Provided by: screen_4.8.0-1ubuntu0.1_amd64 bug


       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation


       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]


       Screen  is  a  full-screen  window  manager  that  multiplexes a physical terminal between
       several processes (typically interactive shells).   Each  virtual  terminal  provides  the
       functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in addition, several control functions from the ISO
       6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple  character sets).  There is a scrollback history buffer for each virtual terminal
       and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a shell in  it  (or  the  specified
       command)  and  then  gets  out of your way so that you can use the program as you normally
       would.  Then, at any time, you can create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in
       them  (including  more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn output
       logging on and off, copy-and-paste text between  windows,  view  the  scrollback  history,
       switch  between  windows  in whatever manner you wish, etc. All windows run their programs
       completely independent of each other. Programs  continue  to  run  when  their  window  is
       currently  not  visible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per default) kills the window that contained
       it.  If this window was in the foreground, the display switches to the previous window; if
       none are left, screen exits. Shells usually distinguish between running as login-shell  or
       sub-shell.   Screen  runs them as sub-shells, unless told otherwise (See "shell" .screenrc

       Everything you type is sent to the program  running  in  the  current  window.   The  only
       exception  to  this  is the one keystroke that is used to initiate a command to the window
       manager.  By default, each command begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now  on),
       and  is  followed  by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always two characters  in

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control, although this notation is used
       in this manual for readability.  Please use the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a")  as
       arguments to e.g. the escape command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This  creates  a  new  window
       running  a  shell  and switches to that window immediately, regardless of the state of the
       process running in the current window.  Similarly, you can create  a  new  window  with  a
       custom  command  in it by first binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc file
       or at the "C-a :" command line) and then using it just  like  the  "C-a  c"  command.   In
       addition, new windows can be created by running a command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will not run another copy of
       screen, but will instead supply the command name and its arguments to the  window  manager
       (specified  in  the  $STY  environment variable) who will use it to create the new window.
       The above example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its  window.
       -  Note  that  you  cannot  transport environment variables from the invoking shell to the
       application (emacs in this case), because it is forked from the parent screen process, not
       from the invoking shell.

       If  "/run/utmp"  is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be written to this file
       for each window, and removed when the window is terminated.  This is  useful  for  working
       with "talk", "script", "shutdown", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs that use the
       utmp file to determine who you are. As long as screen is  active  on  your  terminal,  the
       terminal's own record is removed from the utmp file. See also "C-a L".


       Before  you  begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have correctly selected your
       terminal type, just as you would for any other termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this
       by using tset for example.)

       If  you're  impatient and want to get started without doing a lot more reading, you should
       remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing these two characters will display a  list  of
       the  available  screen  commands  and  their  bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the
       section "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If  your  terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the last position on
       the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen) consider using a  version  of  your
       terminal's termcap that has automatic margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and
       optimal update of the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals  nowadays  have  "magic"
       margins  (automatic  margins  plus  usable  last column). This is the VT100 style type and
       perfectly suited for screen.  If all you've got is a "true"  auto-margin  terminal  screen
       will  be  content  to  use  it, but updating a character put into the last position on the
       screen may not be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a  safe
       position  in  some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a terminal with insert-
       character capability.


       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each window's termcap,  even
            if screen must redraw parts of the display in order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the  sizes  of  all  windows to the size of the current terminal.  By default,
            screen tries to restore its old window sizes when attaching  to  resizable  terminals
            (those with "WS" in its description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to file.

       -d|-D []
            does  not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen session. It has the
            same effect as  typing  "C-a  d"  from  screen's  controlling  terminal.  -D  is  the
            equivalent  to  the  power detach key.  If no session can be detached, this option is
            ignored. In combination with the -r/-R option more powerful effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even create it first.

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or create it. Use the first session  if
               more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout remotely first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is running, then reattach.
               If necessary detach and logout remotely first.  If it was not  running  create  it
               and notify the user. This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note:  It  is  always  a  good  idea to check the status of your sessions by means of
            "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be  x  and  the  character  generating  a  literal
            command  character to y (when typed after the command character).  The default is "C-
            a" and `a', which can be specified as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session,  this
            option  sets  the  default  command character. In a multiuser session all users added
            will start off with this command character. But when attaching to an already  running
            session,  this option changes only the command character of the attaching user.  This
            option is equivalent to either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This can also be  defined
            through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the display immediately when
            flow-control is on.  See the "defflow" .screenrc command for  details.   The  use  of
            this option is discouraged.

       -l and -ln
            turns  login  mode  on  or  off  (for  /run/utmp updating).  This can also be defined
            through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does not start screen, but  prints  a  list  of  strings  and  creation
            timestamps  identifying  your  screen  sessions.   Sessions  marked `detached' can be
            resumed with "screen -r". Those marked `attached' are running and have a  controlling
            terminal.  If  the  session  runs  in  multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked as  `unreachable'  either  live  on  a  different  host  or  are  `dead'.   An
            unreachable  session is considered dead, when its name matches either the name of the
            local host, or the specified parameter, if any.  See the -r flag  for  a  description
            how to construct matches.  Sessions marked as `dead' should be thoroughly checked and
            removed.  Ask your system administrator if you are not sure. Remove sessions with the
            -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -Logfile file
            By  default  logfile  name  is  "screenlog.0".  You can set new logfile name with the
            "-Logfile" option.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the $STY environment variable. With "screen -m" creation of a
            new  session  is  enforced,  regardless  whether screen is called from within another
            screen session or not. This flag has a special meaning in connection  with  the  `-d'

       -d -m   Start  screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but doesn't attach to
               it. This is useful for system startup scripts.

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork a  new  process.  The
               command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  an  optimal  output  mode for your terminal rather than true VT100 emulation
            (only affects auto-margin terminals without `LP').  This can  also  be  set  in  your
            .screenrc by specifying `OP' in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect  a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to a specific window or
            you want to send a command via the "-X" option to a specific window. As with screen's
            select  command,  "-"  selects  the blank window. As a special case for reattach, "="
            brings up the windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a  new  window.
            The command will not be executed if the specified window could not be found.

       -q   Suppress  printing  of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the exit value is as
            follows: 9 indicates a directory without sessions.  10  indicates  a  directory  with
            running  but  not  attachable  sessions.  11  (or  more) indicates 1 (or more) usable
            sessions.  In combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows: 10  indicates  that
            there  is  no  session  to  resume. 12 (or more) indicates that there are 2 (or more)
            sessions to resume and you should specify which one to choose.  In  all  other  cases
            "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some  commands now can be queried from a remote session using this flag, e.g. "screen
            -Q windows". The commands will send the  response  to  the  stdout  of  the  querying
            process.  If  there  was an error in the command, then the querying process will exit
            with a non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes a detached screen session.  No other options (except combinations with -d/-D)
            may  be  specified,  though  an  optional  prefix  of [pid.] may be needed to
            distinguish between multiple detached screen sessions.  The second form  is  used  to
            connect to another user's screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This indicates
            that screen should look for sessions  in  another  user's  directory.  This  requires

       -R   resumes  screen only when it's unambiguous which one to attach, usually when only one
            screen is detached. Otherwise lists available sessions.  -RR attempts to  resume  the
            youngest  (in  terms  of  creation  time)  detached  screen  session  it  finds.   If
            successful, all other command-line options  are  ignored.   If  no  detached  session
            exists,  starts a new session using the specified options, just as if -R had not been
            specified. The option is set by default if screen is run as a  login-shell  (actually
            screen  uses "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option see there.
            Note: Time-based session selection is a Debian addition.

       -s program
            sets the default shell to  the  program  specified,  instead  of  the  value  in  the
            environment  variable $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not defined).  This can also be defined
            through the "shell" .screenrc command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a meaningful name for
            the  session.  This  name  identifies  the session for "screen -list" and "screen -r"
            actions. It substitutes the default [] suffix.

       -t name
            sets the title (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified  program.   See  also  the
            "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment variable using the specified term as opposed to the default
            setting of screen.

       -U   Run screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells  screen  that  your  terminal  sends  and
            understands  UTF-8  encoded  characters.  It  also  sets the default encoding for new
            windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed sessions instead of marking them
            as  `dead'.   An unreachable session is considered dead, when its name matches either
            the name of the local host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.   See  the  -r
            flag for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach  to  a  not  detached screen session. (Multi display mode).  Screen refuses to
            attach from within itself.  But  when  cascading  multiple  screens,  loops  are  not
            detected; take care.

       -X   Send  the specified command to a running screen session. You may use the -S option to
            specify the screen session if you have several screen sessions running. You  can  use
            the  -d  or  -r  option  to  tell screen to look only for attached or detached screen
            sessions. Note that this command doesn't work if the session is password protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.


       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one  other  character.
       For  your convenience, all commands that are bound to lower-case letters are also bound to
       their control character counterparts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-
       a  c" as well as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZATION" for
       a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings. The  trailing  commas  in  boxes  with
       multiple keystroke entries are separators, not part of the bindings.

       C-a '              (select)          Prompt for a window name
                                            or number to switch to.
       C-a "              (windowlist -b)   Present a  list  of  all
                                            windows for selection.
       C-a digit          (select 0-9)      Switch  to window number
                                            0 - 9
       C-a -              (select -)        Switch to window  number
                                            0  -  9, or to the blank
       C-a tab            (focus)           Switch the  input  focus
                                            to the next region.  See
                                            also   split,    remove,
       C-a C-a            (other)           Toggle   to  the  window
                                            displayed    previously.
                                            Note  that  this binding
                                            defaults to the  command
                                            character  typed  twice,
                                            unless overridden.   For
                                            instance, if you use the
                                            option   "-e]x",    this
                                            command becomes "]]".
       C-a a              (meta)            Send     the     command
                                            character    (C-a)    to
                                            window.    See    escape
       C-a A              (title)           Allow the user to  enter
                                            a  name  for the current
       C-a b,             (break)           Send a break to window.
       C-a C-b

       C-a B              (pow_break)       Reopen the terminal line
                                            and send a break.
       C-a c,             (screen)          Create a new window with
       C-a C-c                              a shell  and  switch  to
                                            that window.
       C-a C              (clear)           Clear the screen.
       C-a d,             (detach)          Detach  screen from this
       C-a C-d                              terminal.
       C-a D D            (pow_detach)      Detach and logout.
       C-a f,             (flow)            Toggle flow on,  off  or
       C-a C-f                              auto.
       C-a F              (fit)             Resize the window to the
                                            current region size.
       C-a C-g            (vbell)           Toggles screen's  visual
                                            bell mode.
       C-a h              (hardcopy)        Write  a hardcopy of the
                                            current  window  to  the
                                            file "hardcopy.n".
       C-a H              (log)             Begins/ends  logging  of
                                            the  current  window  to
                                            the file "screenlog.n".
       C-a i,             (info)            Show   info  about  this
       C-a C-i                              window.
       C-a k,             (kill)            Destroy current window.
       C-a C-k
       C-a l,             (redisplay)       Fully  refresh   current
       C-a C-l                              window.
       C-a L              (login)           Toggle    this   windows
                                            login  slot.   Available
                                            only    if   screen   is
                                            configured to update the
                                            utmp database.
       C-a m,             (lastmsg)         Repeat  the last message
       C-a C-m                              displayed in the message
       C-a M              (monitor)         Toggles   monitoring  of
                                            the current window.
       C-a space,         (next)            Switch   to   the   next
       C-a n,                               window.
       C-a C-n
       C-a N              (number)          Show   the  number  (and
                                            title)  of  the  current
       C-a backspace,     (prev)            Switch  to  the previous
       C-a C-h,                             window (opposite of  C-a
       C-a p,                               n).
       C-a C-p

       C-a q,             (xon)             Send  a control-q to the
       C-a C-q                              current window.
       C-a Q              (only)            Delete all  regions  but
                                            the  current  one.   See
                                            also   split,    remove,
       C-a r,             (wrap)            Toggle    the    current
       C-a C-r                              window's       line-wrap
                                            setting     (turn    the
                                            current         window's
                                            automatic margins on and
       C-a s,             (xoff)            Send a control-s to  the
       C-a C-s;                             current window.
       C-a S              (split)           Split the current region
                                            horizontally  into   two
                                            new   ones.    See  also
                                            only, remove, focus.
       C-a t,             (time)            Show system information.
       C-a C-t
       C-a v              (version)         Display the version  and
                                            compilation date.
       C-a C-v            (digraph)         Enter digraph.
       C-a w,             (windows)         Show a list of window.
       C-a C-w
       C-a W              (width)           Toggle 80/132 columns.
       C-a x or C-a C-x   (lockscreen)      Lock this terminal.
       C-a X              (remove)          Kill the current region.
                                            See  also  split,  only,
       C-a z,             (suspend)         Suspend   screen.   Your
       C-a C-z                              system must support BSD-
                                            style job-control.
       C-a Z              (reset)           Reset     the    virtual
                                            terminal to its  "power-
                                            on" values.
       C-a .              (dumptermcap)     Write  out  a ".termcap"
       C-a ?              (help)            Show key bindings.
       C-a \              (quit)            Kill  all  windows   and
                                            terminate screen.
       C-a :              (colon)           Enter command line mode.
       C-a [,             (copy)            Enter    copy/scrollback
       C-a C-[,                             mode.
       C-a esc
       C-a C-],           (paste .)         Write  the  contents  of
       C-a ]                                the  paste buffer to the
                                            stdin   queue   of   the
                                            current window.

