Provided by: util-linux_2.34-0.1ubuntu9.6_amd64 bug


       su - run a command with substitute user and group ID


       su [options] [-] [user [argument...]]


       su allows to run commands with a substitute user and group ID.

       When called without arguments, su defaults to running an interactive shell as root.

       For  backward  compatibility,  su defaults to not change the current directory and to only
       set the environment variables HOME and SHELL (plus USER and LOGNAME if the target user  is
       not root).  It is recommended to always use the --login option (instead of its shortcut -)
       to avoid side effects caused by mixing environments.

       This version of su uses PAM for authentication,  account  and  session  management.   Some
       configuration  options  found  in  other  su  implementations, such as support for a wheel
       group, have to be configured via PAM.

       su is mostly designed for unprivileged users,  the  recommended  solution  for  privileged
       users  (e.g.  scripts  executed by root) is to use non-set-user-ID command runuser(1) that
       does not require authentication and provide separate PAM configuration. If the PAM session
       is not required at all then the recommend solution is to use command setpriv(1).


       -c, --command=command
              Pass command to the shell with the -c option.

       -f, --fast
              Pass -f to the shell, which may or may not be useful, depending on the shell.

       -g, --group=group
              Specify the primary group.  This option is available to the root user only.

       -G, --supp-group=group
              Specify a supplemental group.  This option is available to the root user only.  The
              first specified supplementary group is also used as a primary group if  the  option
              --group is unspecified.

       -, -l, --login
              Start the shell as a login shell with an environment similar to a real login:

                 o      clears  all the environment variables except TERM and variables specified
                        by --whitelist-environment

                 o      initializes the environment variables HOME,  SHELL,  USER,  LOGNAME,  and

                 o      changes to the target user's home directory

                 o      sets argv[0] of the shell to '-' in order to make the shell a login shell

       -m, -p, --preserve-environment
              Preserve  the  entire  environment,  i.e.  it  does  not  set HOME, SHELL, USER nor
              LOGNAME.  This option is ignored if the option --login is specified.

       -P, --pty
              Create pseudo-terminal for the session. The independent  terminal  provides  better
              security  as user does not share terminal with the original session.  This allow to
              avoid TIOCSTI  ioctl  terminal  injection  and  another  security  attacks  against
              terminal  file  descriptors. The all session is also possible to move to background
              (e.g. "su --pty - username -c application &"). If the  pseudo-terminal  is  enabled
              then su command works as a proxy between the sessions (copy stdin and stdout).

              This  feature is mostly designed for interactive sessions. If the standard input is
              not a terminal, but for example pipe (e.g. echo "date" | su --pty) than  ECHO  flag
              for the pseudo-terminal is disabled to avoid messy output.

       -s, --shell=shell
              Run  the  specified  shell  instead  of  the default.  The shell to run is selected
              according to the following rules, in order:

                 o      the shell specified with --shell

                 o      the  shell  specified  in  the  environment  variable   SHELL,   if   the
                        --preserve-environment option is used

                 o      the shell listed in the passwd entry of the target user

                 o      /bin/sh

              If  the  target  user  has a restricted shell (i.e. not listed in /etc/shells), the
              --shell option and the SHELL environment variables are ignored unless  the  calling
              user is root.

              Same as -c but do not create a new session.  (Discouraged.)

       -w, --whitelist-environment=list
              Don't  reset  environment  variables  specified in comma separated list when clears
              environment for --login. The whitelist is ignored  for  the  environment  variables
              HOME, SHELL, USER, LOGNAME, and PATH.

       -V, --version
              Display version information and exit.

       -h, --help
              Display help text and exit.


       Upon  receiving  either SIGINT, SIGQUIT or SIGTERM, su terminates its child and afterwards
       terminates itself with the received signal.  The child is  terminated  by  SIGTERM,  after
       unsuccessful attempt and 2 seconds of delay the child is killed by SIGKILL.


       su  reads  the  /etc/default/su  and  /etc/login.defs  configuration files.  The following
       configuration items are relevant for su(1):

       FAIL_DELAY (number)
           Delay in seconds in case of an authentication failure.  The  number  must  be  a  non-
           negative integer.

       ENV_PATH (string)
           Defines  the  PATH  environment  variable  for  a  regular user.  The default value is

       ENV_ROOTPATH (string)
       ENV_SUPATH (string)
           Defines the PATH environment variable for root.   ENV_SUPATH  takes  precedence.   The
           default value is /usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin.

       ALWAYS_SET_PATH (boolean)
           If set to yes and --login and --preserve-environment were not specified su initializes

       The environment variable PATH may be different on systems where /bin and /sbin are  merged
       into /usr.


       su normally returns the exit status of the command it executed.  If the command was killed
       by a signal, su returns the number of the signal plus 128.

       Exit status generated by su itself:

                 1      Generic error before executing the requested command

                 126    The requested command could not be executed

                 127    The requested command was not found


       /etc/pam.d/su    default PAM configuration file
       /etc/pam.d/su-l  PAM configuration file if --login is specified
       /etc/default/su  command specific logindef config file
       /etc/login.defs  global logindef config file


       For security reasons su always logs failed log-in attempts to the btmp file, but  it  does
       not  write to the lastlog file at all.  This solution allows to control su behavior by PAM
       configuration.  If you want to use the pam_lastlog module to print warning  message  about
       failed  log-in  attempts  then  the pam_lastlog has to be configured to update the lastlog
       file as well. For example by:

              session  required nowtmp


       setpriv(1), login.defs(5), shells(5), pam(8), runuser(8)


       This su command was derived from coreutils' su, which was based on  an  implementation  by
       David MacKenzie. The util-linux has been refactored by Karel Zak.


       The  su  command  is  part  of  the  util-linux package and is available from Linux Kernel
       Archive ⟨⟩.