed  and  unbridged  Ethernet
              interfaces,  e.g.  on  an OpenStack compute host where each such interface is a TAP
              interface to a VM, or as in "old style bridging" on BSD platforms.  A trailing  '*'
              wildcard can be used in each <alias>.

              It is permissible to add more than one alias using more than one --bridge-interface
              option  since  --bridge-interface=int1,alias1,alias2  is  exactly   equivalent   to
              --bridge-interface=int1,alias1 --bridge-interface=int1,alias2

       -s, --domain=<domain>[,<address range>[,local]]
              Specifies  DNS domains for the DHCP server. Domains may be be given unconditionally
              (without the IP range) or for limited IP ranges. This has two effects;  firstly  it
              causes  the  DHCP  server  to  return the domain to any hosts which request it, and
              secondly it sets the domain which it is legal for DHCP-configured hosts  to  claim.
              The intention is to constrain hostnames so that an untrusted host on the LAN cannot
              advertise its name via dhcp as e.g. "" and capture traffic  not  meant
              for it. If no domain suffix is specified, then any DHCP hostname with a domain part
              (ie with a period) will be disallowed and logged.  If  suffix  is  specified,  then
              hostnames  with  a  domain  part  are allowed, provided the domain part matches the
              suffix. In addition, when a suffix is set then hostnames without a domain part have
              the  suffix  added  as  an  optional  domain  part.  Eg  on  my  network  I can set
     and have a machine whose DHCP hostname is "laptop".  The
              IP  address  for  that  machine  is  available  from  dnsmasq  both as "laptop" and
              "". If the domain is given as "#" then the domain  is  read
              from the first "search" directive in /etc/resolv.conf (or equivalent).

              The   address   range  can  be  of  the  form  <ip  address>,<ip  address>  or  <ip
              address>/<netmask> or just a single <ip address>. See --dhcp-fqdn which can  change
              the behaviour of dnsmasq with domains.

              If  the  address  range is given as ip-address/network-size, then a additional flag
              "local" may be supplied which has the effect of  adding  --local  declarations  for
              forward           and           reverse          DNS          queries.          Eg.
    ,,local       is        identical        to
    ,               --local=/
              --local=/ The network size must be 8, 16 or 24 for  this  to
              be legal.

              In the default mode, dnsmasq inserts the unqualified names of DHCP clients into the
              DNS. For this reason, the names must be unique, even if two clients which have  the
              same  name  are in different domains. If a second DHCP client appears which has the
              same name as an existing client, the name is transferred  to  the  new  client.  If
              --dhcp-fqdn  is  set, this behaviour changes: the unqualified name is no longer put
              in the DNS, only the qualified name. Two DHCP clients with the same name  may  both
              keep  the  name, provided that the domain part is different (ie the fully qualified
              names differ.) To ensure that all names have a domain part, there must be at  least
              --domain without an address specified when --dhcp-fqdn is set.

              Normally,  when  giving a DHCP lease, dnsmasq sets flags in the FQDN option to tell
              the client not to attempt a DDNS update with its  name  and  IP  address.  This  is
              because  the name-IP pair is automatically added into dnsmasq's DNS view. This flag
              suppresses that behaviour, this is useful, for instance, to allow  Windows  clients
              to update Active Directory servers. See RFC 4702 for details.

              Enable  dnsmasq's IPv6 Router Advertisement feature. DHCPv6 doesn't handle complete
              network configuration in the same way as DHCPv4. Router  discovery  and  (possibly)
              prefix  discovery  for  autonomous  address  creation  are  handled  by a different
              protocol. When DHCP is in use, only a subset of this is  needed,  and  dnsmasq  can
              handle  it,  using  existing  DHCP  configuration  to provide most data. When RA is
              enabled, dnsmasq will advertise a prefix for each --dhcp-range, with default router
              as  the relevant link-local address on the machine running dnsmasq. By default, the
              "managed address" bits are set, and the "use SLAAC"  bit  is  reset.  This  can  be
              changed  for  individual  subnets with the mode keywords described in --dhcp-range.
              RFC6106 DNS parameters are included in the advertisements. By default, the relevant
              link-local  address of the machine running dnsmasq is sent as recursive DNS server.
              If provided, the DHCPv6 options dns-server and domain-search are used for  the  DNS
              server (RDNSS) and the domain search list (DNSSL).