       C-a {,             (history)         Copy    and    paste   a
       C-a }                                previous (command) line.
       C-a >              (writebuf)        Write paste buffer to  a
       C-a <              (readbuf)         Reads     the    screen-
                                            exchange file  into  the
                                            paste buffer.
       C-a =              (removebuf)       Removes the file used by
                                            C-a < and C-a >.
       C-a ,              (license)         Shows where screen comes
                                            from,  where  it went to
                                            and why you can use it.
       C-a _              (silence)         Start/stop    monitoring
                                            the  current  window for
       C-a |              (split -v)        Split the current region
                                            vertically  into two new
       C-a *              (displays)        Show a  listing  of  all
                                            currently       attached


       The "socket directory" defaults either to  $HOME/.screen  or  simply  to  /tmp/screens  or
       preferably to /run/screen chosen at compile-time. If screen is installed setuid-root, then
       the administrator should  compile  screen  with  an  adequate  (not  NFS  mounted)  socket
       directory.  If  screen  is  not  running  setuid-root,  the  user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization commands from the files "/etc/screenrc"
       and  ".screenrc"  in the user's home directory. These are the "programmer's defaults" that
       can be overridden in the following ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches  for
       the  environment  variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature may be disabled at compile-
       time). The user specific screenrc file is searched  in  $SCREENRC,  then  $HOME/.screenrc.
       The command line option -c takes precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands  in  these  files  are  used  to  set  options,  bind  functions  to keys, and to
       automatically establish one or more windows at  the  beginning  of  your  screen  session.
       Commands  are  listed one per line, with empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments
       are separated by tabs or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A  `#'
       turns  the  rest  of  the line into a comment, except in quotes.  Unintelligible lines are
       warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain references to environment  variables.  The
       syntax  is  the shell-like "$VAR " or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with
       previous screen versions, as now the '$'-character has to be  protected  with  '\'  if  no
       variable substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is also protected from
       variable substitution.

       Two  configuration  files  are  shipped  as  examples  with  your   screen   distribution:
       "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number of useful examples for various

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To enter the command mode  type  `C-a  :'.  Note
       that  commands  starting  with  "def"  change  default values, while others change current

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]

       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be one  user  or  a  comma
       separated list of users. This command enables to attach to the screen session and performs
       the equivalent of `aclchg usernames +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user  with  restricted
       access,  use  the `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter is supplied, it
       should be a crypted password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is  a  synonym  to  `acladd'.
       Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list

       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits are represented as
       `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permission, `-' removes it. The third parameter
       is  a  comma  separated  list  of  commands  and/or windows (specified either by number or
       title). The special list `#' refers to all windows, `?'  to  all  commands.  if  usernames
       consists of a single `*', all known users are affected.

       A  command  can be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The user can type input
       to a window when he has its `w' bit set and no other user obtains  a  writelock  for  this
       window.  Other bits are currently ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from another user in
       window 2: `aclchg username -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access  to  the  session:  `aclchg
       username -w "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known to screen he can attach to the session
       and (per default) has full permissions for all command and windows.  Execution  permission
       for  the  acl  commands, `at' and others should also be removed or the user may be able to
       regain write permission.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the
       "su" command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove  a  user  from  screen's access control list. If currently attached, all the user's
       displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights. The name  of  the  group  is  the
       username  of  the group leader. Each member of the group inherits the permissions that are
       granted to the group leader. That means, if a user fails an access check, another check is
       made  for the group leader.  A user is removed from all groups the special value "none" is
       used for groupname.  If the second parameter is omitted all groups  the  user  is  in  are

       aclumask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       umask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       This  specifies  the access other users have to windows that will be created by the caller
       of the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma separated list of known usernames. If  no
       users  are  specified,  a  list  of  all  currently  known  users is assumed.  Bits is any
       combination of access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The  special
       username  "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will be granted to any window
       initially.  The special username "??" predefines the access that not yet known  users  are
       granted  to any command.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the
       "su" command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window that is being monitored, screen displays a
       notification  in the message line.  The notification message can be re-defined by means of
       the "activity" command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by  the  number  of
       the  window in which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the
       definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                       'Activity in window %n'

       Note that monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can be altered by use  of  the
       "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If  set  to  on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on window change.  This affects
       all windows and is useful for slow terminal lines. The previous  setting  of  full/partial
       refresh  for  each  window  is restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that
       immediately takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial"  settings.  It  does  not
       change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If  set  to  on,  "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual terminals, just like in
       xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute a command at other displays or windows as if it  had  been  entered  there.   "At"
       changes the context (the `current window' or `current display' setting) of the command. If
       the first parameter describes a non-unique context, the command will be executed  multiple
       times.  If  the  first  parameter  is of the form `identifier*' then identifier is matched
       against user names.  The command is  executed  once  for  each  display  of  the  selected
       user(s). If the first parameter is of the form `identifier%' identifier is matched against
       displays. Displays are named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or  `/dev/tty'
       may  be  omitted  from  the identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or nothing appended it is
       matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an identifier in front of the `#', `*'
       or  `%'-character  selects  all  users,  displays  or  windows  because  a prefix-match is
       performed. Note that on the  affected  display(s)  a  short  message  will  describe  what
       happened.  Permission  is checked for initiator of the "at" command, not for the owners of
       the affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works as a comment  introducer  when
       it  is  preceded  by  whitespace.  This  can be escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is
       checked for the initiator of the  "at"  command,  not  for  the  owners  of  the  affected

       Caveat:  When  matching against windows, the command is executed at least once per window.
       Commands that change the internal arrangement of windows  (like  "other")  may  be  called
       again.  In  shared windows the command will be repeated for each attached display. Beware,
       when issuing toggle commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require that  a
       display  is  associated  with  the  target windows.  These commands may not work correctly
       under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color of the text. If the
       attribute  attrib is in use, the specified attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no
       modifier is given, the current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES"  chapter  for  the
       syntax  of  the  modifier.  Screen understands two pseudo-attributes, "i" stands for high-
       intensity foreground color and "I" for high-intensity background color.


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators do this already.

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves  all  your  running
       programs  until  they  are  resumed  with  a screen -r command.  When turned off, a hangup
       signal will terminate screen and all the  processes  it  contains.  Autodetach  is  on  by

       autonuke on|off

       Sets  whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that has not been written
       to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...

       backtick id

       Program the backtick command with the numerical id id.  The output of such  a  command  is
       used  for  substitution of the "%`" string escape. The specified lifespan is the number of
       seconds the output is considered valid. After this time, the command is  run  again  if  a
       corresponding  string  escape  is  encountered.   The  autorefresh  parameter  triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption  and  hardstatus  strings  after  the  specified  number  of
       seconds. Only the last line of output is used for substitution.

       If  both  the  lifespan  and  the autorefresh parameters are zero, the backtick program is
       expected to stay in the background and generate output once in a while.  In this case, the
       command  is  executed  right away and screen stores the last line of output. If a new line
       gets printed screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.

       The second form of the command deletes the backtick command with the numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all characters cleared by an
       erase/insert/scroll/clear  operation  will  be  displayed in the current background color.
       Otherwise the default background color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays  a  notification  in
       the  message  line.   The  notification  message  can be re-defined by this command.  Each
       occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the window to which a  bell  has
       been  sent,  and  each  occurrence  of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your
       termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                              'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress output of a message
       line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       bind [class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by screen are bound to
       one or more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section, e.g. the  command  to
       create a new window is bound to "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be used to redefine
       the key bindings and to define  new  bindings.   The  key  argument  is  either  a  single
       character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed
       by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or a  backslash  followed
       by  a  second  character,  such  as "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you
       like.  If no further argument is given, any previously established binding for this key is
       removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in this section.

       If  a  command  class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound for the specified
       class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.  Command  classes  can  be  used  to
       create multiple command keys or multi-character bindings.

       Some examples:

                       bind ' ' windows
                       bind ^k
                       bind k
                       bind K kill
                       bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                       bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would  bind  the  space  key  to  the command that displays a list of windows (so that the
       command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be available as  "C-a  space").  The  next
       three  lines  remove the default kill binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then
       bound to the kill command. Then it binds "C-f" to the command  "create  a  window  with  a
       TELNET  connection  to foobar", and bind "escape" to the command that creates an non-login
       window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a superuser shell and a  scrollback  buffer  of
       1000 lines.

                       bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                       bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                       bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                       bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                       bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                       bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                       bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                       bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd-args]]

       This  command  manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry in one of the tables
       tells screen how to react if a certain sequence of characters is  encountered.  There  are
       three  tables: one that should contain actions programmed by the user, one for the default
       actions used for terminal emulation and one for screen's copy mode to do cursor  movement.
       See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a list of default key bindings.

       If  the  -d  option is given, bindkey modifies the default table, -m changes the copy mode
       table and with neither option the user table is selected.   The  argument  string  is  the
       sequence of characters to which an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a
       termcap keyboard capability name (selectable with the -k option).

       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if application mode is turned on
       (e.g  the  cursor  keys).   Such  keys  have two entries in the translation table. You can
       select the application mode entry by specifying the -a option.

       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character  timing.  One  cannot  turn  off  the
       timing if a termcap capability is used.

       Cmd  can  be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.  If cmd is omitted
       the key-binding is removed from the table.

       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d

       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1

       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo

       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled  so  that  users  can
       type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault

       This  key-binding  makes  "^T"  an escape character for key-bindings. If you did the above
       "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word "foo" by typing "^Tfoo".  If  you  want  to
       insert a "^T" you have to press the key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command

       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).


       Send  a  break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-Posix systems the
       time interval may be rounded up to full seconds.  Most useful if  a  character  device  is
       attached  to the window rather than a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The
       maximum duration of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the  screen  is  cleared.  If  no  blanker  program  is
       defined,  the  cursor  is turned off, otherwise, the program is started and it's output is
       written to the screen.  The screen blanker is killed with the first keypress, the read key
       is discarded.

