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       readdir - read a directory


       #include <dirent.h>

       struct dirent *readdir(DIR *dirp);


       The  readdir()  function  returns  a  pointer  to a dirent structure representing the next
       directory entry in the directory stream pointed to by dirp.  It returns NULL  on  reaching
       the end of the directory stream or if an error occurred.

       In the glibc implementation, the dirent structure is defined as follows:

           struct dirent {
               ino_t          d_ino;       /* Inode number */
               off_t          d_off;       /* Not an offset; see below */
               unsigned short d_reclen;    /* Length of this record */
               unsigned char  d_type;      /* Type of file; not supported
                                              by all filesystem types */
               char           d_name[256]; /* Null-terminated filename */

       The only fields in the dirent structure that are mandated by POSIX.1 are d_name and d_ino.
       The other fields are unstandardized, and not present on all systems; see NOTES  below  for
       some further details.

       The fields of the dirent structure are as follows:

       d_ino  This is the inode number of the file.

       d_off  The  value returned in d_off is the same as would be returned by calling telldir(3)
              at the current position in the directory stream.  Be aware that  despite  its  type
              and  name,  the  d_off  field  is  seldom  any  kind  of directory offset on modern
              filesystems.  Applications should treat this field as an opaque  value,  making  no
              assumptions about its contents; see also telldir(3).

              This is the size (in bytes) of the returned record.  This may not match the size of
              the structure definition shown above; see NOTES.

       d_type This field contains a value indicating the file type, making it possible  to  avoid
              the expense of calling lstat(2) if further actions depend on the type of the file.

              When  a  suitable  feature test macro is defined (_DEFAULT_SOURCE on glibc versions
              since 2.19, or _BSD_SOURCE on glibc versions 2.19 and earlier), glibc  defines  the
              following macro constants for the value returned in d_type:

              DT_BLK      This is a block device.

              DT_CHR      This is a character device.

              DT_DIR      This is a directory.

              DT_FIFO     This is a named pipe (FIFO).

              DT_LNK      This is a symbolic link.

              DT_REG      This is a regular file.

              DT_SOCK     This is a UNIX domain socket.

              DT_UNKNOWN  The file type could not be determined.

              Currently,  only  some  filesystems  (among them: Btrfs, ext2, ext3, and ext4) have
              full support for returning the file type in d_type.  All applications must properly
              handle a return of DT_UNKNOWN.

       d_name This field contains the null terminated filename.  See NOTES.

       The data returned by readdir() may be overwritten by subsequent calls to readdir() for the
       same directory stream.


       On success, readdir() returns a pointer to a dirent structure.   (This  structure  may  be
       statically allocated; do not attempt to free(3) it.)

       If  the end of the directory stream is reached, NULL is returned and errno is not changed.
       If an error occurs, NULL is returned and errno is set appropriately.  To  distinguish  end
       of stream and from an error, set errno to zero before calling readdir() and then check the
       value of errno if NULL is returned.


       EBADF  Invalid directory stream descriptor dirp.


       For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see attributes(7).

       │InterfaceAttributeValue                    │
       │readdir() │ Thread safety │ MT-Unsafe race:dirstream │

       In the current POSIX.1 specification (POSIX.1-2008),  readdir()  is  not  required  to  be
       thread-safe.   However,  in  modern  implementations (including the glibc implementation),
       concurrent calls to readdir() that specify different directory  streams  are  thread-safe.
       In  cases where multiple threads must read from the same directory stream, using readdir()
       with  external  synchronization  is  still  preferable  to  the  use  of  the   deprecated
       readdir_r(3)  function.  It is expected that a future version of POSIX.1 will require that
       readdir() be thread-safe when concurrently employed on different directory streams.


       POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, SVr4, 4.3BSD.


       A directory stream is opened using opendir(3).

       The order in which filenames are read by successive calls  to  readdir()  depends  on  the
       filesystem implementation; it is unlikely that the names will be sorted in any fashion.

       Only  the  fields  d_name and (as an XSI extension) d_ino are specified in POSIX.1.  Other
       than Linux, the d_type field is available mainly  only  on  BSD  systems.   The  remaining
       fields  are  available  on many, but not all systems.  Under glibc, programs can check for
       the availability of the fields not defined  in  POSIX.1  by  testing  whether  the  macros
       are defined.

   The d_name field
       The dirent structure definition shown above is taken from the glibc headers, and shows the
       d_name field with a fixed size.

       Warning:  applications should avoid any dependence on the size of the d_name field.  POSIX
       defines it as char d_name[], a character array of unspecified size, with at most  NAME_MAX
       characters preceding the terminating null byte ('\0').

       POSIX.1  explicitly  notes  that this field should not be used as an lvalue.  The standard
       also notes that the use of sizeof(d_name) is incorrect; use strlen(d_name)  instead.   (On
       some  systems,  this  field  is  defined  as  char d_name[1]!)   By  implication,  the use
       sizeof(struct dirent) to capture the size of the record including the size  of  d_name  is
       also incorrect.

       Note that while the call

           fpathconf(fd, _PC_NAME_MAX)

       returns  the  value 255 for most filesystems, on some filesystems (e.g., CIFS, Windows SMB
       servers), the null-terminated filename that is (correctly) returned in d_name can actually
       exceed this size.  In such cases, the d_reclen field will contain a value that exceeds the
       size of the glibc dirent structure shown above.


       getdents(2),   read(2),   closedir(3),   dirfd(3),   ftw(3),   offsetof(3),    opendir(3),
       readdir_r(3), rewinddir(3), scandir(3), seekdir(3), telldir(3)


       This  page  is  part of release 5.05 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the
       project, information about reporting bugs, and the latest version of  this  page,  can  be
       found at

                                            2019-03-06                                 READDIR(3)