              Set non-default values  for  router  advertisements  sent  via  an  interface.  The
              priority  field  for  the  router may be altered from the default of medium with eg
              --ra-param=eth0,high.  The interval between router advertisements may  be  set  (in
              seconds)  with --ra-param=eth0,60.  The lifetime of the route may be changed or set
              to zero, which allows a router to advertise prefixes but not a  route  via  itself.
              --ra-parm=eth0,0,0  (A value of zero for the interval means the default value.) All
              four parameters may be set at once.  --ra-param=eth0,mtu:1280,low,60,1200

              The interface field may include a wildcard.

              The mtu: parameter may be an arbitrary interface name, in which case the MTU  value
              for  that  interface  is used. This is useful for (eg) advertising the MTU of a WAN
              interface on the other interfaces of a router.

              Delays sending DHCPOFFER and proxydhcp replies for at least the specified number of
              seconds.   This  can  be used as workaround for bugs in PXE boot firmware that does
              not function properly when receiving an instant  reply.   This  option  takes  into
              account the time already spent waiting (e.g. performing ping check) if any.

              Enable  the  TFTP  server  function. This is deliberately limited to that needed to
              net-boot a client. Only reading is allowed; the tsize and  blksize  extensions  are
              supported  (tsize  is  only supported in octet mode). Without an argument, the TFTP
              service is provided to the same set of interfaces as DHCP service.  If the list  of
              interfaces is provided, that defines which interfaces receive TFTP service.

              Look for files to transfer using TFTP relative to the given directory. When this is
              set, TFTP paths which include ".." are rejected, to stop  clients  getting  outside
              the specified root.  Absolute paths (starting with /) are allowed, but they must be
              within the tftp-root. If the optional interface argument is given, the directory is
              only used for TFTP requests via that interface.

              Do not abort startup if specified tftp root directories are inaccessible.

              Add the IP or hardware address of the TFTP client as a path component on the end of
              the TFTP-root. Only valid if  a  --tftp-root  is  set  and  the  directory  exists.
              Defaults  to  adding IP address (in standard dotted-quad format).  For instance, if
              --tftp-root is "/tftp" and client requests file "myfile" then the effective
              path  will  be  "/tftp/"  if  /tftp/  exists  or  /tftp/myfile
              otherwise.  When "=mac" is specified it will append the MAC address instead,  using
              lowercase zero padded digits separated by dashes, e.g.: 01-02-03-04-aa-bb Note that
              resolving MAC addresses is only possible if the client is in the local  network  or
              obtained a DHCP lease from us.

              Enable  TFTP  secure  mode: without this, any file which is readable by the dnsmasq
              process under normal unix access-control rules is  available  via  TFTP.  When  the
              --tftp-secure  flag  is  given,  only  files  owned by the user running the dnsmasq
              process are accessible. If dnsmasq is being run as  root,  different  rules  apply:
              --tftp-secure  has  no effect, but only files which have the world-readable bit set
              are accessible. It is not recommended to run dnsmasq as root with TFTP enabled, and
              certainly  not  without  specifying  --tftp-root.  Doing  so  can expose any world-
              readable file on the server to any host on the net.

              Convert filenames in TFTP requests to all lowercase. This is  useful  for  requests
              from  Windows  machines,  which  have case-insensitive filesystems and tend to play
              fast-and-loose with case in filenames.  Note  that  dnsmasq's  tftp  server  always
              converts "\" to "/" in filenames.

              Set the maximum number of concurrent TFTP connections allowed. This defaults to 50.
              When serving a large number of TFTP connections, per-process file descriptor limits
              may  be  encountered.  Dnsmasq  needs  one file descriptor for each concurrent TFTP
              connection and one file descriptor per unique file (plus a few others). So  serving
              the  same  file  simultaneously  to  n  clients  will use require about n + 10 file
              descriptors, serving different files simultaneously to n clients will require about
              (2*n)  +  10 descriptors. If --tftp-port-range is given, that can affect the number
              of concurrent connections.

       --tftp-mtu=<mtu size>
              Use size as the ceiling of the  MTU  supported  by  the  intervening  network  when
              negotiating  TFTP  blocksize, overriding the MTU setting of the local interface  if
              it is larger.