       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program-args]

       Defines  a  blanker  program.  Disables the blanker program if an empty argument is given.
       Shows the currently set blanker program if no arguments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break  signal  for  terminal  devices.
       This  command  should  affect  the current window only.  But it still behaves identical to
       "defbreaktype". This will be changed in the future.  Calling "breaktype" with no parameter
       displays the break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change  the  filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.  If the optional
       argument   to   the   "bufferfile"   command   is    omitted,    the    default    setting
       ("/tmp/screen-exchange")  is  reactivated.   The following example will paste the system's
       password file into the screen window (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                       C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                       C-a < C-a ]
                       C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells screen to treat the input characters between  128
       and  159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit code is normally the same as ESC followed by
       the corresponding 7-bit code. The default setting is  to  process  c1  codes  and  can  be
       changed  with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters in the c1
       positions may want to turn this off.

       caption [ top | bottom ] always|splitonly[string]

       caption string [string]

       This command controls the display of the window captions. Normally a caption is only  used
       if  more  than  one window is shown on the display (split screen mode). But if the type is
       set to always screen shows a caption even if only one window is displayed. The default  is

       The  second  form  changes the text used for the caption. You can use all escapes from the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       You can have the caption displayed either at the top or bottom of the window.  The default
       is bottom.

       charset set

       Change  the  current  character  set slot designation and charset mapping.  The first four
       character of set are treated as charset designators while the fifth  and  sixth  character
       must be in range '0' to '3' and set the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may
       be used to indicate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set  is
       padded to six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New windows have "BBBB02" as
       default charset, unless a "encoding" command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified directory or, if called without an
       argument,  to  your  home  directory  (the  value of the environment variable $HOME).  All
       windows that are created by means of the "screen" command from within  ".screenrc"  or  by
       means  of  "C-a  :  screen ..." or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a
       chdir command, this would be the directory from which screen was invoked.

       Hardcopy and log files are always written to  the  window's  default  directory,  not  the
       current directory of the process running in the window.  You can use this command multiple
       times in your .screenrc to start various windows in different default directories, but the
       last chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows  you  to enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly modification of key
       bindings, specific window creation and changing settings. Note that the "set"  keyword  no
       longer exists! Usually commands affect the current window rather than default settings for
       future windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard  "C-a  esc"  (copy
       mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This  command  has  the  same  effect  as  typing  the screen escape character (^A). It is
       probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option is given, select the  specified
       command class.  See also "bind" and "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells screen whether to suppress trailing blank lines when scrolling up text into the
       history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs or un-grabs the machines console output to  a  window.   Note:  Only  the  owner  of
       /dev/console  can  grab the console output.  This command is only available if the machine
       supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the current window  and  its
       history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-like `full screen editor' is active:
       The editor's movement keys are:

       h, C-h,        move the cursor left.
       left arrow
       j, C-n,        move the cursor down.
       down arrow
       k, C-p,        move the cursor up.
       up arrow

       l ('el'),      move the cursor right.
       right arrow
       0 (zero) C-a   move to the leftmost column.
       + and -        positions one line up and down.
       H, M and L     move  the  cursor  to the leftmost column of the
                      top, center or bottom line of the window.
       |              moves to the specified absolute column.
       g or home      moves to the beginning of the buffer.
       G or end       moves to the specified absolute  line  (default:
                      end of buffer).
       %              jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.
       ^ or $         move  to  the  leftmost  column, to the first or
                      last non-whitespace character on the line.
       w, b, and e    move the cursor word by word.
       B, E           move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
       f/F, t/T       move the cursor  forward/backward  to  the  next
                      occurrence  of  the target. (eg, '3fy' will move
                      the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the right.)
       ; and ,        Repeat  the  last   f/F/t/T   command   in   the
                      same/opposite direction.
       C-e and C-y    scroll  the  display  up/down  by one line while
                      preserving the cursor position.
       C-u and C-d    scroll the  display  up/down  by  the  specified
                      amount  of  lines  while  preserving  the cursor
                      position. (Default: half screen-full).
       C-b and C-f    scroll the display up/down a full screen.

       Note: Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.  (E.g.  markkeys
       "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E")  There  is  no  simple  method  for  a  full emacs-style keymap, as this
       involves multi-character codes.

       Some keys are defined to do mark and replace operations.

       The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text between  these  marks  will  be
       highlighted. Press:

              space  or  enter to set the first or second mark respectively. If mousetrack is set
              to `on', marks can also be set using left mouse click.

              Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.

              W marks exactly one word.

       Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by pressing digits

              0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.

       Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the paste buffer.

       The following search keys are defined:

              / Vi-like search forward.

              ? Vi-like search backward.

              C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.

              C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.

              n Find next search pattern.

              N Find previous search pattern.

       There are however some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does  not  allow  one  to
       yank  rectangular  blocks of text, but screen does. Press: c or C to set the left or right
       margin respectively. If no repeat count is given,  both  default  to  the  current  cursor

       Example: Try this on a rather full text screen:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

       This  moves  one  to  the  middle  line of the screen, moves in 20 columns left, marks the
       beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left column, moves 5 columns down, sets the  right
       column, and then marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

       and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.

       J  joins  lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline character (012),
       lines glued seamless, lines separated by a single whitespace and  comma  separated  lines.
       Note  that  you  can  prepend  the  newline character with a carriage return character, by
       issuing a "crlf on".

       v or V is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles the  left  margin  between
       column 9 and 1. Press

       a  before  the  final  space  key to toggle in append mode. Thus the contents of the paste
       buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.

       A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.

       > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents  of  the  paste  buffer  to  the  screen-
       exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once copy-mode is finished.

       This  example  demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer to that file: "C-A [ g
       SPACE G $ >".

       C-g gives information about the current line and column.

       x or o exchanges the first mark and the current cursor  position.  You  can  use  this  to
       adjust an already placed mark.

       C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.

       @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.

       All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If it is set to `on',
       lines will be separated by the two character sequence `CR' -  `LF'.   Otherwise  (default)
       only `LF' is used.  When no parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns  runtime  debugging  on  or  off.  If  screen  has been compiled with option -DDEBUG
       debugging available and is turned on per default. Note  that  this  command  only  affects
       debugging  output  from  the  main  "SCREEN" process correctly. Debug output from attacher
       processes can only be turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as the autonuke command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you can use the special `AN' terminal  capability  if
       you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same  as  the  bce  command  except  that  the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices. The
       preferred  methods  are  tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.  The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete
       screen session for the duration of the break, but it may be the only way to generate  long
       breaks.   Tcsendbreak  and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes (e.g. 4
       per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also  differs  between  serial  board
       drivers.  Calling "defbreaktype" with no parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Shows
       current default if called without argument.

       defdynamictitle on|off

       Set default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should change window title  when
       seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (naming windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set  the  default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape" except that it is
       useful multiuser sessions only. In  a  multiuser  session  "escape"  changes  the  command
       character  of  the  calling user, where "defescape" changes the default command characters
       for users that will be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same as the flow command except that the default  setting  for  new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial  setting  is  `auto'.   Specifying  "defflow  auto  interrupt"  is the same as the
       command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The  hardstatus  line  that  all  new  windows will get is set to status.  This command is
       useful to make the hardstatus of every window display the window number or  title  or  the
       like.  Status may contain the same directives as in the window messages, but the directive
       escape character  is  '^E'  (octal  005)  instead  of  '%'.   This  was  done  to  make  a
       misinterpretation  of  program  generated  hardstatus  lines impossible.  If the parameter
       status is omitted, the current default string is displayed.  Per  default  the  hardstatus
       line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same  as  the encoding command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is the encoding taken from the terminal.

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the  default  setting  for  new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. This
       is initialized with `on' as distributed (see

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.   Mode  is  an  octal  number.
       When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same  as  the  monitor command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same  as  the  nonblock  command  except that the default setting for displays is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial  setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can use the special 'OL' terminal capability
       if you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same  as  the  silence command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new windows is  changed.
       Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same  as  the  utf8  command  except  that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `on' if screen was started with "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command except that the default  setting  for  new  windows  is  changed.
       Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means
       of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting for new windows is  changed.
       Initially writelocks will off.

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen  session  (disconnect  it  from  the  terminal  and  put  it  into the
       background).  This returns you to the shell where you invoked screen.  A  detached  screen
       can  be  resumed  by  invoking  screen  with the -r option (see also section "COMMAND-LINE
       OPTIONS"). The -h option tells screen to immediately close the connection to the  terminal


       Show  what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know why features like
       color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows a tabular listing of all currently connected user front-ends  (displays).   This  is
       most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following keys can be used in displays list:

       k, C-p, or up           Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down         Move down one line.
       C-a or home             Move to the first line.
       C-e or end              Move to the last line.
       C-u or C-d              Move one half page up or down.
       C-b or C-f              Move one full page up or down.
       mouseclick              Move   to   the  selected  line.
                               Available when  "mousetrack"  is
                               set to on.
       space                   Refresh the list
       d                       Detach that display
       D                       Power detach that display
       C-g, enter, or escape   Exit the list

       The following is an example of what "displays" could look like:
              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:

              (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.

              (B) Displays geometry as width x height.

              (C) Username who is logged in at the display.

              (D) Device name of the display or the attached device

              (E)  Display  is  in  blocking  or nonblocking mode.  The available modes are "nb",
              "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".

              (F) Number of the window

              (G) Name/title of window

              (H) Whether the window is shared

              (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters.

              │             Window permissions indicators              │
              │ 1st character   │  2nd character   │   3rd character   │
              │-   │no read     │ -   │no write    │ -   │no execute   │
              │r   │read        │ w   │write       │ x   │execute      │
              │    │            │ W   │own wlock   │     │             │
              │Indicators of permissions suppressed by a foreign wlock │
              │R   │read only   │ .   │no write    │     │             │
              "displays" needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide and 5 characters high
              in order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This  command  prompts  the user for a digraph sequence. The next two characters typed are
       looked up in a builtin table and the resulting character is inserted in the input  stream.
       For example, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted. If the first character
       entered is a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following characters  (up  to  three)  as  an
       octal number instead.  The optional argument preset is treated as user input, thus one can
       create an "umlaut" key.  For example the command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user
       to generate an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value is specified, a
       new digraph is created with the specified preset. The digraph is unset if a zero value  is
       provided for the unicode-value.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the currently active window
       to the file ".termcap" in the user's "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen  stores
       its sockets. See the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry is identical to the value
       of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is  set  up  by  screen  for  each  window.  For
       terminfo  based  systems  you will need to run a converter like captoinfo and then compile
       the entry with tic.

       dynamictitle on|off

       Change behaviour for windows regarding if screen should change window  title  when  seeing
       proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (naming windows)" section.

       echo [-n] message

       The  echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of the day'. Typically
       installed in a global /etc/screenrc.  The option "-n" may be used  to  suppress  the  line
       feed.   See  also  "sleep".   Echo  is  also  useful  for  online  checking of environment

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets the encoding of the
       current  window.  Each  window  can  emulate  a  different  encoding.  The optional second
       parameter overwrites the encoding of the connected terminal. It should never be needed  as
       screen  uses  the  locale setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a
       terminal encoding depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap entry.

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN,  Big5,  GBK,  KOI8-R,  KOI8-U,  CP1251,
       UTF-8,  ISO8859-2,  ISO8859-3,  ISO8859-4,  ISO8859-5,  ISO8859-6,  ISO8859-7,  ISO8859-8,
       ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new window.

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating a  literal  command  character
       (by  triggering  the  "meta"  command)  to y (similar to the -e option).  Each argument is
       either a single character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"  (meaning  "C-x"),  a
       backslash  followed  by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or a
       backslash followed by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1[command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat]newcommand [args ...]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified  by  an  executable  path  newcommand  and  its  optional
       arguments)   in   the   current   window.   The   flow   of   data   between   newcommands
       stdin/stdout/stderr, the process  originally  started  in  the  window  (let  us  call  it
       "application-process")  and  screen  itself  (window) is controlled by the file descriptor
       pattern fdpat.  This pattern is basically a three character sequence  representing  stdin,
       stdout  and  stderr  of  newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.  An
       exclamation mark (!) causes the file  descriptor  to  be  connected  to  the  application-
       process.  A  colon  (:) combines both.  User input will go to newcommand unless newcommand
       receives the application-process' output (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or a  pipe
       symbol (|) is added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.

       Invoking  `exec'  without  arguments  shows  name  and  arguments of the currently running
       subprocess in this window. Only one subprocess a time can be running in each window.

       When a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect  it  instead  of  the  windows

       Refer  to  the  postscript  file  `doc/'  for  a  confusing illustration of all 21
       possible combinations. Each drawing shows the digits 2,1,0  representing  the  three  file
       descriptors  of  newcommand. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has the application-
       process on its slave side.  The box marked `P' is the secondary pty that now has screen at
       its master side.

       Abbreviations:  Whitespace  between  the  word  `exec'  and  fdpat  and the command can be
       omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omitted. A simple `|' is
       synonymous  for  the  pattern  `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can always be
       replaced by `!'.


              exec ... /bin/sh

              exec /bin/sh


                     Creates another shell in the same window, while the original shell is  still
                     running.  Output  of  both shells is displayed and user input is sent to the
                     new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200

              exec ! stty 19200

              !!stty 19200

                     Set the speed of the window's tty. If your stty command operates on  stdout,
                     then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less


                     This  adds a pager to the window output. The special character `|' is needed
                     to give the user control over the pager although it gets its input from  the
                     window's  process.  This  works,  because less listens on stderr (a behavior
                     that screen would not expect without the `|') when its stdin is not  a  tty.
                     Less versions newer than 177 fail miserably here; good old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

                     Sends  window  output to both, the user and the sed command. The sed inserts
                     an additional bell character (oct. 007) to the window output seen by screen.
                     This  will  cause  "Bell  in window x" messages, whenever the string "Error"
                     appears in the window.


       Change the window size to the size of the current region. This command is  needed  because
       screen  doesn't  adapt  the window size automatically if the window is displayed more than

       flow   [on|off|auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for this window.  Without  parameters  it  cycles  the  current
       window's  flow-control  setting  from "automatic" to "on" to "off".  See the discussion on
       "FLOW-CONTROL" later on in this document for full details and note, that this  is  subject
       to change in future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [next|prev|up|down|left|right|top|bottom]

       Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic way so that the top left
       region is selected after the bottom right one. If  no  option  is  given  it  defaults  to
       `next'.  The  next  region  to  be  selected is determined by how the regions are layered.
       Normally, the next region in the same layer would be  selected.   However,  if  that  next
       region  contains  one  or  more  layers, the first region in the highest layer is selected
       first. If you are at the last region of the current layer, `next' will move the  focus  to
       the  next  region  in  the  lower layer (if there is a lower layer).  `Prev' cycles in the
       opposite order. See "split" for more information about layers.

       The rest of the options (`up', `down', `left', `right',  `top',  and  `bottom')  are  more
       indifferent  to  layers.  The option `up' will move the focus upward to the region that is
       touching the upper left corner of the current region.  `Down' will move  downward  to  the
       region  that  is  touching  the lower left corner of the current region. The option `left'
       will move the focus leftward to the region that is touching the upper left corner  of  the
       current region, while `right' will move rightward to the region that is touching the upper
       right corner of the current region. Moving left from a left most region  or  moving  right
       from a right most region will result in no action.

       The  option `top' will move the focus to the very first region in the upper list corner of
       the screen, and `bottom' will move to the region in the bottom right corner of the screen.
       Moving  up  from a top most region or moving down from a bottom most region will result in
       no action.

       Useful bindings are (h, j, k, and l as in vi)
           bind h focus left
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind l focus right
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

       This forces any currently selected region to be automatically resized at least  a  certain
       width  and  height. All other surrounding regions will be resized in order to accommodate.
       This constraint follows every time the "focus" command is used. The "resize"  command  can
       be  used  to  increase  either  dimension  of  a  region, but never below what is set with
       "focusminsize". The underscore `_' is a synonym for max. Setting a width and height of  `0
       0'  (zero  zero)  will  undo  any  constraints and allow for manual resizing.  Without any
       parameters, the minimum width and height is shown.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input character with the 8th bit
       set,  it  will  use the charset stored in the GR slot and print the character with the 8th
       bit stripped. The default (see also "defgr")  is  not  to  process  GR  switching  because
       otherwise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change  or  show  the  group  the  current  window belongs to. Windows can be moved around
       between different groups  by  specifying  the  name  of  the  destination  group.  Without
       specifying a group, the title of the current group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes  out  the  currently  displayed  image  to  the  file  file,  or, if no filename is
       specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where n is the number  of  the  current
       window.   This  either  appends  or  overwrites  the file if it exists. See below.  If the
       option -h is specified, dump also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by the  command  "C-a
       h", otherwise these files are overwritten each time.  Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files will be placed. If unset, hardcopys are dumped in
       screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]

       hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore[string]

       hardstatus string[string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the terminal's hardstatus line. The first
       form  toggles whether screen will use the hardware status line to display messages. If the
       flag is set to `off', these messages are overlaid in reverse video  mode  at  the  display
       line. The default setting is `on'.

       The  second  form  tells  screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have a hardstatus line
       (i.e. the termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts", "fs" and  "ds"  are  not  set).   When
       "firstline/lastline"  is  used, screen will reserve the first/last line of the display for
       the hardstatus. "message" uses screen's message mechanism and "ignore" tells screen  never
       to  display  the  hardstatus.   If  you  prepend  the  word  "always"  to  the type (e.g.,
       "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h'  is  used  as  default
       string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of the current window (settable via "ESC]0;<string>^G"
       or "ESC_<string>ESC\") is displayed.  You can  customize  this  to  any  string  you  like
       including  the  escapes  from  the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you leave out the argument
       string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as additional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of  lines.  When  no  argument  is  given  it
       toggles  between  24  and  42  lines  display. You can also specify a width if you want to
       change both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the display  size  unchanged  and
       just set the window size, -d vice versa.


       Not  really  a  online  help, but displays a help screen showing you all the key bindings.
       The first pages list all  the  internal  commands  followed  by  their  current  bindings.
       Subsequent  pages will display the custom commands, one command per key.  Press space when
       you're done reading each page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are ignored.
       If  the  "-c" option is given, display all bound commands for the specified command class.
       See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to previous commands.  For example
       csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last command executed.  Screen allows you to have a
       primitive way of re-calling "the command that started ...": You just type the first letter
       of  that  command,  then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that matches
       with the `prompt character' to the left of the cursor.  This  line  is  pasted  into  this
       window's  input  queue.   Thus  you  have  a crude command history (made up by the visible
       window and its scrollback buffer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout[cmd-args]]

       Sets a command that is run after the specified number of seconds  inactivity  is  reached.
       This command will normally be the "blanker" command to create a screen blanker, but it can
       be any screen command.  If no command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout  of
       zero  (or  the  special  timeout  off) disables the timer.  If no arguments are given, the
       current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in searches. Default is  `off'.  Without  any
       options, the state of ignorecase is toggled.


       Uses  the  message  line  to display some information about the current window: the cursor
       position in the form "(column,row)" starting with "(1,1)", the terminal width  and  height
       plus  the  size of the scrollback buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50", the current state
       of window XON/XOFF flow control is shown like this (See also section FLOW CONTROL):

       │+flow    │ automatic flow control, currently on.                    │
       │-flow    │ automatic flow control, currently off.                   │
       │+(+)flow │ flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.     │
       │-(+)flow │ flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control. │
       │+(-)flow │ flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.  │
       │-(-)flow │ flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.    │
       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap' not) is also shown.  The
       flags  `ins',  `org',  `app',  `log', `mon' or `nored' are displayed when the window is in
       insert mode, origin mode, application-keypad mode, has output logging, activity monitoring
       or partial redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in square brackets the terminal
       character sets that are currently designated as G0 through G3 is shown. If the  window  is
       in UTF-8 mode, the string "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional  modes  depending  on  the  type  of the window are displayed at the end of the
       status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").

       If the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-default state, the info line  is
       started with a string identifying the current state.

       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.

       If  there  is  an  `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise the process (shell)
       running in the window receives a HANGUP condition, the window  structure  is  removed  and
       screen  (your  display)  switches  to  another window.  When the last window is destroyed,
       screen exits.  After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.

       Note: Emacs users should  keep  this  command  in  mind,  when  killing  a  line.   It  is
       recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay  the  last  contents of the message/status line.  Useful if you're typing when a
       message appears, because  the message goes away when you press a key (unless your terminal
       has  a  hardware  status line).  Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine

       layout new [title]

       Create a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region and  be  switched  to  the
       blank  window.  From  here, you build the regions and the windows they show as you desire.
       The new layout will be numbered with the smallest available integer, starting  with  zero.
       You  can  optionally  give  a title to your new layout.  Otherwise, it will have a default
       title of "layout". You can always change the title  later  by  using  the  command  layout

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the number or the title can
       be specified. Without either specification, screen will remove the current layout.

       Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be specified. Without either
       specification,  screen  will  prompt and ask which screen is desired. To see which layouts
       are available, use the layout show command.

       layout show

       List on the message line the number(s)  and  title(s)  of  the  available  layout(s).  The
       current layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change or display the title of the current layout. A string given will be used to name the
       layout. Without any options, the current title and number  is  displayed  on  the  message

       layout number [n]

       Change  or  display  the  number  of  the current layout. An integer given will be used to
       number the layout. Without any options, the current number and title is displayed  on  the
       message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change  or  display  which  layout  to reattach back to. The default is :last, which tells
       screen to reattach back to the last used layout just before  detachment.  By  supplying  a
       title, You can instruct screen to reattach to a particular layout regardless which one was
       used at the time of detachment. Without any options, the layout to  reattach  to  will  be
       shown in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember  the  current  arrangement  of  regions.  When  used,  screen  will  remember the
       arrangement of vertically and horizontally split regions.  This  arrangement  is  restored
       when  a  screen  session  is  reattached  or switched back from a different layout. If the
       session ends or the screen process dies, the layout arrangements are lost. The layout dump
       command  should  help  in  this  siutation.  If a number or title is supplied, screen will
       remember the arrangement of that particular  layout.  Without  any  options,  screen  will
       remember the current layout.

       Saving your regions can be done automatically by using the layout autosave command.

       layout autosave [on|off]

       Change  or  display  the status of automatcally saving layouts. The default is on, meaning
       when screen is detached or changed to a different layout, the arrangement of  regions  and
       windows will be remembered at the time of change and restored upon return.  If autosave is
       set to off, that arrangement will only be restored to either  to  the  last  manual  save,
       using  layout  save,  or  to  when the layout was first created, to a single region with a
       single window. Without either an on or off, the current status is displayed on the message

       layout dump [filename]

       Write to a file the order of splits made in the current layout. This is useful to recreate
       the order of your regions used  in  your  current  layout.  Only  the  current  layout  is
       recorded.  While  the  order  of  the regions are recorded, the sizes of those regions and
       which windows correspond to which regions are  not.  If  no  filename  is  specified,  the
       default  is layout-dump, saved in the directory that the screen process was started in. If
       the file already exists, layout dump will append to that file. As an example:

                C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display the disclaimer page. This is done whenever  screen  is  started  without  options,
       which should be often enough. See also the "startup_message" command.


       Lock  this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck or /usr/bin/lock or a
       builtin if no other is available). Screen does not accept  any  command  keys  until  this
       program terminates. Meanwhile processes in the windows may continue, as the windows are in
       the `detached' state. The screenlock  program  may  be  changed  through  the  environment
       variable  $LOCKPRG  (which  must  be set in the shell from which screen is started) and is
       executed with the user's uid and gid.