              Stop the TFTP server from negotiating the "blocksize" option with  a  client.  Some
              buggy clients request this option but then behave badly when it is granted.

              A  TFTP  server listens on a well-known port (69) for connection initiation, but it
              also uses a dynamically-allocated port for  each  connection.  Normally  these  are
              allocated  by  the  OS,  but this option specifies a range of ports for use by TFTP
              transfers. This can be useful when TFTP has to traverse a firewall.  The  start  of
              the  range  cannot be lower than 1025 unless dnsmasq is running as root. The number
              of concurrent TFTP connections is limited by the size of the port range.

       -C, --conf-file=<file>
              Specify a different configuration file. The --conf-file option is also  allowed  in
              configuration  files,  to  include  multiple configuration files. A filename of "-"
              causes dnsmasq to read configuration from stdin.

       -7, --conf-dir=<directory>[,<file-extension>......],
              Read all the files in the given directory as configuration files.  If  extension(s)
              are  given,  any  files  which end in those extensions are skipped. Any files whose
              names end in ~ or start with . or start and end with # are always skipped.  If  the
              extension  starts  with  * then only files which have that extension are loaded. So
              --conf-dir=/path/to/dir,*.conf  loads  all  files  with   the   suffix   .conf   in
              /path/to/dir.  This  flag  may  be  given on the command line or in a configuration
              file. If giving it on the command line, be sure to escape * characters.

              A special case of --conf-file which differs in two respects. Firstly, only --server
              and --rev-server are allowed in the configuration file included. Secondly, the file
              is re-read and the configuration therein is updated when dnsmasq receives SIGHUP.


       At startup, dnsmasq reads /etc/dnsmasq.conf, if  it  exists.  (On  FreeBSD,  the  file  is
       /usr/local/etc/dnsmasq.conf ) (but see the --conf-file and --conf-dir options.) The format
       of this file consists of one option per line, exactly as the long options detailed in  the
       OPTIONS  section  but  without  the  leading  "--". Lines starting with # are comments and
       ignored. For options which may only be specified once, the  configuration  file  overrides
       the  command  line.   Quoting  is  allowed  in a config file: between " quotes the special
       meanings of ,:. and # are removed and the following escapes are allowed: \\ \" \t \e \b \r
       and \n. The later corresponding to tab, escape, backspace, return and newline.


       When  it  receives  a  SIGHUP,  dnsmasq  clears its cache and then re-loads /etc/hosts and
       /etc/ethers and any file  given  by  --dhcp-hostsfile,  --dhcp-hostsdir,  --dhcp-optsfile,
       --dhcp-optsdir,  --addn-hosts  or  --hostsdir.  The dhcp lease change script is called for
       all existing DHCP leases. If --no-poll  is  set  SIGHUP  also  re-reads  /etc/resolv.conf.
       SIGHUP does NOT re-read the configuration file.

       When  it  receives  a  SIGUSR1, dnsmasq writes statistics to the system log. It writes the
       cache size, the number of names which have had to  removed  from  the  cache  before  they
       expired  in  order to make room for new names and the total number of names that have been
       inserted into the  cache.  The  number  of  cache  hits  and  misses  and  the  number  of
       authoritative  queries  answered  are  also  given.  For each upstream server it gives the
       number of queries sent, and the number which resulted in an error. In --no-daemon mode  or
       when full logging is enabled (--log-queries), a complete dump of the contents of the cache
       is made.

       The cache statistics are also available in the DNS as answers to queries  of  class  CHAOS
       and  type  TXT  in  domain  bind.  The  domain  names are cachesize.bind, insertions.bind,
       evictions.bind, misses.bind, hits.bind, auth.bind and servers.bind. An example command  to
       query this, using the dig utility would be

       dig +short chaos txt cachesize.bind

       When  it receives SIGUSR2 and it is logging direct to a file (see --log-facility ) dnsmasq
       will close and reopen the log file. Note that during this operation, dnsmasq will  not  be
       running  as  root.  When it first creates the logfile dnsmasq changes the ownership of the
       file to the non-root user it will run as. Logrotate should be configured to create  a  new
       log file with the ownership which matches the existing one before sending SIGUSR2.  If TCP
       DNS queries are in progress, the old logfile will remain open in child processes which are
       handling  TCP  queries  and  may  continue to be written. There is a limit of 150 seconds,
       after which all existing TCP processes will have expired: for this reason, it is not  wise
       to  configure  logfile  compression  for  logfiles  which  have  just  been rotated. Using
       logrotate, the required options are create and delaycompress.