       Warning: When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password set on screen,  the
       lock  is  void:  One  could  easily  re-attach from an unlocked shell. This feature should
       rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a file "screenlog.n"  in  the  window's
       default  directory,  where  n  is  the  number of the current window. This filename can be
       changed with the `logfile' command. If no parameter is given,  the  state  of  logging  is
       toggled.  The  session  log is appended to the previous contents of the file if it already
       exists. The current contents and the contents of the scrollback history are  not  included
       in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename

       logfile flush secs

       Defines  the  name  the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n". The second form
       changes the number of seconds screen will wait before flushing the logfile buffer  to  the
       file-system. The default value is 10 seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the current window.  This controls
       if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter is given, the login state of  the  window
       is  toggled.   Additionally  to that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in' and a `log
       out' key. E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to  be  C-a  I
       and  C-a  O.   The  default setting (in should be "on" for a screen that runs
       under suid-root.  Use the "deflogin" command to change the default  login  state  for  new
       windows. Both commands are only present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]

       logtstamp after [secs]

       logtstamp string

       This  command  controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-stamps are turned
       "on", screen adds a string containing the current time to the logfile after two minutes of
       inactivity.  When output continues and more than another two minutes have passed, a second
       time-stamp is added to document the restart of the output. You  can  change  this  timeout
       with the second form of the command. The third form is used for customizing the time-stamp
       string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell screen that the next input character should only be looked up in the default  bindkey
       table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout of timeout ms. The
       default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with no arguments shows  the  current  setting.   See
       also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.  The string is made up
       of oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F"  will
       change  the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This
       happens to be the default binding for `B' and `F'.  The command "markkeys  h=^B:l=^F:$=^E"
       would  set  the  mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your terminal sends characters, that
       cause you to abort copy mode, then this command may help by binding these characters to do
       nothing.  The no-op character is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this example,  multiple  keys
       can be assigned to one function in a single statement.

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect already existing windows.
       The number can be increased only when there are no existing windows.


       Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input stream.

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles activity monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is  turned  on  and  an  affected
       window is switched into the background, you will receive the activity notification message
       in the status line at the first sign of output and the window will also be marked with  an
       `@' in the window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all windows.

       mousetrack [on|off]

       This  command  determines whether screen will watch for mouse clicks. When this command is
       enabled, regions that have been split in various ways can be selected by pointing to  them
       with  a  mouse  and left-clicking them. Without specifying on or off, the current state is
       displayed. The default state is determined by the "defmousetrack" command.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message is currently displayed.  The
       default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines  the time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by other activity. The
       default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation is singleuser.  In
       multiuser  mode  the  commands  `acladd',  `aclchg',  `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to
       enable (and disable) other users accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are familiar  with  the  game
       "nethack",  you  may  enjoy  the  nethack-style messages which will often blur the facts a
       little, but are much funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to  be  unclear
       as well.
       This  option  is  only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK flag defined. The
       default  setting  is  then  determined  by  the  presence  of  the  environment   variable
       $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch  to the next window.  This command can be used repeatedly to cycle through the list
       of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to accept output.  This
       can  happen  if  a  user  presses  ^S  or a TCP/modem connection gets cut but no hangup is
       received. If nonblock is off (this is the default) screen waits until the display restarts
       to  accept the output. If nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is reached (on is
       treated as 1s). If the display still doesn't receive characters, screen will  consider  it
       "blocked"  and  stop  sending  characters  to  it.  If  at some time it restarts to accept
       characters, screen will unblock the display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change the current window's number. If the given number  n  is  already  used  by  another
       window,  both  windows  exchange  their  numbers. If no argument is specified, the current
       window number (and title) is shown. Using `+' or `-' will change the  window's  number  by
       the relative amount specified.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If  the  output  buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no more data will be
       read from the windows. The default value is 256. If you have a fast display (like  xterm),
       you  can  set it to some higher value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch to the window displayed previously. If this window does no longer exist, other  has
       the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with redisplay) after switching to the
       current window. This command only affects the current window.  To immediately  affect  all
       windows  use the allpartial command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is fixed,
       as there is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask for  it,  whenever
       someone  attempts  to  resume  a  detached. This is useful if you have privileged programs
       running under screen and you want to  protect  your  session  from  reattach  attempts  by
       another  user  masquerading  as  your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is
       specified, screen prompts twice for typing a password and places  its  encryption  in  the
       paste buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write  the  (concatenated)  contents  of the specified registers to the stdin queue of the
       current window. The register '.' is treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is  given
       the  user is prompted for a single register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled with
       the copy, history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled with the  register,
       readreg  and  paste  commands.  If paste is called with a second argument, the contents of
       the specified registers is pasted into the named  destination  register  rather  than  the
       window.  If  '.'  is  used  as  the  second  argument,  the  displays  paste buffer is the
       destination.  Note, that "paste" uses a wide  variety  of  resources:  Whenever  a  second
       argument  is  specified  no  current  window is needed. When the source specification only
       contains registers (not the paste buffer)  then  there  need  not  be  a  current  display
       (terminal  attached), as the registers are a global resource. The paste buffer exists once
       for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The default is not to do  so.
       This command is especially useful for multi character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line and send a break condition. See `break'.


       Power  detach.   Mainly  the  same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP signal to the parent
       process of screen.  CAUTION: This will result in a logout, when screen  was  started  from
       your login-shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The  message  specified  here is output whenever a `Power detach' was performed. It may be
       used as a replacement for a logout message or to reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter,
       the current message is shown.


       Switch  to  the window with the next lower number.  This command can be used repeatedly to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capabilities "po/pf" if it
       detects  an  ansi  print  sequence  ESC  [ 5 i, but pipe the output into cmd.  This should
       normally be a command like "lpr" or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without  a  command
       displays the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the pipe.

       Warning:  Be  careful with this command! If other user have write access to your terminal,
       they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue. If no argument  is
       given  you are prompted for a register name. The text is parsed as if it had been typed in
       from the user's keyboard. This command can be used to bind multiple actions  to  a  single


       Kill  all  windows  and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style terminals the keys C-4
       and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bindings dangerous: Be careful not to  type
       C-a  C-4  when  selecting window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to
       remove a key binding.

       readbuf [encoding] [filename]

       Reads the contents of the specified file into the paste buffer.  You can tell  screen  the
       encoding  of  the  file  via  the -e option.  If no file is specified, the screen-exchange
       filename is used.  See also "bufferfile" command.

       readreg [encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or  one  arguments  it
       duplicates the paste buffer contents into the register specified or entered at the prompt.
       With two arguments it reads the contents of the named file  into  the  register,  just  as
       readbuf  reads  the  screen-exchange  file into the paste buffer.  You can tell screen the
       encoding of the file via the -e option.  The following example  will  paste  the  system's
       password file into the screen window (using register p, where a copy remains):

                C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in partial redraw mode.

       register [-eencoding]key-string

       Save  the  specified  string  to  the  register  key.   The  encoding of the string can be
       specified via the -e option.  See also the "paste" command.


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf" and "readbuf".

       rendition bell | monitor | silence | so  attr  [ color ]

       Change the way screen renders the titles of windows that have monitor or bell flags set in
       caption  or  hardstatus  or windowlist. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of
       the modifiers.  The default for monitor is currently "=b " (bold, active colors), for bell
       "=ub " (underline, bold and active colors), and "=u " for silence.


       Reset  the  virtual  terminal to its "power-on" values. Useful when strange settings (like
       scroll regions or graphics character set) are left over from an application.

       resize [-h|-v|-b|-l|-p] [[+|-] n[%] |=|max|min|_|0]

       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from  or  added  to  the  surrounding
       regions  depending  on  the  order  of the splits.  The available options for resizing are
       `-h'(horizontal),    `-v'(vertical),    `-b'(both),    `-l'(local    to    layer),     and
       `-p'(perpendicular).  Horizontal  resizes  will  add or remove width to a region, vertical
       will add or remove height, and both will add or remove size from  both  dimensions.  Local
       and  perpendicular are similar to horizontal and vertical, but they take in account of how
       a region was split.  If a region's last split was horizontal, a  local  resize  will  work
       like  a  vertical  resize. If a region's last split was vertical, a local resize will work
       like a horizontal resize. Perpendicular resizes work in opposite of local resizes.  If  no
       option is specified, local is the default.

       The  amount  of  lines  to  add  or remove can be expressed a couple of different ways. By
       specifying a number n by itself will resize the region by that absolute  amount.  You  can
       specify  a  relative  amount  by  prefixing a plus `+' or minus `-' to the amount, such as
       adding +n lines or removing -n lines. Resizing can also be expressed  as  an  absolute  or
       relative  percentage  by  postfixing  a  percent sign `%'. Using zero `0' is a synonym for
       `min' and using an underscore `_' is a synonym for `max'.

       Some examples are:

       resize +N
              increase current region by N

       resize -N
              decrease current region by N

       resize  N
              set current region to N

       resize 20%
              set current region to 20% of original size

       resize +20%
              increase current region by 20%

       resize -b =
              make all windows equally

       resize  max
              maximize current region

       resize  min
              minimize current region

       Without any arguments, screen will prompt for how you would like  to  resize  the  current

       See "focusminsize" if you want to restrict the minimum size a region can have.

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa), title (a.k.a.) option
       (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal type option (-T <term>),  the  all-capability-
       flag (-a) and scrollback option (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option
       (-M) turns monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns  output  logging  on  for
       this window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is given, the window number
       n is assigned to the newly created window (or, if this number is already in-use, the  next
       available number).  If a command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given
       arguments) is started in the window;  otherwise,  a  shell  is  created.   If  //group  is
       supplied,  a container-type window is created in which other windows may be created inside

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                # example for .screenrc:
                screen 1
                screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET connection to  the
       machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title "foobar" in window #2) and will write
       a logfile ("screenlog.2") of the telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous  versions  of
       screen no additional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in your
       ".screenrc" file. When the initialization is completed, screen switches to the last window
       specified in your .screenrc file or, if none, opens a default window #0.

       Screen  has  built  in  some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See also chapter "WINDOW

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num  lines.  The  default
       scrollback  is 100 lines.  See also the "defscrollback" command and use "info" to view the
       current setting. To access and use the contents in the scrollback buffer, use  the  "copy"

       select [WindowID]

       Switch  to  the  window  identified  by  WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a window title
       (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The parameter is optional and if  omitted,
       you get prompted for an identifier.  When a new window is established, the first available
       number is assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by "select 0".
       The  number  of  windows  is limited at compile-time by the MAXWIN configuration parameter
       (which defaults to 40).  There are two special WindowIDs, "-" selects the  internal  blank
       window and "." selects the current window. The latter is useful if used with screen's "-X"

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that for "screen -list"  the  name  shows  up  with  the
       process-id  prepended.  If  the  argument  "name"  is omitted, the name of this session is
       displayed. Caution: The $STY environment variables will still reflect the old name in pre-
       existing  shells.  This  may  result  in  confusion.  Use  of  this  command  is generally
       discouraged. Use the "-S" command-line option if you want to  name  a  new  session.   The
       default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is specified, the user will
       be prompted to enter a value.  If no parameters are specified, the user will  be  prompted
       for  both  variable  and  value.  The  environment is inherited by all subsequently forked

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the windows. If  setsid  is
       turned  off, this is not done anymore and all windows will be in the same process group as
       the screen backend process. This also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The  default  is
       on, of course. This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set  the  command  to  be  used  to  create  a new shell.  This overrides the value of the
       environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like to run a tty-enhancer which  is
       expecting  to  execute  the program specified in $SHELL.  If the command begins with a '-'
       character, the shell will be started as a login-shell.  Typical  shells  do  only  minimal
       initialization  when  not  started  as  a  login-shell.   E.g.  Bash  will  not  read your
       "~/.bashrc" unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup  or  by  the  C-A  C-c  command.   For
       details about what a title is, see the discussion entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles  silence  monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and an affected window
       is switched into the background, you will receive the silence notification message in  the
       status  line  after a specified period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be
       changed with the `silencewait' command or by specifying a number  of  seconds  instead  of
       `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define  the  time  that  all windows monitored for silence should wait before displaying a
       message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of a  .screenrc  file  for  num  seconds.   Keyboard
       activity  will  end the sleep.  It may be used to give users a chance to read the messages
       output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed at which text is inserted into the current window by the paste ("C-a  ]")
       command.   If  the  slowpaste  value  is  nonzero  text is written character by character.
       screen will make a pause of msec milliseconds after each single character write  to  allow
       the application to process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands  may  be  nested  to  a  maximum
       recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path and screen is already processing a
       source command, the parent directory of the running source command file is used to  search
       for the new command file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only work at startup and reattach time, so
       they must be reached via the default screenrc files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr[color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the display are resized to make
       room  for  the new region. The blank window is displayed in the new region. The default is
       to create a horizontal split, putting the new regions on the top and bottom of each other.
       Using `-v' will create a vertical split, causing the new regions to appear side by side of
       each other.  Use the "remove" or the "only" command to delete  regions.   Use  "focus"  to
       toggle between regions.