       Dnsmasq is a DNS query forwarder: it is not capable  of  recursively  answering  arbitrary
       queries  starting  from  the  root  servers but forwards such queries to a fully recursive
       upstream DNS server which is typically provided by  an  ISP.  By  default,  dnsmasq  reads
       /etc/resolv.conf  to  discover the IP addresses of the upstream nameservers it should use,
       since the information is typically stored there. Unless --no-poll is used, dnsmasq  checks
       the modification time of /etc/resolv.conf (or equivalent if --resolv-file is used) and re-
       reads it if it changes. This allows the DNS servers to be set dynamically by PPP  or  DHCP
       since both protocols provide the information.  Absence of /etc/resolv.conf is not an error
       since it may not have been created before a PPP connection exists.  Dnsmasq  simply  keeps
       checking  in  case  /etc/resolv.conf  is created at any time. Dnsmasq can be told to parse
       more than one resolv.conf file. This is useful on a laptop, where both PPP and DHCP may be
       used:  dnsmasq can be set to poll both /etc/ppp/resolv.conf and /etc/dhcpc/resolv.conf and
       will use the contents of whichever changed last, giving automatic  switching  between  DNS

       Upstream  servers  may also be specified on the command line or in the configuration file.
       These server specifications optionally take a domain name which tells dnsmasq to use  that
       server only to find names in that particular domain.

       In  order  to  configure  dnsmasq to act as cache for the host on which it is running, put
       "nameserver" in /etc/resolv.conf to force local processes  to  send  queries  to
       dnsmasq.  Then  either  specify  the  upstream  servers directly to dnsmasq using --server
       options or put their addresses real in  another  file,  say  /etc/resolv.dnsmasq  and  run
       dnsmasq  with  the  --resolv-file /etc/resolv.dnsmasq option. This second technique allows
       for dynamic update of the server addresses by PPP or DHCP.

       Addresses in /etc/hosts will "shadow" different  addresses  for  the  same  names  in  the
       upstream  DNS,  so  ""  in  /etc/hosts  will ensure that queries for
       "" always return even if queries in the upstream DNS would  otherwise
       return a different address. There is one exception to this: if the upstream DNS contains a
       CNAME which points to a shadowed name, then looking up  the  CNAME  through  dnsmasq  will
       result  in  the unshadowed address associated with the target of the CNAME. To work around
       this, add the CNAME to /etc/hosts so that the CNAME is shadowed too.

       The tag system works as follows: For each DHCP request, dnsmasq collects a  set  of  valid
       tags  from  active  configuration  lines  which  include set:<tag>, including one from the
       --dhcp-range used to allocate the address, one from any matching --dhcp-host (and  "known"
       or  "known-othernet"  if a --dhcp-host matches) The tag "bootp" is set for BOOTP requests,
       and a tag whose name is the name of the interface on which the  request  arrived  is  also

       Any  configuration lines which include one or more tag:<tag> constructs will only be valid
       if all that tags are matched in the set derived above. Typically  this  is  --dhcp-option.
       --dhcp-option  which  has  tags  will be used in preference  to an untagged --dhcp-option,
       provided that _all_ the tags match somewhere in the set collected as described above.  The
       prefix  '!'  on  a tag means 'not' so --dhcp-option=tag:!purple,3, sends the option
       when the tag purple is not in the set of valid tags. (If using  this  in  a  command  line
       rather than a configuration file, be sure to escape !, which is a shell metacharacter)

       When  selecting  --dhcp-options, a tag from --dhcp-range is second class relative to other
       tags,  to  make  it  easy  to  override  options  for   individual   hosts,   so   --dhcp-
       range=set:interface1,......              --dhcp-host=set:myhost,.....              --dhcp-
       option=tag:interface1,option:nis-domain,"domain1"     --dhcp-option=tag:myhost,option:nis-
       domain,"domain2"  will  set the NIS-domain to domain1 for hosts in the range, but override
       that to domain2 for a particular host.