       When  a  region  is  split opposite of how it was previously split (that is, vertical then
       horizontal or horizontal then vertical), a new layer is created.  The  layer  is  used  to
       group  together  the  regions that are split the same. Normally, as a user, you should not
       see nor have to worry about layers, but they will affect how some  commands  ("focus"  and
       "resize") behave.

       With  this  current  implementation of screen, scrolling data will appear much slower in a
       vertically split region than one that is not. This should be taken into  consideration  if
       you need to use system commands such as "cat" or "tail -f".

       startup_message on|off

       Select  whether  you want to see the copyright notice during startup.  Default is `on', as
       you probably noticed.

       status [top|up|down|bottom] [left|right]

       The status window by default is in  bottom-left  corner.  This  command  can  move  status
       messages to any corner of the screen. top is the same as up, down is the same as bottom.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the  input buffer of the current window.  This is like the
       "paste" command but with much less overhead.  Without a parameter, screen will prompt  for
       a  string  to  stuff.  You cannot paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most
       useful for key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for all parameters that are omitted.
       If  passwords are specified as parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted. The first
       password is matched against the systems passwd database, the second  password  is  matched
       against  the screen password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su" may be
       useful for the screen administrator to test multiuser  setups.   When  the  identification
       fails, the user has access to the commands available for user nobody.  These are "detach",
       "license", "version", "help" and "displays".


       Suspend screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen is suspended.  This
       feature relies on the shell being able to do job control.

       term term

       In  each  window's  environment  screen  opens,  the  $TERM variable is set to "screen" by
       default.  But when no description for "screen"  is  installed  in  the  local  termcap  or
       terminfo  data  base, you set $TERM to - say - "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen
       is VT100/ANSI compatible.  The use of the "term" command is  discouraged  for  non-default
       purpose.   That  is,  one  may want to specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100) for the
       next "screen rlogin othermachine"  command.  Use  the  command  "screen  -T  vt100  rlogin
       othermachine" rather than setting and resetting the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       terminfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       Use  this  command  to  modify your terminal's termcap entry without going through all the
       hassles involved in creating a custom termcap entry.  Plus, you can  optionally  customize
       the  termcap  generated  for  the windows.  You have to place these commands in one of the
       screenrc startup files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.

       If your system uses the terminfo database rather than termcap, screen will understand  the
       `terminfo'  command,  which  has  the same effects as the `termcap' command.  Two separate
       commands are provided, as there are subtle  syntactic  differences,  e.g.  when  parameter
       interpolation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabilities have to
       be used with the `terminfo' command.

       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and termcap syntax, you  can
       use  the  command  `termcapinfo',  which  is  just a shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and
       `terminfo' commands with identical arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by this definition.  You
       can  specify  multiple  terminal names by separating them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all
       terminals and `vt*' to match all terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one or  more  termcap  defines  (separated  by  `:'s)  to  be
       inserted  at  the  start  of  the  appropriate  termcap  entry, enhancing it or overriding
       existing  values.   The  first  tweak  modifies  your  terminal's  termcap,  and  contains
       definitions  that  your terminal uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string
       to leave this unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies  all  the  window
       termcaps,  and  should  contain  definitions  that  screen  understands  (see the "VIRTUAL
       TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin with  `xterm'  have  firm  auto-margins  that
       allow  the  last  position  on the screen to be updated (LP), but they don't really have a
       status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP' for  all
       terminal  names  that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap command for
       that terminal.
              termcap vt*  LP

       termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP' capability for all terminals that begin  with  `vt',  and
       the  second  line  will  also add the escape-sequences to switch into (Z0) and back out of
       (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1
       in your termcap to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This  leaves  your  vt100  termcap alone and adds the function key labels to each window's
       termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables  the  insert  mode
       (im)  and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the `im' string is after the `=', so it
       is part of the string).  Having the `im' and `ei' definitions  put  into  your  terminal's
       termcap  will  cause  screen to automatically advertise the character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will also get  the  delete-character  capability  (dc)
       added  to  its  termcap,  which  screen will translate into a line-update for the terminal
       (we're pretending it doesn't support character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you should instead set the
       $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.  See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL"
       in this manual, and the termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time   [string]

       Uses the message line to display the time of day, the host name,  and  the  load  averages
       over  1,  5,  and  15  minutes (if this is available on your system).  For window specific
       information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like it is described in
       the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is specified, screen prompts
       for one. This command was known as `aka' in previous releases.


       Unbind all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used solely for  its  detaching
       abilities,  such  as  when  letting  a  console  application run as a daemon. If, for some
       reason, it is necessary to bind commands after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off[on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the  strings  sent  to
       the  window  will  be  UTF-8  encoded  and  vice versa. Omitting the parameter toggles the
       setting. If a second parameter is given, the display's  encoding  is  also  changed  (this
       should  rather  be done with screen's "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which changes the
       default setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter toggles the  setting.
       If  vbell  is  switched  on,  but  your terminal does not support a visual bell, a `vbell-
       message' is displayed in the status line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual
       bell support of a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').

       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if the window receives
       a bell character (^G), vbell is set to "on", but the terminal does not  support  a  visual
       bell.  The default message is "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the current message is

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell message. The  default
       is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If  verbose  is  switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a window is created (or
       resurrected from zombie state). Default is off.  Without a parameter, the current  setting
       is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the terminal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the  window  width  between  80  and  132  columns or set it to cols columns if an
       argument is specified.  This requires a capable terminal and the termcap entries "Z0"  and
       "Z1".   See  the "termcap" command for more information. You can also specify a new height
       if you want to change both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the  display  size
       unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]

       windowlist string [string]

       windowlist title [title]

       Display  all  windows  in  a table for visual window selection.  If screen was in a window
       group, screen will back out of the group and then display the windows in that  group.   If
       the -b option is given, screen will switch to the blank window before presenting the list,
       so that the current window is also selectable.  The -m option changes  the  order  of  the
       windows,  instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its internal most-recently-used
       list.  The -g option will show the windows inside any groups in that level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":

       k, C-p, or up      Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down    Move down one line.
       C-g or escape      Exit windowlist.
       C-a or home        Move to the first line.
       C-e or end         Move to the last line.
       C-u or C-d         Move one half page up or down.
       C-b or C-f         Move one full page up or down.
       0..9               Using the number keys, move to the selected line.
       mouseclick         Move  to  the  selected  line.   Available   when
                          "mousetrack" is set to "on"
       /                  Search.
       n                  Repeat search in the forward direction.
       N                  Repeat search in the backward direction.
       m                  Toggle MRU.
       g                  Toggle group nesting.

       a                  All window view.
       C-h or backspace   Back out the group.
       ,                  Switch numbers with the previous window.
       .                  Switch numbers with the next window.
       K                  Kill that window.
       space or enter     Select that window.

       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the title is displayed
       as table heading, while the lines are made  by  using  the  string  setting.  The  default
       setting  is  "Num  Name%=Flags"  for  the  title  and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist" needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide and 6 characters  high  in
       order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses  the  message  line  to  display a list of all the windows.  Each window is listed by
       number with the name of process that has been started in the window (or  its  title);  the
       current  window  is  marked  with a `*'; the previous window is marked with a `-'; all the
       windows that are "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a background window that has  received
       a  bell  is  marked  with  a  `!'; a background window that is being monitored and has had
       activity occur is marked with an `@'; a window which  has  output  logging  turned  on  is
       marked  with  `(L)';  windows  occupied by other users are marked with `&'; windows in the
       zombie state are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too  long  to  fit  on  the  terminal's
       status  line only the portion around the current window is displayed.  The optional string
       parameter follows the "STRING ESCAPES" format.  If string parameter is passed, the  output
       size is unlimited.  The default command without any parameter is limited to a size of 1024

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets the line-wrap setting for the current window.   When  line-wrap  is  on,  the  second
       consecutive printable character output at the last column of a line will wrap to the start
       of the following line.  As an added feature, backspace (^H) will  also  wrap  through  the
       left margin to the previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state of wrap
       is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes the contents of the paste buffer to the specified file, or  the  public  accessible
       screen-exchange  file  if no filename is given. This is thought of as a primitive means of
       communication between screen users on the same host. If an encoding is specified the paste
       buffer  is  recoded  on  the  fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with the
       bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write to the same window
       at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto' mode and grants exclusive input permission to
       the user who is the first to switch to the particular window. When he leaves  the  window,
       other  users may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current window
       is disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user issues the command "writelock  on"
       he keeps the exclusive write permission while switching to other windows.



       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current window.

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]

       zmodem sendcmd [string]

       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for screen. Screen understands two different modes when it detects a
       zmodem request: "pass" and "catch".  If the mode is set to "pass", screen will  relay  all
       data to the attacher until the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen
       acts as a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the mode is  set
       to  "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty (e.g. a serial line), otherwise
       it will use "pass".

       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via  the  second  and  the  third

       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of two keys is specified to the zombie  command,  `dead'
       windows  will  remain  in the list.  The kill command may be used to remove such a window.
       Pressing the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When  pressing  the  second
       key,  screen  will attempt to resurrect the window. The process that was initially running
       in the window will be launched again. Calling zombie without  parameters  will  clear  the
       zombie setting, thus making windows disappear when their process exits.

       As  the  zombie-setting  is  manipulated  globally  for  all  windows, this command should
       probably be called defzombie, but it isn't.

       Optionally you can put the word "onerror" after  the  keys.  This  will  cause  screen  to
       monitor  exit status of the process running in the window. If it exits normally ('0'), the
       window disappears. Any other exit value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g.  shell) exits. If zombie keys are defined (compare with above zombie command), it is
       possible to also set a timeout when screen tries to automatically reconnect a dead  screen


       Screen  displays  informational  messages  and other diagnostics in a message line.  While
       this line is distributed to appear at the bottom of the  screen,  it  can  be  defined  to
       appear  at  the  top of the screen during compilation.  If your terminal has a status line
       defined in its termcap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of  the  current  screen  will  be  temporarily overwritten and output will be momentarily
       interrupted. The message line is automatically removed after a few seconds delay,  but  it
       can also be removed early (on terminals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message  line facility can be used by an application running in the current window by
       means of the ANSI Privacy message control sequence.  For instance, from within the  shell,
       try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is  an  escape,  '^'  is  a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns into a single


       Screen provides three different window types. New windows are created with screen's screen
       command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter to the screen
       command defines which type of window is  created.  The  different  window  types  are  all
       special cases of the normal type. They have been added in order to allow screen to be used
       efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       •  The normal window contains a shell (default, if no parameter is  given)  or  any  other
          system command that could be executed from a shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       •  If  a  tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is specified as the first
          parameter, then the window is directly connected to this device.  This window  type  is
          similar  to  "screen cu -l /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the device
          node, an exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark the connection line  as  busy.
          An  optional  parameter is allowed consisting of a comma separated list of flags in the
          notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission as well  as  receive

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q) for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control for receiving data.

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You  may  want  to  specify as many of these options as applicable. Unspecified options
          cause the terminal driver to make up the parameter values  of  the  connection.   These
          values  are  system  dependent  and  may be in defaults or values saved from a previous

          For tty windows, the info command shows some of the modem control lines in  the  status
          line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR', `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the
          available ioctl()'s and system header files as well as the on the physical capabilities
          of  the serial board.  Signals that are logical low (inactive) have their name preceded
          by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal is logical high (active).  Signals not
          supported by the hardware but available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When  the  CLOCAL  status  bit is true, the whole set of modem signals is placed inside
          curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals  `CTS'
          or `CD' are shown in parenthesis, respectively.

          For  tty  windows,  the command break causes the Data transmission line (TxD) to go low
          for a specified period of time. This is expected to be interpreted as break  signal  on
          the  other  side.  No data is sent and no modem control line is changed when a break is

       •  If the first parameter is "//telnet", the second parameter is expected  to  be  a  host
          name,  and  an  optional third parameter may specify a TCP port number (default decimal
          23).  Screen will connect to a server listening on the remote host and use  the  telnet
          protocol to communicate with that server.

       For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connection in square brackets
       ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

              b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

              e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

              c      SGA. The connection is in `character mode' (default: `line mode').

              t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been requested  by  the  remote  host.   Screen
                     sends  the  name  "screen" unless instructed otherwise (see also the command

              w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

              f      LFLOW. The remote host will send flow control information.  (Ignored at  the

              Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and NEWENV).

              For telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code IAC BREAK (decimal 243)
              to the remote host.

              This window type is only available if screen was compiled  with  the  ENABLE_TELNET
              option defined.


       Screen  provides  an  escape  mechanism  to  insert information like the current time into
       messages or file names. The escape character is  '%'  with  one  exception:  inside  of  a
       window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags of the window, see "windows" for meanings of the various flags

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      window size

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all  window  numbers  and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the current window; with
              '+' qualifier: starting with the window after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape inside the part expands
              to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a number is specified,
              pad to the percentage of the window's width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat
              the  number  as  absolute  position.   You  can specify to pad relative to the last
              absolute pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad  relative  to  the  right
              margin  by  using  '-'.  The padding truncates the string if the specified position
              lies before the current position. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for the next truncation. When  screen  needs  to  do
              truncation,  it  tries to do it in a way that the marked position gets moved to the
              specified percentage of the output area. (The area starts from  the  last  absolute
              pad  position and ends with the position specified by the truncation operator.) The
              'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command. The length qualifier is misused
              to identify one of the commands.

       The  'c'  and  'C'  escape  may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use zero instead of
       space as fill character. The  '0'  qualifier  also  makes  the  '='  escape  use  absolute
       positions. The 'n' and '=' escapes understand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M'
       can be prefixed with 'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An  attribute/color  modifier  is used to change the attributes or the color settings. Its
       format is "[attribute modifier] [color  description]".  The  attribute  modifier  must  be
       prefixed  by  a  change type indicator if it can be confused with a color description. The
       following change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or a combination of  the
       following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors  are  coded  either  as  a hexadecimal number or two letters specifying the desired
       background and foreground color (in that order). The following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can also use the pseudo-
       color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the color unchanged.
       A  one  digit/letter  color  description  is  treated  as  foreground  or background color
       dependent on the current attributes: if reverse mode  is  set,  the  background  color  is
       changed  instead of the foreground color.  If you don't like this, prefix the color with a
       ".". If you want the same behavior for two-letter color  descriptions,  also  prefix  them
       with a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that were set before the last
       change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default color on yellow background.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The available windows centered at the current window and truncated to the available
              width.  The  current  window  is  displayed  white  on blue.  This can be used with
              "hardstatus alwayslastline".

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if one is set.  Also use a
              red background if this is the active focus. Useful for "caption string".


       Each  window  has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals with the XON and
       XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).  When flow-control is  turned  off,
       screen  ignores  the  XON  and  XOFF characters, which allows the user to send them to the
       current program by simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor,  for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that  it  will  take  longer for output from a "normal" program to pause in
       response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON and XOFF  characters  are  used  to
       immediately  pause  the output of the current window.  You can still send these characters
       to the current program, but you must use the  appropriate  two-character  screen  commands
       (typically  "C-a  q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).  The xon/xoff commands are also useful for
       typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value  set  with  either  the  -f  option  or  the
       "defflow"  .screenrc command. Per default the windows are set to automatic flow-switching.
       It can then be toggled between the three states 'fixed on', 'fixed  off'  and  'automatic'
       interactively with the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The  automatic  flow-switching  mode  deals with flow control using the TIOCPKT mode (like
       "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support TIOCPKT, screen tries to find  out  the
       right  mode  based  on the current setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled,
       flow-control is turned off and visa versa.  Of course,  you  can  still  manipulate  flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If  you're  running  with  flow-control  enabled  and find that pressing the interrupt key
       (usually C-c) does not interrupt the display until another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try
       running screen with the "interrupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command
       in your .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output that screen
       has  accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.  One disadvantage is that the
       virtual terminal's memory contains the non-flushed version of the output,  which  in  rare
       cases  can cause minor inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the  version  of  the  output  you
       would  have  gotten  without "interrupt" being on.  Also, you might need to turn off flow-
       control (or use auto-flow mode to turn it off automatically) when running a  program  that
       expects  you  to type the interrupt character as input, as it is possible to interrupt the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If
       this happens, a simple refresh of the screen with "C-a l" will restore it.  Give each mode
       a try, and use whichever mode you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)

       You can customize each window's name in the window  display  (viewed  with  the  "windows"
       command  (C-a  w))  by  setting  it  with  one  of  the title commands.  Normally the name
       displayed is the actual command name of the program created in the window.  However, it is
       sometimes  useful  to  distinguish various programs of the same name or to change the name
       on-the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the  "shelltitle"  command  in  the
       .screenrc  file,  while all other windows are created with a "screen" command and thus can
       have their name set with the -t option.  Interactively, there is the title-string  escape-
       sequence  (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and  the  "title" command (C-a A).  The former can be output
       from an application to control the window's name under software control,  and  the  latter
       will  prompt  for a name when typed.  You can also bind pre-defined names to keys with the
       "title" command to set things quickly without prompting. Changing  title  by  this  escape
       sequence can be controlled by defdynamictitle and dynamictitle commands.

       Finally,  screen  has  a  shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by setting the window's
       name to "search|name" and arranging to have a null title escape-sequence output as a  part
       of  your  prompt.   The search portion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the
       name portion specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in  a  `:'
       screen  will  add  what it believes to be the current command running in the window to the
       end of the window's shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").   Otherwise  the  current  command  name
       supersedes the shell name while it is running.

       Here's  how  it  works:   you must modify your shell prompt to output a null title-escape-
       sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a part of your prompt.  The last part of your  prompt  must  be
       the  same  as  the string you specified for the search portion of the title.  Once this is
       set up, screen will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command  name  and
       get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received from the shell, a search
       is made for the end of the prompt.  If found, it  will  grab  the  first  word  after  the
       matched  string  and  use  it as the command name.  If the command name begins with either
       '!', '%', or '^' screen will use the first word  on  the  following  line  (if  found)  in
       preference  to  the  just-found  name.  This helps csh users get better command names when
       using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the  "top"  command  in
       window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                       shelltitle '> |csh'
                       screen 1

       These  commands  would start a shell with the given shelltitle.  The title specified is an
       auto-title that would expect the prompt and the typed command to look something  like  the

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it  looks  after  the  '> ' for the command name).  The window status would show the name
       "trn" while the command was running, and revert to "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence  "C-a  R"  to  the  "su"
       command  and  give  it  an  auto-title  name of "root:".  For this auto-title to work, the
       screen could look something like this:

                       % !em
                       emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previously entered "emacs"
       command.   The  window status would show "root:emacs" during the execution of the command,
       and revert to simply "root:" at its completion.

                       bind o title
                       bind E title ""
                       bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you for a title when  you
       type  "C-a  o".   The  second binding would clear an auto-title's current setting (C-a E).
       The third binding would set the current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to your prompt is  that
       some  shells  (like  the csh) count all the non-control characters as part of the prompt's
       length.  If these invisible characters aren't a multiple of 8 then backspacing over a  tab
       will  result  in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a prompt like

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not only normalizes the character  attributes,  but  all
       the  zeros round the length of the invisible characters up to 8.  Bash users will probably
       want to echo the escape sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "\134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).


       Each window in a screen session emulates a  VT100  terminal,  with  some  extra  functions
       added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually  screen  tries  to  emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard as possible. But if
       your terminal lacks certain capabilities, the emulation may  not  be  complete.  In  these
       cases  screen  has to tell the applications that some of the features are missing. This is
       no problem on machines using termcap, because screen can  use  the  $TERMCAP  variable  to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But  if  you  do  a  rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only terminfo this
       method fails. Because of this, screen offers a way to deal with these cases.  Here is  how
       it works:

       When  screen  tries  to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first looks for an entry
       named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the contents of your $TERM variable.   If  no  such
       entry  exists,  screen  tries "screen" (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132 cols or
       more)).  If even this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an important  feature  (e.g.
       delete  char or clear to EOS) you can build a new termcap/terminfo entry for screen (named
       "screen.<dumbterm>") in which  this  capability  has  been  disabled.  If  this  entry  is
       installed  on  your  machines  you  are  able  to  do  a rlogin and still keep the correct
       termcap/terminfo entry.  The terminal name is  put  in  the  $TERM  variable  of  all  new
       windows.   Screen  also  sets  the  $TERMCAP  variable  reflecting the capabilities of the
       virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on machines using the  terminfo  database
       this  variable  has  no  effect.   Furthermore,  the variable $WINDOW is set to the window
       number of each window.

       The actual  set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the  virtual  terminal  depends  on  the
       capabilities  supported by the physical terminal.  If, for instance, the physical terminal
       does not support underscore mode, screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities  into
       the  window's  $TERMCAP  variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabilities
       must be supported by a terminal in order to run screen; namely  scrolling,  clear  screen,
       and direct cursor addressing (in addition, screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on
       terminals that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the "termcap" .screenrc
       command,  or  by  defining  the  variable $SCREENCAP prior to startup.  When the latter is
       defined, its value will be copied verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can
       either  be the full terminal definition, or a filename where the terminal "screen" (and/or
       "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system uses  the  terminfo
       database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for the terminal on which
       screen has been called, the terminal emulation of screen supports multiple character sets.
       This  allows an application to make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set
       or national character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are  supported:
       lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock shift G3, single shift G2, and
       single shift G3.  When a virtual terminal is created or reset, the ASCII character set  is
       designated  as  G0  through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates the
       capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the  terminal  uses  to
       enable  and  start  the  graphics character set rather than SI.  `E0' is the corresponding
       replacement for SO. `C0' gives a character by character translation string  that  is  used
       during semi-graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capability.

       When  the  `po'  and  `pf'  capabilities  are  present  in  the  terminal's termcap entry,
       applications running in a screen window can  send  output  to  the  printer  port  of  the
       terminal.   This  allows  a  user to have an application in one window sending output to a
       printer connected to the terminal, while all other windows are still active  (the  printer
       port  is enabled and disabled again for each chunk of output).  As a side-effect, programs
       running in different windows can send output to the printer simultaneously.  Data sent  to
       the  printer  is  not  displayed in the window.  The info command displays a line starting
       `PRIN' while the printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every  window.  If  a  window  gets  selected,  the
       display's hardstatus will be updated to match the window's hardstatus line. If the display
       has no hardstatus the line will be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus
       line  can  be changed with the ANSI Application Program Command (APC): "ESC_<string>ESC\".
       As a convenience for xterm users the sequence "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the virtual terminal if  they
       can be efficiently implemented by the physical terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line)
       is only put into the $TERMCAP variable if the terminal supports either delete line  itself
       or scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the session is reattached
       on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the altscreen  .screenrc
       command to enable it.