       Note that for --dhcp-range both tag:<tag> and set:<tag> are allowed, to  both  select  the
       range in use based on (eg) --dhcp-host, and to affect the options sent, based on the range

       This system evolved from an earlier, more  limited  one  and  for  backward  compatibility
       "net:"  may  be  used instead of "tag:" and "set:" may be omitted. (Except in --dhcp-host,
       where "net:" may be used instead of "set:".) For the same reason, '#' may be used  instead
       of '!' to indicate NOT.

       The  DHCP  server  in  dnsmasq will function as a BOOTP server also, provided that the MAC
       address and IP address for clients are given, either using --dhcp-host  configurations  or
       in  /etc/ethers  , and a --dhcp-range configuration option is present to activate the DHCP
       server on a particular network. (Setting  --bootp-dynamic  removes  the  need  for  static
       address  mappings.)  The filename parameter in a BOOTP request is used as a tag, as is the
       tag "bootp", allowing some control over the  options  returned  to  different  classes  of


       Configuring  dnsmasq to act as an authoritative DNS server is complicated by the fact that
       it involves configuration of external DNS servers to  provide  delegation.  We  will  walk
       through three scenarios of increasing complexity. Prerequisites for all of these scenarios
       are a globally accessible IP address, an A or AAAA record pointing to that address, and an
       external  DNS  server  capable  of doing delegation of the zone in question. For the first
       part of this explanation, we will call the A (or AAAA) record for the globally  accessible
       address, and the zone for which dnsmasq is authoritative

       The simplest configuration consists of two lines of dnsmasq configuration; something like,eth0,

       and two records in the external DNS       A            NS

       eth0  is  the  external network interface on which dnsmasq is listening, and has (globally
       accessible) address

       Note that the external IP address may well be dynamic (ie assigned from an ISP by DHCP  or
       PPP)  If  so,  the  A record must be linked to this dynamic assignment by one of the usual
       dynamic-DNS systems.

       A more complex, but practically useful  configuration  has  the  address  record  for  the
       globally  accessible  IP  address  residing  in  the  authoritative  zone which dnsmasq is
       serving, typically at the root. Now we have,eth0,             A            NS

       The A record for has now become a glue record, it solves the  chicken-and-egg
       problem  of finding the IP address of the nameserver for when the A record is
       within that zone. Note that this is the only role  of  this  record:  as  dnsmasq  is  now
       authoritative  from it too must provide this record. If the external address
       is static, this can be done with an /etc/hosts entry or --host-record.,eth0,,

       If the external address is dynamic, the  address  associated  with  must  be
       derived  from  the  address of the relevant interface. This is done using --interface-name
       Something like:,eth0,eth0,,eth0

       (The "eth0" argument in --auth-zone adds the subnet containing eth0's dynamic  address  to
       the zone, so that the --interface-name returns the address in outside queries.)

       Our  final  configuration builds on that above, but also adds a secondary DNS server. This
       is another DNS server which learns the DNS data for the zone by doing zones transfer,  and
       acts  as  a backup should the primary server become inaccessible. The configuration of the
       secondary is beyond the scope of this man-page, but the extra configuration of dnsmasq  is

       and           NS

       Adding  auth-sec-servers  enables  zone  transfer  in  dnsmasq,  to allow the secondary to
       collect the DNS data. If you wish to restrict this data to particular hosts then

       --auth-peer=<IP address of secondary>

       will do so.

       Dnsmasq acts as an authoritative server for and domains  associated
       with  the  subnets given in --auth-zone declarations, so reverse (address to name) lookups
       can be simply configured with a suitable NS record, for instance in this example, where we
       allow addresses.  NS

       Note  that at present, reverse ( and zones are not available in zone
       transfers, so there is no point arranging secondary servers for reverse lookups.

       When dnsmasq is configured to act as an authoritative server, the following data  is  used
       to populate the authoritative zone.

       --mx-host,  --srv-host,  --dns-rr,  --txt-record, --naptr-record, --caa-record, as long as
       the record names are in the authoritative domain.