       The  following  is  a  list  of  control  sequences recognized by screen.  "(V)" and "(A)"
       indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific functions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

                                  Pn = 6                     Invisible

                                  Pn = 7                     Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device Control String.  Outputs a string directly to  the  host
                                  terminal without interpretation.

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus, xterm title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if multi-user support
                                  is compiled into screen. The pseudo-user ":window:" is used  to
                                  check the access control list. Use "addacl :window: -rwx #?" to
                                  create a  user  with  no  rights  and  allow  only  the  needed

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

                                  Pn = None or 0             From Cursor to End of Screen

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

                                  Pn = None or 0             From Cursor to End of Line

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of Line to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m        Select Graphic Rendition

                                  Ps = None or 0             Default Rendition

                                  Ps = 1                     Bold

                                  Ps = 2                (A)  Faint

                                  Ps = 3                (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

                                  Ps = 4                     Underlined

                                  Ps = 5                     Blinking

                                  Ps = 7                     Negative Image

                                  Ps = 22               (A)  Normal Intensity

                                  Ps = 23               (A)  Standout  Mode off (ANSI: Italicized

                                  Ps = 24               (A)  Not Underlined

                                  Ps = 25               (A)  Not Blinking

                                  Ps = 27               (A)  Positive Image

                                  Ps = 30               (A)  Foreground Black

                                  Ps = 31               (A)  Foreground Red

                                  Ps = 32               (A)  Foreground Green

                                  Ps = 33               (A)  Foreground Yellow

                                  Ps = 34               (A)  Foreground Blue

                                  Ps = 35               (A)  Foreground Magenta

                                  Ps = 36               (A)  Foreground Cyan

                                  Ps = 37               (A)  Foreground White

                                  Ps = 39               (A)  Foreground Default

                                  Ps = 40               (A)  Background Black

                                  Ps = ...

                                  Ps = 49               (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

                                  Pn = None or 0             Clear Tab at Current Position

                                  Pn = 3                     Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h        Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l        Reset Mode

                                  Ps = 4                (A)  Insert Mode

                                  Ps = 20               (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

                                  Ps = 34                    Normal Cursor Visibility

                                  Ps = ?1               (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                                  Ps = ?3               (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

                                  Ps = ?5               (V)  Reverse Video

                                  Ps = ?6               (V)  Origin Mode

                                  Ps = ?7               (V)  Wrap Mode

                                  Ps = ?9                    X10 mouse tracking

                                  Ps = ?25              (V)  Visible Cursor

                                  Ps = ?47                   Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1000            (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

                                  Ps = ?1047                 Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1049                 Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize the window to  `Ph'  lines  and  `Pw'  columns  (SunView

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send VT220 Secondary Device Attributes String

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report


       In  order  to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a sequence of characters
       in the input stream was generated by a keypress on the  user's  keyboard  and  insert  the
       VT100  style  escape  sequence.  Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making it
       possible to map arbitrary commands on arbitrary  sequences  of  characters.  For  standard
       VT100  emulation the command will always insert a string in the input buffer of the window
       (see also command stuff in the command table).   Because  the  sequences  generated  by  a
       keypress  can  change  after  a reattach from a different terminal type, it is possible to
       bind commands to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will  insert  the  correct  binding
       after  each  reattach.  See  the  bindkey  command  for  further details on the syntax and

       Here is the table of the default key bindings. The fourth is what command is  executed  if
       the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       │Key name        │ Termcap name │ Command  │ App mode │
       │Cursor up       │ ku           │ \033[A   │ \033OA   │
       │Cursor down     │ kd           │ \033[B   │ \033OB   │
       │Cursor right    │ kr           │ \033[C   │ \033OC   │
       │Cursor left     │ kl           │ \033[D   │ \033OD   │
       │Function key 0  │ k0           │ \033[10~ │          │
       │Function key 1  │ k1           │ \033OP   │          │
       │Function key 2  │ k2           │ \033OQ   │          │
       │Function key 3  │ k3           │ \033OR   │          │
       │Function key 4  │ k4           │ \033OS   │          │
       │Function key 5  │ k5           │ \033[15~ │          │
       │Function key 6  │ k6           │ \033[17~ │          │
       │Function key 7  │ k7           │ \033[18~ │          │
       │Function key 8  │ k8           │ \033[19~ │          │
       │Function key 9  │ k9           │ \033[20~ │          │
       │Function key 10 │ k;           │ \033[21~ │          │
       │Function key 11 │ F1           │ \033[23~ │          │
       │Function key 12 │ F2           │ \033[24~ │          │
       │Home            │ kh           │ \033[1~  │          │
       │End             │ kH           │ \033[4~  │          │
       │Insert          │ kI           │ \033[2~  │          │
       │Delete          │ kD           │ \033[3~  │          │
       │Page up         │ kP           │ \033[5~  │          │
       │Page down       │ kN           │ \033[6~  │          │
       │Keypad 0        │ f0           │ 0        │ \033Op   │
       │Keypad 1        │ f1           │ 1        │ \033Oq   │
       │Keypad 2        │ f2           │ 2        │ \033Or   │
       │Keypad 3        │ f3           │ 3        │ \033Os   │
       │Keypad 4        │ f4           │ 4        │ \033Ot   │
       │Keypad 5        │ f5           │ 5        │ \033Ou   │
       │Keypad 6        │ f6           │ 6        │ \033Ov   │
       │Keypad 7        │ f7           │ 7        │ \033Ow   │
       │Keypad 8        │ f8           │ 8        │ \033Ox   │
       │Keypad 9        │ f9           │ 9        │ \033Oy   │
       │Keypad +        │ f+           │ +        │ \033Ok   │
       │Keypad -        │ f-           │ -        │ \033Om   │
       │Keypad *        │ f*           │ *        │ \033Oj   │
       │Keypad /        │ f/           │ /        │ \033Oo   │
       │Keypad =        │ fq           │ =        │ \033OX   │
       │Keypad .        │ f.           │ .        │ \033On   │
       │Keypad ,        │ f,           │ ,        │ \033Ol   │
       │Keypad enter    │ fe           │ \015     │ \033OM   │


       The  following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recognized by screen and
       are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You  can  place  these  capabilities  in  your  termcap
       entries  (in  `/etc/termcap')  or  use  them  with  the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and
       `termcapinfo' in your screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities
       in the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note that this capability
                    is obsolete because screen uses the standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display.  This  capability  has  the  desired  width  and  height  as
                    arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct to the application.
                    Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset. Default is '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset. Default is '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See  the  'ac'  capability
                    for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more details.

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set  the  encoding  of  the  terminal.  See  the 'encoding' command for valid

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground color in an ANSI  conform  way.  This  capability
                    will almost always be set to '\E[3%dm' ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default fg/bg color (\E[39m / \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe  a  translation  of  characters  to strings depending on the current
                    font. More details follow in the next section.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g. Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set by default).


       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary strings depending  on
       the  current  font  and terminal type.  Use this feature if you want to work with a common
       standard character set (say ISO8851-latin1)  even  on  terminals  that  scatter  the  more
       unusual characters over several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A  <charset-mapping>  tells screen how to map characters in font <designator> ('B': Ascii,
       'A': UK, 'K': German, etc.)  to strings. Every <mapping> describes to what string a single
       character  will be translated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes
       have a lot in common (for example strings to switch to and  from  another  charset).  Each
       occurrence  of  '%'  in  <template>  gets  substituted  with  the <template-arg> specified
       together with the character. If your strings are not similar at all, then  use  '%'  as  a
       template  and  place  the  full string in <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to
       make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the special  characters  '\',
       '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case umlaut characters on
       a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304' gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B'  and  so
       on.   Note  that  this  line gets parsed *three* times before the internal lookup table is
       built, therefore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to allow more emulation: If a mapping translates the  unquoted
       '%'  char,  it  will be sent to the terminal whenever screen switches to the corresponding
       <designator>. In this special case the template is assumed to  be  just  '%'  because  the
       charset switch sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If screen has to change
       to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will be sent to the terminal, i.e. the ASCII  charset  is  used
       instead.  The  template is just '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'
       to '\326', and ']' to '\334'.


       COLUMNS        Number of columns on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of lines on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default shell program for opening windows (default  "/bin/sh").   See  also
                      "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).


       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples  in the screen distribution package for private
                                         and global initialization files.
       /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /run/screen/S-<login>             Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output function
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen `interprocess communication buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created by the log function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /run/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.


       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)


       Originally created by Oliver Laumann. For a long time maintained and developed by  Juergen
       Weigert,  Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan and Sadrul Habib Chowdhury. Since 2015 maintained
       and  developed   by   Amadeusz   Slawinski   <>   and   Alexander   Naumov


       Copyright (c) 2018-2020
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2015-2017
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
            Micah Cowan <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the GNU General Public License as  published  by  the  Free  Software  Foundation;  either
       version 3, or (at your option) any later version.
       This  program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
       without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR  PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.
       You  should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program
       (see the file COPYING); if not, write to the Free Software  Foundation,  Inc.,  59  Temple
       Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA


       Maarten ter Huurne <>,
       Jussi Kukkonen <>,
       Eric S. Raymond <>,
       Thomas Renninger <>,
       Axel Beckert <>,
       Ken Beal <>,
       Rudolf Koenig <>,
       Toerless Eckert <>,
       Wayne Davison <>,
       Patrick Wolfe <, kailand!pat>,
       Bart Schaefer <>,
       Nathan Glasser <>,
       Larry W. Virden <>,
       Howard Chu <>,
       Tim MacKenzie <>,
       Markku Jarvinen <mta@{cc,cs,ee}>,
       Marc Boucher <marc@CAM.ORG>,
       Doug Siebert <>,
       Ken Stillson <>,
       Ian Frechett <frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU>,
       Brian Koehmstedt <>,
       Don Smith <>,
       Frank van der Linden <>,
       Martin Schweikert <>,
       David Vrona <>,
       E. Tye McQueen <>,
       Matthew Green <>,
       Christopher Williams <>,
       Matt Mosley <>,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro <gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU>,
       Johannes Zellner <>,
       Pablo Averbuj <>.


       The   latest   official   release   of   screen   available   via   anonymous   ftp   from or any other GNU distribution site. The home  site  of  screen  is   If   you  want  to  help,  send  a  note  to  screen-


       •  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are not handled  correctly  (they  are  ignored).  `xn'  is
          treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       •  Screen  has  no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But this is the only
          area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       •  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP when reattaching under a
          different terminal type.

       •  The  support  of  terminfo  based systems is very limited. Adding extra capabilities to
          $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       •  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       •  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most systems in order to be able
          to  correctly  change  the  owner  of  the  tty  device  file for each window.  Special
          permission may also be required to write the file "/run/utmp".

       •  Entries in "/run/utmp" are not removed when screen is killed with SIGKILL.   This  will
          cause  some  programs  (like  "w"  or "rwho") to advertise that a user is logged on who
          really isn't.

       •  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       •  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach (or  quit)  unless
          the  device  driver  is configured to send a HANGUP signal.  To detach a screen session
          use the -D or -d command line option.

       •  If a password is set, the command line options -d and -D still detach a session without

       •  Both  "breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating method used by all
          terminal devices. The first should change a window specific setting, where  the  latter
          should change only the default for new windows.

       •  When  attaching  to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file is not sourced. Each
          user's personal settings have to be included in  the  .screenrc  file  from  which  the
          session is booted, or have to be changed manually.

       •  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the features.

       •  Send  bug-reports,  fixes,  enhancements,  t-shirts,  money,  beer  &  pizza to screen-