       --cname as long as the record name is in  the authoritative domain. If the target  of  the
       CNAME  is  unqualified, then it  is qualified with the authoritative zone name. CNAME used
       in this way (only) may be wildcards, as in


       IPv4 and IPv6  addresses  from  /etc/hosts  (and  --addn-hosts  )  and  --host-record  and
       --interface-name  provided  the  address  falls  into  one of the subnets specified in the

       Addresses of DHCP leases, provided the address falls into one of the subnets specified  in
       the  --auth-zone.   (If  constructed  DHCP  ranges are is use, which depend on the address
       dynamically assigned to an interface, then the form of --auth-zone which  defines  subnets
       by the dynamic address of an interface should be used to ensure this condition is met.)

       In  the default mode, where a DHCP lease has an unqualified name, and possibly a qualified
       name constructed using --domain then the name in the  authoritative  zone  is  constructed
       from  the unqualified name and the zone's domain. This may or may not equal that specified
       by --domain.  If --dhcp-fqdn is set, then the fully qualified names associated  with  DHCP
       leases are used, and must match the zone's domain.


       0   -  Dnsmasq  successfully  forked  into  the  background,  or  terminated  normally  if
       backgrounding is not enabled.

       1 - A problem with configuration was detected.

       2 - A problem with network access occurred (address in  use,  attempt  to  use  privileged
       ports without permission).

       3 - A problem occurred with a filesystem operation (missing file/directory, permissions).

       4 - Memory allocation failure.

       5 - Other miscellaneous problem.

       11  or  greater - a non zero return code was received from the lease-script process "init"
       call. The exit code from dnsmasq is the script's exit code with 10 added.


       The default values  for  resource  limits  in  dnsmasq  are  generally  conservative,  and
       appropriate  for  embedded router type devices with slow processors and limited memory. On
       more capable hardware, it is possible  to  increase  the  limits,  and  handle  many  more
       clients. The following applies to dnsmasq-2.37: earlier versions did not scale as well.

       Dnsmasq  is  capable  of  handling  DNS and DHCP for at least a thousand clients. The DHCP
       lease times should not be very short (less than one hour). The value of  --dns-forward-max
       can  be  increased: start with it equal to the number of clients and increase if DNS seems
       slow.  Note  that  DNS  performance  depends  too  on  the  performance  of  the  upstream
       nameservers. The size of the DNS cache may be increased: the hard limit is 10000 names and
       the default (150) is very low. Sending SIGUSR1 to dnsmasq makes it log  information  which
       is useful for tuning the cache size. See the NOTES section for details.

       The  built-in  TFTP  server  is  capable of many simultaneous file transfers: the absolute
       limit is related to the number of file-handles allowed to a process and the ability of the
       select()  system  call to cope with large numbers of file handles. If the limit is set too
       high using --tftp-max it will be scaled down and the actual limit logged at start-up. Note
       that  more transfers are possible when the same file is being sent than when each transfer
       sends a different file.

       It is possible to use dnsmasq to block Web advertising by using a list of known  banner-ad
       servers, all resolving to or, in /etc/hosts or an additional hosts file.
       The list can be very long, dnsmasq has been tested successfully with  one  million  names.
       That size file needs a 1GHz processor and about 60Mb of RAM.


       Dnsmasq  can  be  compiled  to  support internationalisation. To do this, the make targets
       "all-i18n" and "install-i18n" should be used instead of the  standard  targets  "all"  and
       "install".  When internationalisation is compiled in, dnsmasq will produce log messages in
       the local language and support internationalised  domain  names  (IDN).  Domain  names  in
       /etc/hosts,  /etc/ethers  and /etc/dnsmasq.conf which contain non-ASCII characters will be
       translated to the DNS-internal punycode representation. Note that dnsmasq determines  both
       the  language  for  messages and the assumed charset for configuration files from the LANG
       environment variable. This should be set to the system default value by the  script  which
       is  responsible  for starting dnsmasq. When editing the configuration files, be careful to
       do so using only the system-default locale and not user-specific one, since dnsmasq has no
       direct  way  of  determining  the  charset  in  use, and must assume that it is the system




       /etc/resolv.conf /var/run/dnsmasq/resolv.conf /etc/ppp/resolv.conf /etc/dhcpc/resolv.conf







       hosts(5), resolver(5)


       This manual page was written by Simon Kelley <>.